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Canunda National Park

Canunda National Park is a protected area in the Australian state of South Australia located about 350 km southeast of Adelaide, on the coast about 13 km southwest of Millicent. It consists of coastal dunes, limestone cliffs, natural bushland; the beaches can be dangerous, but are popular for beach fishing and 4WD's. The national park consists of two parts - the first part being land in the gazetted localities of Southend and Canunda while the second part is located to the south in the gazetted locality of Carpenter Rocks at the headland of Cape Banks. From as far back as 10,000 years ago, members of the Boandik group of Indigenous Australians lived in temporary camps along the coast during summer, for the rest of the year they lived near inland swamps in permanent huts. Much of the national park is accessible only to four wheel drive vehicles and walkers; the national park's office is located in the town of Southend at the northernmost end of the park. The northern end of the national park was once part of Mayurra Station.

The remnants of Canunda's pastoral history can be seen at Coola Outstation. Protected areas of South Australia Cape Banks Lighthouse Lower South East Marine Park Canunda National Park official webpage Canunda National Park webpage on protected planet

Outrigger ski

Outrigger skis are skis that are used by para-skiers to assist with balance, control their speed and amplify the direction of turns. They vary in size and height, include different features. Depending on the total number of skis used by the skier, outrigger configuration is sometimes called "Three Track Skiing" or "Four Track Skiing"; when falling, skiers are taught to move their arms to prevent falling on the outrigger and injuring themselves. Outrigger skis were used on sleds during the 1960s as a way of keeping a traditional sled balanced by putting a third ski underneath the sled. Now, outrigger skis are skis that are used to help skiers balance, control their speed and stop, they help to amplify the direction of a turn initiated by shifts in the upper body. In para-skiing, outrigger skis are an assistive device used by skiers with balance issues or amputations, they are used in para-Nordic skiing. The outrigger for para-skiing was first developed during the 1940s by Franz Wendel to enable him to ski following an accident that resulted in one of his legs being amputated.

The origins of the outrigger for para-skiing connect to a crutch with a flip-ski attached to the end, developed in Canada. When a pair of outriggers are used for a skier with two skis, this is sometimes known as "Four track skiing"; when a skier uses one ski and a pair of outriggers, this is called "Three track skiing." Outrigger skis come in a variety of sizes depending on the height of the skier and the type of skiing they will be doing. Outriggers can have different features depending on the needs of the skiers. One feature is a saw-tooth tail, used by beginning skiers. Modern outrigger skis have a short ski attached to the bottom of a Lofstrand crutch. Outriggers can be adapted for use by skiers with arm amputations; some outriggers have a system built into them to allow pegs to be included so the outrigger can be used to aid in walking. Outriggers are sized for the back of the outrigger ski to line up with the heel of a skier's boot. There is an outrigger designed for going up hills. Downhill outriggers are unweighted.

When falling, a skier should move their arms to bring the outrigger away from their body lest the outrigger cause them injury. Armstrong, Neil. Paediatric Exercise Science and Medicine. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-923248-2. Retrieved 13 October 2012. Bainbridge, Donna Bernhardt. Recreation for the Disabled Child. Psychology Press. ISBN 978-0-86656-263-8. Retrieved 13 October 2012. Bradburn, Morris. Growing Up North. IUniverse. ISBN 978-1-4620-1894-9. Retrieved 13 October 2012. Hearst Magazines. Popular Mechanics. Hearst Magazines. ISSN 0032-4558. Retrieved 13 October 2012. Kasser, Susan L.. Inclusive Physical Activity: A Lifetime Of Opportunities. Human Kinetics. ISBN 978-0-7360-3684-9. Retrieved 13 October 2012. Kosut, Mary; the Body Reader: Essential Social and Cultural Readings. NYU Press. ISBN 978-0-8147-9565-1. Retrieved 13 October 2012. Winnick, Joseph P.. Adapted Physical Education and Sport. Human Kinetics. ISBN 978-0-7360-8918-0. Retrieved 13 October 2012. Vanlandewijck, Yves; the Paralympic Athlete: Handbook of Sports Medicine and Science.

John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-1-4443-4828-6. Retrieved 13 October 2012. Media related to Outrigger skis at Wikimedia Commons

SS Alpena

The SS Alpena was a sidewheel steamer built by Thomas Arnold of Gallagher & Company at Marine City, Michigan in 1866. She was operated by the Goodrich Line after being purchased from Gardner, Ward & Gallagher in April 1868; the Alpena sank in Lake Michigan in the "Big Blow" storm on October 15, 1880, with the loss of all on board. Built in 1866, by the Thomas Arnold of Gallagher & Company of Marine City, the Alpena was 197 feet in length, 27 feet in breadth, with a depth of 12 feet, it was rated at 654 tons displacement. The vessel was driven by a steam engine, photographs of the vessel show its walking beam suspended above the paddlewheels. At least 80 people died when the ship carrying a large cargo of apples, capsized in the middle of the lake; the ship was on a trip from Grand Haven, Michigan, to Chicago and was spotted at 8:00 am on October 16 in heavy seas. Some time probably due to a shift in the cargo on deck caused by the waves, it capsized and drifted northwest. On the 17th, debris including a piano came ashore in Holland, while apples and wood debris were found at Saugatuck.

A section of beach near Holland where debris was found is still called Alpena Beach. Another ship named Alpena was a freighter built in 1874 and burned to the waterline in 1891. Another Alpena was a tugboat which sank in 1943 at Ohio. SS City of Alpena was a paddlewheel steamboat operating between Detroit and Mackinac Island by the Detroit & Cleveland Line from 1893 to 1921, she was 285 ft long, carried 400 passengers, was powered by 2,000 hp steam engines. There is a Great Lakes ship named Alpena the Leon Fraser, owned by Inland Lakes Management, an affiliate of Lafarge, it is used as a bulk freighter to haul cement. Built in 1942 and equipped with a steam turbine engine, it was 639 feet long, 67 feet in breadth with a depth of 35 feet, it has a 15,550 ton capacity. It was renamed and converted to a bulk cement carrier in 1991; the Alpena is a moderate sized ship in the Great Lakes fleet. She is able to transit the canals of the St. Lawrence Seaway due to her small size. List of maritime disasters in the 19th century List of storms on the Great Lakes Sea Wing disaster SS Eastland 1880 Alpena sinking Michigan Shipwrecks.org - Alpena

1983 Walker Cup

The 1983 Walker Cup, the 29th Walker Cup Match, was played on 25 and 26 May 1983, at Royal Liverpool Golf Club, England. The event was won by the United States 13½ to 10½; the match was level after the second day foursomes. In the final round of 8 singles, Great Britain and Ireland had just two wins, by Philip Walton and Andrew Oldcorn, both of whom had won their singles on the first day; the United States won 5 of the singles matches and halved the other to win the Walker Cup for the sixth successive time. The format for play on Wednesday and Thursday was the same. There were four matches of foursomes in the morning and eight singles matches in the afternoon. In all, 24 matches were played; each of the 24 matches was worth one point in the larger team competition. If a match was all square after the 18th hole extra holes were not played. Rather, each side earned ½ a point toward their team total; the team that accumulated at least 12½ points won the competition. If the two teams were tied, the previous winner would retain the trophy.

Ten players for the United States and Great Britain & Ireland participated in the event. The United States had a playing captain, while Great Ireland had a non-playing captain. & Captain: Charlie Green David Carrick Stephen Keppler Malcolm Lewis George Macgregor Lindsay Mann Andrew Oldcorn Philip Parkin Arthur Pierse Martin Thompson Philip Walton Playing captain: Jay Sigel Nathaniel Crosby Brad Faxon Rick Fehr William Hoffer Jim Holtgrieve Bob Lewis David Tentis Billy Tuten Willie Wood

Pyotr Pumpur

Pyotr Ivanovich Pumpur was a Soviet Air Forces fighter pilot, Hero of the Soviet Union, lieutenant general of Latvian ethnicity. Pumpur joined the Red Army in 1918 and became a mechanic and driver in its fledgling air service due to his civilian mechanical and driving experience. After the end of the Russian Civil War he became one of the first to graduate from newly established flight schools and served as a fighter pilot during the interwar period, rising to command a fighter brigade in the mid-1930s. Between 1936 and 1937, he commanded the Soviet aviation group assisting the Spanish Republican Air Force during the Spanish Civil War, claiming five victories. For his actions, Pumpur was made a Hero of the Soviet Union, promoted to the rank of Komkor, skipping one grade, upon his return to the Soviet Union, he was executed the following year. Pumpur was born on 25 April 1900 in Plātere Parish in Kreis Riga, Russian Empire to a peasant family, he graduated from the parish school and helped his father in working for their more prosperous neighbors studied at a vocational school for two years.

Using the knowledge he gained, Pumpur became an apprentice mechanic and an assistant chauffeur before joining the Red Army in May 1918. Due to his work as a mechanic and with cars, he was sent to the 4th Fighter Aviation Detachment in Moscow, serving as an assistant chauffeur. In October, Pumpur was transferred to the 2nd Pskov Fighter Aviation Detachment in Samara, again serving in the same position. Pumpur served only with the 2nd Detachment, transferring back to the 4th Detachment in November, which he remained with until June 1921. With the 4th Detachment, he became an aircraft mechanic, fighting on the Eastern, Southeastern and Western Fronts of the Russian Civil War. In 1919, Pumpur became a member of the Communist Party. After the Civil War ended, Pumpur remained in the army, serving as an aircraft mechanic with the Commandant's Headquarters of the Central Aerodrome in Moscow from July to December 1921. After interacting with pilots, listening to their conversations and stories, he requested to receive flight training.

Pumpur received initial training at the Yegoryevsk Military-Theoretical School for Pilots between January 1922 and March 1923. In April, he began flight training at the 2nd Military School of Pilots at Borisoglebsk, graduating with the first class of cadets on 26 October. Among his ten classmates was future aviation pioneer Valery Chkalov. From November to May 1924 Pumpur continued to master flying techniques at the 1st Military School of Pilots in Moscow, studied at the Higher Military Aviation School of Gunners and Bombardiers in Serpukhov from May to July. After graduation, in August 1924, Pumpur was assigned to the 2nd Fighter Aviation Squadron in Moscow, where he served as a junior pilot and a senior pilot, mastering all types of aircraft flown by the unit. In July 1925, the squadron was involved in the suppression of a Menshevik and Socialist Revolutionary-backed revolt near the Illinsky Station of the Moscow–Kursk Railway, using its planes to conduct reconnaissance. In October of that year Pumpur became a flight leader, in December 1926 the 2nd Squadron was renamed the 7th Separate Fighter Aviation Squadron.

He led a separate detachment of the squadron from February 1927. In 1929, Pumpur graduated from advanced courses for Air Force commanders at the Zhukovsky Air Force Academy, he took command of the 17th Aviation Squadron in September 1930 serving as its commissar from February 1931, was subsequently transferred to command the 31st Fighter Aviation Squadron. From June 1934, he was commissar of the 403rd Fighter Aviation Brigade. On 4 December 1935, after the Red Army created personal military ranks, Pumpur was made a Kombrig. In February 1936, Pumpur became a student at the operational faculty of the Zhukovsky Academy. From October 1936 to May 1937, he served as a Soviet advisor to the Spanish Republican Air Force during the Spanish Civil War, under the pseudonym "Colonel Julio". After arriving in Spain, the initial group of Soviet pilots, which included Yevgeny Erlykin, Ivan Kopets, Anton Kovalevsky in addition to Pumpur, flew their first sorties on the obsolete Spanish Republican Nieuport 52s.

Pumpur led a fighter group of Soviet pilots in the defense of Madrid, flying 250 hours and downing five enemy aircraft. For his actions he received the title Hero of the Soviet Union on 4 July 1937, upon his return Pumpur was promoted directly to Komkor from Kombrig, skipping the rank of Komdiv. In October, he became commander of the Air Forces of the Moscow Military District, but was soon transferred to lead the Air Forces of the Special Red Banner Far Eastern Army in November. Pumpur spent several months at the disposal of the chief of the Air Force, in December 1938 became head of the flight testing station at Aircraft Plant No. 1 becoming head of the Air Force's Combat Training Directorate. During the Winter War, he led a group of instructors for combat training. From 1940, Pumpur again commanded the Air Forces of the Moscow Military District. Just before the beginning of Operation Barbarossa, the German invasion of the Soviet Union, in June 1941, Pumpur's downfall began; the inspection commission of the Air Force discovered a large number of significant issues in the aviation units of the Moscow Military District, Pumpur, the district air force commander, was blamed for them.

Among the issues were a lack of combat training and inactivity in organizing airfield construction. For "disrupting combat readiness," a 10 May resolution of the Politburo relieved him of command and deprived him of his rank

Etrian Odyssey IV

Etrian Odyssey IV: Legends of the Titan is a dungeon crawler role playing video game developed and published by Atlus for the Nintendo 3DS. It is the sequel to Etrian Odyssey III: The Drowned City and the first in the Etrian Odyssey series to be released on the Nintendo 3DS. For centuries, the tree Yggdrasil has been a constant presence in the lives of the people of Tharsis, it looms on the horizon, visible from everywhere in the city. But its roots are in a far-off land where no one has ventured until the Outland Count of Tharsis sponsors an Explorers Guild to reach Yggdrasil and discover its secrets; the player is the latest explorer arriving in Tharsis on an adventure to seek their fame and fortune. After venturing through numerous lands, the player discovers a sealed-off, fallen Empire with more advanced technology whose prince, wishes to awaken the Titan known as Heavenbringer, the humanoid form of Yggdrasil; the tree itself, along with the other "servitor" races besides humans, were bioengineered by an ancient civilization to purify the land after an unknown calamity, but they perished before they could finish the project, causing it to go berserk.

While Prince Baldur succeeds in awakening Heavenbringer from within the ancient capital beneath Yggdrasil, he is corrupted by it. After the player strikes down Baldur, they must fight the Titan via airship. After defeating the Titan, it turns back into a tree and does not release the world-threatening toxins it absorbed, saving Tharsis from annihilation. An optional post-game dungeon is the Hall of Darkness, a facility in which ancient researchers attempted to develop a countermeasure to Yggdrasil should they lose control of it, but failed and created an more powerful abomination that they were forced to seal away; the gameplay remains similar to the first three games, with some minor differences. There is now a new overworld in the form of the sky, which the player can roam around with using an airship, which gains the ability to fly at higher altitudes as the game progresses; the FOEs in the overworld are much stronger than those in the dungeons. Dragons periodically roam the overworld, will knock out the entire party if the player's airship comes within their attack range but not always, causing a game over.

Enemies are now represented by moving 3D models rather than the static 2D sprites of the previous entries. The game is announced during the Japanese Nintendo Direct on February 23, 2012; the price and the release date of July 5, 2012 is confirmed during the Direct, while the official blog and Twitter account is unveiled on the same day. On June 22, 2012, a downloadable demo of the game is release through the Japanese eShop. In Japan, the preorder bonus for the game includes a soundtrack that comprises seven songs that are not used in the game; the soundtrack is known as Etrian Odyssey IV: Soundtrack Rough Sketch ver + Outtakes. In November of the same year, Atlus USA confirmed that the game will be released in the United States on February 26, 2013; the launch edition of the game comes with an art book and music CD. A downloadable demo of the game was released on the US Nintendo eShop on February 7, 2013. In April 2013, NIS America announced that they will be handling publishing duties of the game for Europe and Australia.

Similar to the other regions, a downloadable demo is provided before the launch of the game and the game is released in both retail and digital format. Critical reception of the game in Japan has been positive, with Famitsu giving it a score of 35 out of 40. Elsewhere, the game received "favorable" reviews according to video game review aggregator Metacritic. Etrian Odyssey IV sold 100,000 copies in its first week of release in Japan according to Media Create, giving it the highest opening sales in the Etrian Odyssey franchise series to date. By October 2012, it had sold 150,000 units and as of July 2013, is the best selling game in the series. Official website