Rendering (computer graphics)
Rendering or image synthesis is the automatic process of generating a photorealistic or non-photorealistic image from a 2D or 3D model by means of computer programs. The results of displaying such a model can be called a render. A scene file contains objects in a defined language or data structure; the data contained in the scene file is passed to a rendering program to be processed and output to a digital image or raster graphics image file. The term "rendering" may be by analogy with an "artist's rendering" of a scene. Though the technical details of rendering methods vary, the general challenges to overcome in producing a 2D image from a 3D representation stored in a scene file are outlined as the graphics pipeline along a rendering device, such as a GPU. A GPU is a purpose-built device able to assist a CPU in performing complex rendering calculations. If a scene is to look realistic and predictable under virtual lighting, the rendering software should solve the rendering equation; the rendering equation doesn't account for all lighting phenomena, but is a general lighting model for computer-generated imagery.'Rendering' is used to describe the process of calculating effects in a video editing program to produce final video output.
Rendering is one of the major sub-topics of 3D computer graphics, in practice is always connected to the others. In the graphics pipeline, it is the last major step, giving the final appearance to the models and animation. With the increasing sophistication of computer graphics since the 1970s, it has become a more distinct subject. Rendering has uses in architecture, video games, movie or TV visual effects, design visualization, each employing a different balance of features and techniques; as a product, a wide variety of renderers are available. Some are integrated into larger modeling and animation packages, some are stand-alone, some are free open-source projects. On the inside, a renderer is a engineered program, based on a selective mixture of disciplines related to: light physics, visual perception and software development. In the case of 3D graphics, rendering may be done as in pre-rendering, or in realtime. Pre-rendering is a computationally intensive process, used for movie creation, while real-time rendering is done for 3D video games which rely on the use of graphics cards with 3D hardware accelerators.
When the pre-image is complete, rendering is used, which adds in bitmap textures or procedural textures, bump mapping and relative position to other objects. The result is a completed image intended viewer sees. For movie animations, several images must be rendered, stitched together in a program capable of making an animation of this sort. Most 3D image editing programs can do this. A rendered image can be understood in terms of a number of visible features. Rendering research and development has been motivated by finding ways to simulate these efficiently; some relate directly to particular techniques, while others are produced together. Shading – how the color and brightness of a surface varies with lighting Texture-mapping – a method of applying detail to surfaces Bump-mapping – a method of simulating small-scale bumpiness on surfaces Fogging/participating medium – how light dims when passing through non-clear atmosphere or air Shadows – the effect of obstructing light Soft shadows – varying darkness caused by obscured light sources Reflection – mirror-like or glossy reflection Transparency, transparency or opacity – sharp transmission of light through solid objects Translucency – scattered transmission of light through solid objects Refraction – bending of light associated with transparency Diffraction – bending and interference of light passing by an object or aperture that disrupts the ray Indirect illumination – surfaces illuminated by light reflected off other surfaces, rather than directly from a light source Caustics – reflection of light off a shiny object, or focusing of light through a transparent object, to produce bright highlights on another object Depth of field – objects appear blurry or out of focus when too far in front of or behind the object in focus Motion blur – objects appear blurry due to high-speed motion, or the motion of the camera Non-photorealistic rendering – rendering of scenes in an artistic style, intended to look like a painting or drawing Many rendering algorithms have been researched, software used for rendering may employ a number of different techniques to obtain a final image.
Tracing every particle of light in a scene is nearly always impractical and would take a stupendous amount of time. Tracing a portion large enough to produce an image takes an inordinate amount of time if the sampling is not intelligently restricted. Therefore, a few loose families of more-efficient light transport modelling techniques have emerged: rasterization, including scanline rendering, geometrically projects objects in the scene to an image plane, without advanced optical effects.
Apple Inc. is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Cupertino, that designs and sells consumer electronics, computer software, online services. It is considered one of the Big Four of technology along with Amazon and Facebook; the company's hardware products include the iPhone smartphone, the iPad tablet computer, the Mac personal computer, the iPod portable media player, the Apple Watch smartwatch, the Apple TV digital media player, the HomePod smart speaker. Apple's software includes the macOS and iOS operating systems, the iTunes media player, the Safari web browser, the iLife and iWork creativity and productivity suites, as well as professional applications like Final Cut Pro, Logic Pro, Xcode, its online services include the iTunes Store, the iOS App Store, Mac App Store, Apple Music, Apple TV+, iMessage, iCloud. Other services include Apple Store, Genius Bar, AppleCare, Apple Pay, Apple Pay Cash, Apple Card. Apple was founded by Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Ronald Wayne in April 1976 to develop and sell Wozniak's Apple I personal computer, though Wayne sold his share back within 12 days.
It was incorporated as Apple Computer, Inc. in January 1977, sales of its computers, including the Apple II, grew quickly. Within a few years and Wozniak had hired a staff of computer designers and had a production line. Apple went public in 1980 to instant financial success. Over the next few years, Apple shipped new computers featuring innovative graphical user interfaces, such as the original Macintosh in 1984, Apple's marketing advertisements for its products received widespread critical acclaim. However, the high price of its products and limited application library caused problems, as did power struggles between executives. In 1985, Wozniak departed Apple amicably and remained an honorary employee, while Jobs and others resigned to found NeXT; as the market for personal computers expanded and evolved through the 1990s, Apple lost market share to the lower-priced duopoly of Microsoft Windows on Intel PC clones. The board recruited CEO Gil Amelio to what would be a 500-day charge for him to rehabilitate the financially troubled company—reshaping it with layoffs, executive restructuring, product focus.
In 1997, he led Apple to buy NeXT, solving the failed operating system strategy and bringing Jobs back. Jobs pensively regained leadership status, becoming CEO in 2000. Apple swiftly returned to profitability under the revitalizing Think different campaign, as he rebuilt Apple's status by launching the iMac in 1998, opening the retail chain of Apple Stores in 2001, acquiring numerous companies to broaden the software portfolio. In January 2007, Jobs renamed the company Apple Inc. reflecting its shifted focus toward consumer electronics, launched the iPhone to great critical acclaim and financial success. In August 2011, Jobs resigned as CEO due to health complications, Tim Cook became the new CEO. Two months Jobs died, marking the end of an era for the company. Apple is well known for its size and revenues, its worldwide annual revenue totaled $265 billion for the 2018 fiscal year. Apple is the world's largest information technology company by revenue and the world's third-largest mobile phone manufacturer after Samsung and Huawei.
In August 2018, Apple became the first public U. S. company to be valued at over $1 trillion. The company employs 123,000 full-time employees and maintains 504 retail stores in 24 countries as of 2018, it operates the iTunes Store, the world's largest music retailer. As of January 2018, more than 1.3 billion Apple products are in use worldwide. The company has a high level of brand loyalty and is ranked as the world's most valuable brand. However, Apple receives significant criticism regarding the labor practices of its contractors, its environmental practices and unethical business practices, including anti-competitive behavior, as well as the origins of source materials. Apple Computer Company was founded on April 1, 1976, by Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Ronald Wayne; the company's first product is the Apple I, a computer designed and hand-built by Wozniak, first shown to the public at the Homebrew Computer Club. Apple I was sold as a motherboard —a base kit concept which would now not be marketed as a complete personal computer.
The Apple I went on sale in July 1976 and was market-priced at $666.66. Apple Computer, Inc. was incorporated on January 3, 1977, without Wayne, who had left and sold his share of the company back to Jobs and Wozniak for $800 only twelve days after having co-founded Apple. Multimillionaire Mike Markkula provided essential business expertise and funding of $250,000 during the incorporation of Apple. During the first five years of operations revenues grew exponentially, doubling about every four months. Between September 1977 and September 1980, yearly sales grew from $775,000 to $118 million, an average annual growth rate of 533%; the Apple II invented by Wozniak, was introduced on April 16, 1977, at the first West Coast Computer Faire. It differs from its major rivals, the TRS-80 and Commodore PET, because of its character cell-based color graphics and open architecture. While early Apple II models use ordinary cassette tapes as storage devices, they were superseded by the introduction of a 5 1⁄4-inch floppy disk drive and interface called the Disk II.
The Apple II was chosen to be the desktop platform for the first "killer app" of the business world: VisiCalc, a spreadsheet program. VisiCalc created a business market for the Apple II and gave home users an additional reason to buy an Apple II: compatibility with the office. Before VisiCalc, Apple had been a distant third place c
NTT DoCoMo's i-mode is a mobile internet service popular in Japan. Unlike Wireless Application Protocol, i-mode encompasses a wider variety of internet standards, including web access, e-mail, the packet-switched network that delivers the data. I-mode users have access to various services such as e-mail, sports results, weather forecast, financial services, ticket booking. Content is provided by specialized services from the mobile carrier, which allows them to have tighter control over billing. Like WAP, i-mode delivers only those services that are converted for the service, or are converted through gateways. In contrast with the Wireless Application Protocol standard, which used Wireless Markup Language on top of a protocol stack for wireless handheld devices, i-mode borrows from DoCoMo proprietary protocols ALP and TLP, as well as fixed Internet data formats such as C-HTML, a subset of the HTML language designed by DoCoMo. C-HTML was designed for small devices with hardware restrictions such as such lower memory, low-power CPUs with limited or no storage capabilities, small monochrome display screens, single-character fonts and limited input methods.
As a simpler form of HTML, C-HTML does not support tables, image maps, multiple fonts and styling of fonts, background colors and images, frames, or style sheets, is limited to a monochromatic display.i-mode phones have a special i-mode button for the user to access the start menu. There are more than 12,000 official sites and around 100,000 or more unofficial i-mode sites, which are not linked to DoCoMo's i-mode portal page and DoCoMo's billing services. NTT DoCoMo supervises the content and operations of all official i-mode sites, most of which are commercial; these official sites are accessed through DoCoMo's i-mode menu but in many cases official sites can be accessed from mobile phones by typing the URL or through the use of QR code. An i-mode user pays for both received data. There are services to avoid unsolicited e-mails; the basic monthly charge is on the order of JPY ¥200 - ¥300 for i-mode not including the data transfer charges, with additional charges on a monthly subscription basis for premium services.
A variety of discount plans exist, for example family discount and flat packet plans for unlimited transfer of data at a fixed monthly charge. I-mode was launched in Japan on 22 February 1999; the content planning and service design team was led by Mari Matsunaga, while Takeshi Natsuno was responsible for the business development. Top executive Keiichi Enoki oversaw the overall development. A few months after DoCoMo launched i-mode in February 1999, DoCoMo's competitors launched similar mobile data services: KDDI launched EZweb, J-Phone launched J-Sky. Vodafone acquired J-Phone including J-Sky, renaming the service Vodafone live!, although this was different from Vodafone live! in Europe and other markets. In addition, Vodafone KK was acquired by SoftBank, an operator of Yahoo! Japan changed the name to SoftBank Mobile; as of June 2006, the mobile data services I-Mode, EZweb, J-Sky, had over 80 million subscribers in Japan. Since 2003, i-mode center is called CiRCUS, which consists of 400 NEC NX7000 HP-UX servers and occupies 4,600 m² floor space in DoCoMo's Kawasaki office.
The operation support system is called CARNiVAL, hosted in the Sanno Park Tower. I-mode usage in Japan peaked around 2008; as of 2016, it is still available, but has been eclipsed by the internet features in 3G, 4G, WiFi enabled smartphones. Seeing the tremendous success of i-mode in Japan, many operators in Europe and Australia sought to license the service through partnership with DoCoMo. Takeshi Natsuno was behind the expansion of i-mode to 17 countries worldwide. Kamel Maamria, a partner with the Boston Consulting Group and, supporting Mr. Natsuno is thought to have had a major role in the expansion of the first Japanese service outside Japan. I-mode showed fast take-up in the various countries where it was launched which led to more operators seeking to launch i-mode in their markets with the footprint reaching a total of 17 markets worldwide. While the i-mode service was an exceptional service which positioned DoCoMo as the global leader in value add services, another key success factor for i-mode was the Japanese smartphone makers who developed state of the art handsets to support i-mode.
As i-mode was exported to the rest of the world and other major handset vendors who controlled the markets at the time, refused at first to support i-mode by developing handsets which support the i-mode service. The operators who decided to launch i-mode had to rely on Japanese vendors who had no experience in international markets; as i-mode showed success in these markets, some vendors started customizing some of their handsets to support i-mode, the support was only partial and came late in time. While the service was successful during the first years after launch, the lack of adequate handsets and the emergence of new handsets from new vendors which supported new Internet services on one hand, a change of leadership of i-mode in Docomo, lead to a number of operators to migrate or integrate i-mode into new mobile Internet services; these efforts were unsuccessful, i-mode never became popular outside of Japan.i-mode was launched in the following countries: Australia, Belgium Bulgaria France Germany Greece Hong Kong Israel Ireland Italy Netherlands Russia Romania Singapore Spain
Vector graphics are computer graphics images that are defined in terms of 2D points, which are connected by lines and curves to form polygons and other shapes. Each of these points has a definite position on the x- and y-axis of the work plane and determines the direction of the path. Vector graphics are found today in the SVG, EPS and PDF graphic file formats and are intrinsically different from the more common raster graphics file formats of JPEG, PNG, APNG, GIF, MPEG4. One of the first uses of vector graphic displays was the US SAGE air defense system. Vector graphics systems were retired from the U. S. en route air traffic control in 1999, are still in use in military and specialized systems. Vector graphics were used on the TX-2 at the MIT Lincoln Laboratory by computer graphics pioneer Ivan Sutherland to run his program Sketchpad in 1963. Subsequent vector graphics systems, most of which iterated through dynamically modifiable stored lists of drawing instructions, include the IBM 2250, Imlac PDS-1, DEC GT40.
There was a home gaming system that used vector graphics called Vectrex as well as various arcade games like Asteroids, Space Wars and many cinematronics titles such as Rip-Off, Tail Gunner using vector monitors. Storage scope displays, such as the Tektronix 4014, could display vector images but not modify them without first erasing the display. In computer typography, modern outline fonts describe printable characters by cubic or quadratic mathematical curves with control points. Bitmap fonts are still in use. Converting outlines requires filling them in. Processing outline character data in a sophisticated fashion to create satisfactory bitmaps for rendering is called "hinting". Although the term implies suggestion, the process is deterministic and done by executable code a special-purpose computer language. While automatic hinting is possible, results can be inferior to that done by experts. Modern vector graphics displays can sometimes be found at laser light shows, where two fast-moving X-Y mirrors position the beam to draw shapes and text as straight and curved strokes on a screen.
Vector graphics can be created in a form using a pen plotter, a special type of printer that uses a series of ballpoint and felt-tip pens on a servo-driven mount that moves horizontally across the paper, with the plotter moving the paper back and forth through its paper path for vertical movement. Although a typical plot might require a few thousand paper motions and forth, the paper doesn't slip. In a tiny roll-fed plotter made by Alps in Japan, teeth on thin sprockets indented the paper near its edges on the first pass and maintained registration on subsequent passes; some Hewlett-Packard pen plotters had stationery paper. However, the moving-paper H-P plotters had grit wheels which, on the first pass, indented the paper surface, collectively maintained registration. Present-day vector graphic files such as engineering drawings are printed as bitmaps, after vector-to-raster conversion; the term "vector graphics" is used today in the context of two-dimensional computer graphics. It is one of several modes.
Vector graphics can be uploaded to online databases for other designers to download and manipulate, speeding up the creative process. Other modes include text, 3D rendering. All modern 3D rendering is done using extensions of 2D vector graphics techniques. Plotters used in technical drawing still draw vectors directly to paper; the World Wide Web Consortium standard for vector graphics is Scalable Vector Graphics. The standard is complex and has been slow to be established at least in part owing to commercial interests. Many web browsers now have some support for rendering SVG data but full implementations of the standard are still comparatively rare. In recent years, SVG has become a significant format, independent of the resolution of the rendering device a printer or display monitor. SVG files are printable text that describes both straight and curved paths, as well as other attributes. Wikipedia prefers SVG for images such as simple maps, line illustrations, coats of arms, flags, which are not like photographs or other continuous-tone images.
Rendering SVG requires conversion to raster format at a resolution appropriate for the current task. SVG is a format for animated graphics. There is a version of SVG for mobile phones. In particular, the specific format for mobile phones is called SVGT; these images can count links and exploit anti-aliasing. They can be displayed as wallpaper; the list of image file formats covers public vector formats. Modern displays and printers are raster devices; the size of the bitmap/raster-format file generated by the conversion will depend on the resolution required, but the size of the vector file generating the bitmap/raster file will always remain the same. Thus, it is easy to convert from a vector file to a range of bitmap/raster file formats but it is much more difficult to go in the opposite direction if subsequent editing of the vector picture is required, it might be an advantage to save an image created
The WYSIWYG view is achieved by embedding a layout engine. This may be custom-written or based upon one used in a web browser; the goal is that, at all times during editing, the rendered result should represent what will be seen in a typical web browser. WYSIWYM is an alternative paradigm to WYSIWYG editors. Instead of focusing on the format or presentation of the document, it preserves the intended meaning of each element. For example, page headers, paragraphs, etc. are labeled as such in the editing program, displayed appropriately in the browser. A given HTML document will have an inconsistent appearance on various platforms and computers for several reasons: Different browsers and applications will render the same markup differently; the same page may display differently in Internet Explorer and Firefox on a high-resolution screen, but it will look different in the valid text-only Lynx browser. It needs to be rendered differently again on a PDA, an internet-enabled television and on a mobile phone.
Usability in a speech or braille browser, or via a screen-reader working with a conventional browser, will place demands on different aspects of the underlying HTML. All an author can do. Web browsers, like all computer software, have bugs, it is hopeless to try to design Web pages around all of the common browsers' current bugs: each time a new version of each browser comes out, a significant proportion of the World Wide Web would need re-coding to suit the new bugs and the new fixes. It is considered much wiser to design to standards, staying away from'bleeding edge' features until they settle down, wait for the browser developers to catch up to your pages, rather than the other way round. For instance, no one can argue that CSS is still'cutting edge' as there is now widespread support available in common browsers for all the major features if many WYSIWYG and other editors have not yet caught up. A single visual style can represent multiple semantic meanings Semantic meaning, derived from the underlying structure of the HTML document, is important for search engines and for various accessibility tools.
On paper we can tell from context and experience whether bold text represents a title, or emphasis, or something else. But it is difficult to convey this distinction in a WYSIWYG editor. Making a piece of text bold in a WYSIWYG editor is not sufficient to tell the reader *why* the text is bold - what the boldness represents semantically. Modern web sites are constructed in a way that makes WYSIWYG useful Modern web sites use a Content Management System or some other template processor-based means of constructing pages on the fly using content stored in a database. Individual pages are never stored in a filesystem as they may be designed and edited in a WYSIWYG editor, thus some form of abstracted template-based layout is inevitable, invalidating one of the main benefits of using a WYSIWYG editor. HTML is a structured markup language. There are certain rules on how HTML must be written if it is to conform to W3C standards for the World Wide Web. Following these rules means that web sites are accessible on all types and makes of computer, to able-bodied and people with disabilities, and
It describes 18 elements comprising the initial simple design of HTML. Except for the hyperlink tag, these were influenced by SGMLguid, an in-house Standard Generalized Markup Language -based documentation format at CERN. Eleven of these elements still exist in HTML 4. HTML is a markup language that web browsers use to interpret and compose text and other material into visual or audible web pages. Default characteristics for every item of HTML markup are defined in the browser, these characteristics can be altered or enhanced by the web page designer's additional use of CSS. Many of the text elements are found in the 1988 ISO technical report TR 9537 Techniques for using SGML, which in turn covers the features of early text formatting languages such as that used by the RUNOFF command developed in the early 1960s for the CTSS operating system: these formatting commands were derived from the commands used by typesetters to manually format documents. However, the SGML concept of generalized markup is based on elements rather than print effects, with the separation of structure and markup.
Berners-Lee considered HTML to be an application of SGML. It was formally defined as such by the Internet Engineering Task Force with the mid-1993 publication of the first proposal for an HTML specification, the "Hypertext Markup Language" Internet Draft by Berners-Lee and Dan Connolly, which included an SGML Document type definition to define the grammar; the draft expired after six months, but was notable for its acknowledgment of the NCSA Mosaic browser's custom tag for embedding in-line images, reflecting the IETF's philosophy of basing standards on successful prototypes. Dave Raggett's competing Internet-Draft, "HTML+", from late 1993, suggested standardizing already-implemented features like tables and fill-out forms. After the HTML and HTML+ drafts expired in early 1994, the IETF created an HTML Working Group, which in 1995 completed "HTML 2.0", the first HTML specification intended to be treated as a standard against which future implementations should be based. Further development under the auspices of the IETF was stalled by competing interests.
Since 1996, the HTML specifications have been maintained, with input from commercial software vendors, by the World Wide Web Consortium. However, in 2000, HTML became an international standard. HTML 4.01 was published in late 1999, with further errata published through 2001. In 2004, development began on HTML5 in the Web Hypertext Application Technology Working Group, which became a joint deliverable with the W3C in 2008, completed and standardized on 28 October 2014. November 24, 1995 HTML 2.0 was published as RFC 1866. Supplemental RFCs added capabilities: November 25, 1995: RFC 1867 May 1996: RFC 1942 August 1996: RFC 1980 January 1997: RFC 2070 January 14, 1997 HTML 3.2 was published as a W3C Recommendation. It was the first version developed and standardized by the W3C, as the IETF had closed its HTML Working Group on September 12, 1996. Code-named "Wilbur", HTML 3.2 dropped math formulas reconciled overlap among various proprietary extensions and adopted most of Netscape's visual markup tags.
Netscape's blink element and Microsoft's marquee element were omitted due to a mutual agreement between the two companies. A markup for mathematical formu
Cascading Style Sheets
This cascading priority scheme is predictable. The CSS specifications are maintained by the World Wide Web Consortium. Internet media type text/css is registered for use with CSS by RFC 2318; the W3C operates a free CSS validation service for CSS documents. In addition to HTML, other markup languages support the use of CSS including XHTML, plain XML, SVG, XUL. CSS has a simple syntax and uses a number of English keywords to specify the names of various style properties. A style sheet consists of a list of rules; each rule or rule-set consists of one or more selectors, a declaration block. In CSS, selectors declare which part of the markup a style applies to by matching tags and attributes in the markup itself. Selectors may apply to the following: all elements of a specific type, e.g. the second-level headers h2 elements specified by attribute, in particular: id: an identifier unique within the document class: an identifier that can annotate multiple elements in a document elements depending on how they are placed relative to others in the document tree.
Classes and IDs are case-sensitive, start with letters, can include alphanumeric characters and underscores. A class may apply to any number of instances of any elements. An ID may only be applied to a single element. Pseudo-classes are used in CSS selectors to permit formatting based on information, not contained in the document tree. One example of a used pseudo-class is:hover, which identifies content only when the user “points to” the visible element by holding the mouse cursor over it, it is #elementid: hover. A pseudo-class classifies document elements, such as:link or:visited, whereas a pseudo-element makes a selection that may consist of partial elements, such as::first-line or::first-letter. Selectors may be combined in many ways to achieve great flexibility. Multiple selectors may be joined in a spaced list to specify elements by location, element type, id, class, or any combination thereof; the order of the selectors is important. For example, div.myClass applies to all elements of class myClass that are inside div elements, whereas.myClass div applies to all div elements that are in elements of class myClass.
The following table provides a summary of selector syntax indicating usage and the version of CSS that introduced it. A declaration block consists of a list of declarations in braces; each declaration itself consists of a property, a colon, a value. If there are multiple declarations in a block, a semi-colon must be inserted to separate each declaration. Properties are specified in the CSS standard; each property has a set of possible values. Some properties can affect any type of element, others apply only to particular groups of elements. Values may be keywords, such as "center" or "inherit", or numerical values, such as 200px, 50vw or 80%. Color values can be specified with keywords, hexadecimal values, RGB values on a 0 to 255 scale, RGBA values that specify both color and alpha transparency, or HSL or HSLA values. Before CSS, nearly all presentational attributes of HTML documents were contained within the HTML markup. All font colors, background styles, element alignments and sizes had to be explicitly described repeatedly, within the HTML.
CSS lets authors move much of that information to another file, the style sheet, resulting in simpler HTML. For example, sub-headings, sub-sub-headings, etc. are defined structurally using HTML. In print and on the screen, choice of font, size and emphasis for these elements is presentational. Before CSS, document authors who wanted to assign such typographic characteristics to, all h2 headings had to repeat HTML presentational markup for each occurrence of that heading type; this made documents more complex and more error-prone and difficult to maintain. CSS allows the separation of presentation from structure. CSS can define color, text alignment, borders, spacing and many other typographic characteristics, can do so independently for on-screen and printed views. CSS defines non-visual styles, such as reading speed and emphasis for aural text readers; the W3C has now deprecated the use of all presentational HTML markup. For example, under pre-CSS HTML, a heading element defined with red text would be written as: Using CSS, the sam