Cap-Vert or the Cape Verde Peninsula is a peninsula in Senegal, the westernmost point of the continent of Africa and of the Old World mainland. Portuguese explorers called it Cabo Verde or "Green Cape"; the Cape Verde islands, 560 kilometres further west, are named after the cape. Dakar, the capital of Senegal, is located near its southern tip. Formed by a combination of volcanic offshore islands and a land bridge produced by coastal currents, the cape projects into the Atlantic Ocean, bending back to the southeast at its tip. Exposure to southwesterly winds contributes to Cape Verde's seasonal verdant appearance, in contrast to the undulating yellow dunes to the north; the peninsula is shaped like a triangle, with the base of the triangle along the north and its apex on the south, near Dakar. Near Pointe des Almadies, the north-western tip of the cape, lies Léopold Sédar Senghor International Airport, used as a transatlantic ferrying point during World War II. Twin volcanic cones, the Deux Mamelles, dominate the landscape along the coast northwest of Dakar.

The peninsula encloses a natural harbour in the southwest. The indigenous inhabitants of the peninsula, the Lebou, lived as farmers. Since about 1444, when the Portuguese first sighted the cape, it has been an entrepôt for African-European trade; the French established the city of Dakar on the cape in 1857. Multilayered Mapping of the Cap-Vert Satellite picture by Google Maps


Protohabropoda is an extinct genus of bees in the family Apidae known from a fossil found in Europe. The genus contains a single described species Protohabropoda pauli. P. pauli was described from a solitary fossil, a compression-impression fossil pair preserved in layers of soft sedimentary rock. Along with other well preserved insect fossils, the P. pauli specimen was collected from layers of Late Oligocene lacustrine rock belonging to the "calcaire de Campagne Calavon" sediments. The material is exposed along the northern slopes of the Luberon mountains near Céreste in Southern France; the sediments are reported as from a shallow paleolake, considered about 30 million years old and Rupelian in age. Recent restudy of formation suggests the older Late Oligocene age; the paleoflora preserved in the shales suggest the lake was surrounded by a mixed-mesophytic forest though the vertebrate fauna found in the formation is more typical of a semi-arid environment. Specimens from the Apoidea families are rather rare and not diverse, with Apis specimens being the most common.

At the time of study, the holotype counterpart and part were part of the paleoentomology collections housed by the Museum National d’Histoire Naturelle. It was first studied by an international team of researchers headed by Manuel Dehon of the University of Mons and the team's 2014 type description of the species was published in the natural sciences journal PLOS One; the genus name is a combination of the Greek word "protos" meaning first and the genus Habropoda of which Protohabropoda is most similar. The specific epithet pauli is a patronym coined in honor of Paul Léon Victor Vigot, a young bee systematics enthusiast; the size and shape of the pterostigma are similar to those of the Apinae tribes Anthophorini and Centridini though the rounded shape of the wing and the sizes of the cells formed by the wing veins make it closer to Anthophorini. In the tribe, P. pauli is identified from the living genera Anthophora and Amegilla by the positioning of veins and cells. And the genus Habropoda is distinguished by vein length.

P. Pauli is one of four bee species described by Dehon and team in the PLOS One article, the others being Andrena antoinei, Bombus cerdanyensis, Euglossopteryx biesmeijeri; the P. pauli fossil is a female preserved with a dorsal view of the body, head twisted upward showing the face, the right forewing outstretched, hindwings missing. The overall body length is not determinable due to positioning of the body and the twisting of the head although the mesosoma is 5.88 mm. The incompletely preserved antennae are not distinct enough to determine flagellomere numbers or lengths; the metasoma is 4.5 mm long in side view, the two sections that are distinctly preserved show a dense coating of hairs. The legs are not well preserved, being covered by the body segments though the areas that are visible show a dense coating of setae; the 7.79 mm long forewings have a one marginal cell and three cells below that called the submarginal cells. The marginal cell has little tapering near the apical end, distinctly rounded.

The second and third submarginal cells together are longer than the first submarginal cell, the longest of the three cells. The pterostigma is present, with parallel sides and, like the marginal cell, no narrowing of the width. Media related to Protohabropoda at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Protohabropoda at Wikispecies

Good Night (Reece Mastin song)

"Good Night" is the debut single by British-Australian recording artist Reece Mastin, who won the third series of The X Factor in 2011. It was released digitally on 22 November 2011, shortly after the show ended, as the lead single from his self-titled debut album; the song was written by Hayley Warner with Anthony Egizii and David Musumeci of the songwriting and production duo DNA Songs. "Good Night" received mixed to positive reviews from music critics, most of whom noted its similarities to Pink's "Raise Your Glass". The song debuted at number one on the ARIA Singles Chart, became the first number-one winner's single for The X Factor, it was certified five times platinum by the Australian Recording Industry Association, denoting sales of 350,000 copies. "Good Night" peaked at number one in New Zealand and was certified platinum by the Recording Industry Association of New Zealand. "Good Night" was written by Hayley Warner with Anthony Egizii and David Musumeci of the songwriting and production duo DNA Songs, who produced the track.

On 22 November 2011, "Good Night" was released for digital download and sent to Australian radio, shortly after Mastin won the third series of The X Factor. When speaking of the song, Mastin explained: "It's got that old' summery-rock kinda feel to it you know, like classic rock songs like'Boys Of Summer'. It's just fun, songs from winners are really big ballads, so it was cool to do something a little bit different." Reviewers of The Hot Hits Live from LA wrote that they had "fallen in love with the track" and that the song was a "guaranteed hit that might just be our summer 2012 party anthem." A reviewer of Take 40 Australia wrote that it is "reminiscent of some of Pink's earlier tunes... We think this will be a hot summer hit!." Reviewers of MusicFix noted the song's similarities to Pink's "Raise Your Glass", wrote that "we were pretty disappointed to hear his epic rock vocals restrained to a shouty party track." This was echoed by Tonges of Nova FM, who wrote it was "shockingly similar to Pink's'Raise Your Glass'".

Lauren Katulka of Sounds of Oz wrote that the verses in the song "felt like virtual carbon copies of Pink's'Raise Your Glass'", concluded by writing that "it didn't feel like Reece, disappointing when the singles are supposed to be tailored to the artists." Robert Copsey of Digital Spy UK wrote that "While the riff has more than a passing resemblance to Pink's'Raise Your Glass', we can see why he went overseas to find fame when their winner's singles are of this calibre." "Good Night" was nominated for'Single of 2011' at the 2011 IT List Awards. "Good Night" debuted at number one on the ARIA Singles Chart on 28 November 2011, where it remained for four non-consecutive weeks. It sold over 30,000 copies in 24-hours following its release on 22 November, became Sony Music Australia's fastest selling digital single. On 24 November 2011, the song sold. "Good Night" was certified five times platinum by the Australian Recording Industry Association, denoting sales of 350,000 copies. In New Zealand, the song debuted at number two on 20 February 2012, peaked at number one the following week.

"Good Night" was certified platinum by the Recording Industry Association of New Zealand, denoting sales of 15,000 copies. The accompanying music video for "Good Night" was filmed on 30 November 2011 in The Lair at The Metro Theatre in Sydney. 200 fans were recruited for the video and had to download the Performer Agreement sheet via Mastin's official website before being eligible to be in the video. A behind the scenes video by The Daily Telegraph was released on 1 December 2011, showed Mastin on the set of the video shoot performing on stage with a band; the video premiered online on 7 December 2011. The video begins with Mastin backstage with his band preparing for a concert; as the song starts to play, Mastin is seen kicking a soccer ball. He is seen on the stage performing, whilst showing scenes of the audience singing and dancing; the video shows Mastin outside greeting fans, scenes of him backstage at the concert playing with an arcade game machine. The video ends with Mastin's fans screaming.

Mastin performed "Good Night" live for the first time on The X Factor Grand Final show on 21 November 2011. He performed the song again on the Grand Final decider show the following day, after he was announced the winner. On 9 December 2011, Mastin performed "Good Night" on Sunrise to launch his debut album, he performed the song during his first headlining Australian tour in January 2012. CD single / digital download"Good Night" – 3:02 List of number-one singles of 2011