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Cape Fear Indians

The Cape Fear Indians were a small, coastal tribe of Native American who lived on the Cape Fear River in North Carolina. The autonym of the Cape Fear Indians may have been Daw-hee, as recorded in 1717, their name for the area was Chicora. Of their villages, only one, Necoes, is known by name; the colonists noted Necoes as located about 20 miles from the mouth of the Cape Fear River, in present-day Brunswick County. Their language may have been a Siouan language. Smallpox spread from Spanish colonies in Florida to the Carolinas in the 16th century; the population of the Cape Fear Indians was estimated to be 1,000 in 1600. A colonial census in 1715 recorded that they numbered 206. British colonist William Hilton observed 100 Indians at Cape Fear in 1662. One Indian individual sold adjacent lands. In 1664 the settlement called Charles Towne was founded but abandoned in 1667 after war broke out between the Cape Fear Indians and the settlers over British slavery of Indians; the second Charles Towne was founded near Cape Fear lands in 1670 Some Cape Fear Indians fought with their Catawba allies under Colonel John Barnwell against the Tuscarora in 1712.

When the Tuscarora War broke out in North Carolina in 1711, South Carolina tribes joined in the fighting. In 1712, Cape Fear warriors and the Saraw, Saxapahaw and Pedee, served in British Captain John Bull's company to fight alongside the British against the Tuscarora and helped defeat them; as a result, most of the Tuscarora left the area and migrated north, reaching present-day New York and Ontario to join the related Haudenosaunee Confederacy of Iroquois tribes. The Cape Fear Indians and the Winyaw migrated from their coastal villages up the Pee Dee River adjacent to a trading post the British founded in 1716. Chapman J. Milling writes in Red Carolinians that they settled inland from Charleston in what is now known as Williamsburg County, South Carolina. In May 1749 provision was made by the Governor in Council to render them protection through supplying their representatives with fifty pounds of bullets and twenty five pounds of powder. There had been complaint that the Cape Fear were being abused and driven from nearby hunting lands by neighboring Europeans.

It was ruled that they were a peaceable people and that their rights to hunt were protected by the government. Anthropologist John R. Swanton wrote, "In 1808 White neighbors remembered when as many as 30 Pedee and Cape Fear Indians lived in their old territories," but by this time "the Pedee and Cape Fear tribes were represented by one half-blood woman." Milanich, Jerald T.. Handbook of North American Indians: Southeast. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution. Pp. 229–237. ISBN 0-16-072300-0. Rudes, Blair A.. Fogelson, Raymond D.. Handbook of North American Indians. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution. Pp. 301–318. ISBN 0-16-072300-0. Swanton, John Reed; the Indian Tribes of North America. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution

First National Bank (Iowa Falls, Iowa)

First National Bank is a historic building located in Iowa Falls, United States. The bank traces its founding to 1882, its name was changed to First National when they built a two-story brick building at this location two years later. In 1917 the bank decided it needed a new facility, so they turned to the Lytle Company of Sioux City, which specialized in designing bank buildings, they designed this two-story brick Neoclassical structure. A rich surface pattern on the building was achieved with the use of terra cotta and special colors of brick. First National continued in business here until December 1932 when it closed its doors. Iowa Falls State Bank was organized and opened in this building on May 25, 1933. In more recent years they expanded into the modern building to the west; the building was individually listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1993. It was included as a contributing property in the Washington Avenue Commercial Historic District in 2012

Prelude Records (record label)

Prelude Records was a New York-based independent record label, active from 1976 to 1986. At one time, François Kevorkian held an A&R position at Prelude; the label's owner was Marvin Schlachter. Prelude was first launched in 1976, renamed from Pye International Records, a US division of UK-based Pye Records which had begun in 1974; the name was derived from the music group Prelude. At the outset, Prelude's LP and 45 catalogue numbers were the same as had begun under Pye, with the prefix changed from PYE- to PRL-. For a short period at the start, Pye's then-parent, ATV Music, owned Prelude, it first made its small release with a large name called JUMBO, which spawned a minor hit with "Turn On To Love". As disco music declined, Prelude was one of the few disco labels to survive its demise. In 1981 they pioneered the mastermix. With Shep Pettibone's "Kiss Mastermix 2x12". Having recruited Kevorkian, the label was able to focus on remixes. "Disco Circus" by Martin Circus was and still is a cult classic, but failed to make significant sales according to Michael Gomes who began working for Prelude in 1979.

Prelude's biggest hits included "In the Bush" by Musique, "Come to Me" by France Joli, "A Little Bit of Jazz" by the Nick Straker Band and "Must Be the Music" by Secret Weapon. After its closure in 1986, Prelude's back catalogue was purchased by Unidisc. Gayle Adams Jocelyn Brown D-Train Inner Life France Joli Lorraine Johnson Empress Hi-Gloss Dorothy Moore Musique CD III Nick Straker Band Peter Jacques Band Sharon Redd Unique L. A. X. Jeanette "Lady" Day Saturday Night Band The Strikers Secret Weapon Vicki Sue Robinson Theo Vaness Macho Unlimited Touch Wuf Ticket List of record labels Prelude at Discogs

West Little River, Florida

West Little River is a census-designated place in Miami-Dade County, United States. The population was 34,699 at the 2010 census. Most of West Little River was a neighborhood of the City of Miami when it was annexed into the city of Miami in 1925. With the arrival of the Great Depression, the City of Miami gave up its jurisdiction and West Little River became an unincorporated area of Miami-Dade County. West Little River is located at 25°51′25″N 80°14′13″W. West Little River borders the Miami neighborhoods of Pinewood and Miami Shores to the east, Hialeah to the west, Gladeview and Liberty City to the south. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 4.6 square miles, of which, 4.6 square miles of it is land and 0.1 square miles of it is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 32,498 people, 9,519 households, 7,386 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 7,093.3 people per square mile. There were 10,298 housing units at an average density of 2,247.7/sq mi.

The racial makeup of the CDP was 32.53% White 57.22% African American, 0.26% Native American, 0.18% Asian, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 5.49% from other races, 4.25% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 40.05% of the population. There were 9,519 households out of which 33.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.7% were married couples living together, 27.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 22.4% were non-families. 17.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.39 and the average family size was 3.75. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 28.3% under the age of 18, 10.2% from 18 to 24, 27.4% from 25 to 44, 22.6% from 45 to 64, 11.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.5 males. As of 2000, speakers of English as a first language accounted for 53.61% o residents, Spanish speakers made up 41.21%, French Creole was the mother tongue of 4.93% of the population.

As of 2000, West Little River had the thirtieth highest percentage of Cuban residents in the US, with 16.78% of the populace. It had the thirty-first highest percentage of Haitian residents in the US, at 6.0% of the population, the ninth highest percentage of Nicaraguan residents in the US, at 3.58% of its population. It had the fifty-eighth most Dominicans in the US, at 2.42%, while it had the fourteenth highest percentage of Hondurans, at 2.18% of all residents. West Little River's Bahamian community had the sixth highest percentage of residents, at 1.2% It is home to the ninety-fourth highest percentage of Guatemalan residents in the US, at 1.2% of the population as well The median income for a household in the CDP was $26,686, the median income for a family was $29,013. Males had a median income of $22,058 versus $20,524 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $12,026. About 24.7% of families and 29.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 38.6% of those under age 18 and 28.8% of those age 65 or over.

The Miami-Dade Police Department operates the Northside District Station in West Little River. Miami-Dade County Public Schools operates area public schools: Broadmoor Elementary School Miami Park Elementary School Dr. Henry W. Mack/West Little River Elementary School Formerly West Little River Elementary, renamed in 2004 after the chairperson of the MDCPS audit committee. Arcola Lake Elementary School Madison Middle School Miami Central High School William H. Turner Technical Arts High School Miami-Dade College- North Campus Miami-Dade Public Library operates area public libraries: North Central Library West Little River is served by Metrobus throughout the area, the Miami Metrorail, Tri-Rail, Amtrak: Metrorail: Northside Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Plaza Tri-Rail: Tri-Rail/Metrorail Transfer Amtrak: Amtrak-Miami: Silver Star and Silver Meteor service

Major League Baseball Manager of the Year Award

In Major League Baseball, the Manager of the Year Award is an honor given annually since 1983 to two outstanding managers, one each in the American League and the National League. The winner is voted on by 30 members of the Baseball Writers' Association of America; each submits a vote for first and third place among the managers of each league. The manager with the highest score in each league wins the award. Several managers have won the award in a season. Lou Piniella won 116 games with the Seattle Mariners in 2001, the most by a winning manager, Joe Torre won 114 with the New York Yankees in 1998. Sparky Anderson and Tony La Russa finished with identical 104–58 records in 1984 and 1988, respectively. Three National League managers, including Dusty Baker, Whitey Herzog, Larry Dierker, have exceeded the century mark as well. Baker's San Francisco Giants won 103 games in 1993. In 1991, Bobby Cox became the first manager to win the award in both leagues, winning with the Atlanta Braves and having won with the Toronto Blue Jays in 1985.

La Russa, Jim Leyland, Bob Melvin, Davey Johnson, Joe Maddon have since won the award in both leagues. Cox and La Russa have won the most awards, with four. Baker, Piniella, Showalter and Melvin have won three times. In 2005, Cox became the first manager to win the award in consecutive years. Rocco Baldelli and Mike Shildt are the most recent winners; because of the 1994–95 Major League Baseball strike cut the season short and cancelled the post-season, the BBWAA writers created a de facto mythical national championship by naming managers of the unofficial league champions as Managers of the Year. Two franchises, the New York Mets and the Milwaukee Brewers, have not had a manager win the award. Only six managers have won the award while leading a team that finished outside the top two spots in its division. Ted Williams was the first, after leading the "expansion" Washington Senators to a third-place finish in the American League East, in 1969. Buck Rodgers won the award in 1987 with the third-place Expos.

Tony Peña and Showalter won the award with third-place teams in back-to-back years: Peña with the Royals in 2003, Showalter with the Rangers in 2004. Joe Girardi is the only manager to win the award with a fourth-place team. A The formula used to calculate the final scores is Score = 5F + 3S + T, where F is the number of first-place votes, S is second -place votes, T is third-place votes. B The 1994–95 Major League Baseball strike ended the season on August 11, as well as cancelling the entire postseason, with writers turning the vote into a de facto mythical national championship, similar to college football. C Johnny Oates and Joe Torre tied for the lead among voters in the American League in 1996. "Esurance MLB Awards" Best Manager Baseball America Manager of the Year Baseball Prospectus Internet Baseball Awards Manager of the Year Chuck Tanner Major League Baseball Manager of the Year Award Associated Press Manager of the Year Honor Rolls of Baseball #Managers MLB All-Time Manager Sporting News Manager of the Decade Sports Illustrated MLB Manager of the Decade Major League Baseball all-time managerial wins Best Coach/Manager ESPY Award General"Manager of the Year Award Winners". Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved May 25, 2009. "MLB Awards". Major League Baseball. Retrieved May 25, 2009. Inline citations

Yahad-In Unum

Yahad-In Unum is a French organization founded to locate the sites of mass graves of Jewish victims of the Nazi mobile killing units the Einsatzgruppen, in Ukraine, Russia, Lithuania, Latvia and Moldova. It was founded in Paris in 2004 by leaders in Jewish communities. YIU is led by Father Patrick Desbois, a Catholic priest whose grandfather was a French soldier deported to the Nazi prison camp Rava-Ruska, located in a Ukrainian town that borders Poland, its United States fundraising branch is known as the American Friends of Yahad-In Unum. Father Patrick Desbois is the director of the Episcopal Committee for Relations with Judaism, his work on Catholic-Jewish relations has received international recognition. S. Holocaust Memorial Museum, the Jan Karski Award by the American Jewish Committee, the B'nai B'rith International Award for Outstanding Contributions to Relations with the Jewish People and the National Jewish Book Award for his 2008 book Holocaust by Bullets. In 2009, he received honorary doctorates from Hebrew University and Bar Ilan, 2012 from the New York University.

Dr. Richard Prasquier is the vice-president of the Yahad-In Unum Board, he is the president of the Representative Council of French Jewish Institutions and a member of the World Jewish Congress and the International Jewish Committee on Inter-religious Consultations. David Black is the president of American Friends of Yahad-In Unum. Black is the associate vice president for Institutional Advancement for Yeshiva University, he is the former director of the Jewish Community Center in Manhattan and executive director of the Alliance Francaise in New York. In less than two years, from June 1941 until the spring of 1943, an estimated 1.25 million Jews were massacred in the Soviet Union by Nazi mobile killing units, or Einsatzgruppen. The Einsatzgruppen rounded up the Jewish populations of the villages and towns they passed through, led them to the country-side and summarily executed them; the victims were buried in mass graves. Little is known about these atrocities because there were so few survivors.

YIU seeks to find evidence of the massacres on the Eastern front and locate the mass graves of Jews killed by the Einsatzgruppen. YIU's objective is to counter the claims of Holocaust deniers who use the lack of official documentation of the murders to make claims about the validity of Holocaust evidence, to account for the graves that remain undiscovered to pay respect to the dead. YIU approaches its work on two fronts -- archival research trips; the archival research is undertaken by PhD and graduate students in the United States and Germany. The researchers spend several months at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, where they study the Soviet archives of the Extraordinary State Commission of 1944 and the archives from the Einsatzgruppen Trial at Ludwigsburg, Germany. After the research is complete, an 11-person team led by Patrick Desbois, travels to Belarus and Ukraine to collect testimonial and forensic evidence of the murders; each trip lasts 15–20 days. The team includes a photographer, ballistics expert, drivers, daily report recorders, a witness interviewer and camera operator.

During each trip, the team travels from village to village, where they interview and film the surviving eyewitnesses, using testimony of witnesses to discover the locations of the graves. Once the graves are located, the team uses high-tech equipment to obtain forensic evidence that validates the testimonies; when the team returns to Paris, the translated video testimony and the physical evidence is archived. In August 2008, Palgrave MacMillan published Holocaust By Bullets, written by Father Desbois about the work of YIU. Father Desbois titled the book after one of the methods the Nazis used to kill their victims; the Jewish Book Council awarded the book the 2008 National Jewish Book Award. In June 2014, YIU published its ten-year anniversary book. Called Broad Daylight, the book encapsulates the horror of the Jewish genocide in which Germans in Eastern Europe massacred the Jews in broad daylight; the bilingual book covers each territory that the organization has researched, splitting each into a chapter.

These include, Belarus, Poland, Romania and Lithuania. Since 2009, the Archives and Research Center, a unique research center in Paris, features unique archival resources and the new results from Father Desbois' field research, including video testimonies and artifacts; the organization is expanding InEvidence, an interactive map on its website, on which users can see the extent to which the Nazis attempted to wipe out the Jewish population in remote villages. The map covers all the countries, it enables users to choose a specific country and location and to read information about the testimonies and/or watch a video regarding the town's mass murder. Elaine Sciolino. "A Priest Methodically Reveals Ukrainian Jews' Fate". The New York Times. Retrieved 23 January 2014. Jordana Horn. "Houses of Worship: How Father Desbois Became a Holocaust Memory Keeper". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 23 January 2014. Jonathan Brown. "A holy mission to reveal the truth about Nazi death squads". The Independent. Retrieved 23 January 2014.

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