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Cape Flattery

Cape Flattery is the northwesternmost point of the contiguous United States. It is in Clallam County, Washington on the Olympic Peninsula, where the Strait of Juan de Fuca joins the Pacific Ocean, it is part of the Makah Reservation, is the northern boundary of the Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary. Cape Flattery can be reached from a short hike, most of, boardwalked; the westernmost point in the contiguous United States is at Cape Alava, south of Cape Flattery in Olympic National Park. However, the westernmost tip of Cape Flattery is exactly as far west as Cape Alava, the difference being 5 seconds of longitude, about 360 feet, at high tide and somewhat more at low tide; the Cape Flattery Lighthouse is on Tatoosh Island, just off the cape. Makah Bay and Neah Bay are on either side of the cape. Neah Bay, Washington is the closest town to the cape. Cape Flattery is the oldest permanently named feature in Washington state, being described and named by James Cook on March 22, 1778. Cook wrote: "...

There appeared to be a small opening which flattered us with the hopes of finding an harbour... On this account I called the point of land to the north of it Cape Flattery." In 1834, the first Japanese persons known to have set foot on what is now Washington state arrived in a dismasted, rudderless ship that ran aground near Cape Flattery. The three survivors of the broken ship were held as slaves by the local Makah people; when William H. McNeill learned about them, he took them to British authorities at Fort Vancouver, under orders from John McLoughlin of the Hudson's Bay Company which controlled the site. Fuca Pillar is a tall rectangular, rock on the west side of Cape Flattery, it is named after a Greek sailor who explored for Spain. Fuca has a doubtful claim to being the first European explorer to see the Fuca Pillar and to explore the Strait of Juan de Fuca named for him; the first accepted mention of the pillar was by John Meares in 1788. The children's novel Ghost Canoe by Will Hobbs is set on Tatoosh Island and Neah Bay in 1874.

Parts of the young adult novel Freaky Green Eyes by Joyce Carol Oates are set here in present day. The novel When Wolf Comes by John Pappas is set in Cape Flattery in 1801. D. G. Driver's novel Echo of the Cliffs, the third in the young adult trilogy of the Juniper Sawfeather series of novels, has parts that take place at Cape Flattery and Fuca Pillar

United Nations Volunteers

The United Nations Volunteers programme is a United Nations organization that contributes to peace and development through volunteerism worldwide. Volunteerism is a powerful means of engaging people in tackling development challenges, it can transform the pace and nature of development. Volunteerism benefits both society at large and the individual volunteer by strengthening trust and reciprocity among citizens, by purposefully creating opportunities for participation. UNV contributes to peace and development by advocating for recognition of volunteers, working with partners to integrate volunteerism into development programming, mobilizing an increasing number and diversity of volunteers, including experienced UN Volunteers, throughout the world. UNV embraces volunteerism as universal and inclusive, recognizes volunteerism in its diversity as well as the values that sustain it: free will, commitment and solidarity. Based in Bonn, Germany, UNV is active in around 130 countries every year. UNV, with Field Units in 86 countries, is represented worldwide through the offices of the United Nations Development Programme and reports to the UNDP Executive Board.

In 1962, the US Peace Corps convened the International Conference on Middle Level Manpower in Puerto Rico, where the role of international volunteers helping to build skills in developing countries was promoted. As a result, the International Peace Corps Secretariat the International Secretariat for Volunteer Service, was created as a global organization to promote volunteer services for development around the world. A United Nations Volunteers initiative was proposed in a speech at Harvard University on June 13, 1968 by Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and UNV was established 1970 by the UN General Assembly. ISVS became instrumental in the establishment of UNV and was itself dissolved in 1976. UNV is administered by the United Nations Development Programme. UNV was headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland. In 1996, the headquarters moved to Bonn, Germany to Haus Carstanjen. UNV headquarters moved to the former offices of the German Parliament in 2007. UNV has liaison offices in Tokyo and New York City and representatives in more than 50 programme countries.

Executive Coordinators of UNV, their nationalities and their time in the role: Olivier Adam, 2 January 2017 to present Richard Dictus, 2 January 2013 through most of 2016 Flavia Pansieri February 2008 through most of 2012 Ad de Raad, November 2003, permanent in August 2004 through most of 2007 Sharon Capeling-Alakija, 1 January 1998 - November 2003 Brenda Gael McSweeney, 1988 - 1997 Edward White, exact dates unknown Hikmat Nabulsi, appointed 1977, exact dates unknown John Gordon, appointed 1974, exact dates unknown Assad K. Sadry, 1970 UNV directly mobilizes more than 7,700 people as UN Volunteers every year nationally and internationally, with 80 per cent coming from developing countries, more than 30 per cent volunteering within their own countries. UN Volunteers receive a Volunteer Living Allowance, a financial allowance intended to cover basic living expenses each month; the minimum age for UN Volunteers is 25 years. There is no upper age limit. UN Volunteers help to organize and run local and national elections and support a large number of peacekeeping and humanitarian projects.

UN Volunteers comprise one third of all international civilians working in UN peacekeeping operations. With the UNV programme, individuals can volunteer in their own country, in a country different from their country of origin, or through the Internet. In addition, UNV operates the Online Volunteering Service, a web-based virtual volunteering platform for non-governmental organizations or other civil society organizations, governments or other public institutions, United Nations agencies or other intergovernmental institution to involve online volunteers in various projects; the service was launched in 2000 as a part of NetAid, which hosted and co-managed the service until 2005. The service operates in English and Spanish. In 2014, all 16,134 online volunteering assignments offered by development organizations through the Online Volunteering service attracted applications from numerous qualified volunteers. About 60 percent of the 10,887 online volunteers were women, 60 percent came from developing countries.

An evaluation of the UNV Online Volunteering service assessed the service’s impact on organizations, beneficiaries and UNV, as well as on the UN Online Volunteers themselves. The 2014 evaluation found that the service has played a unique role in expanding and mainstreaming online volunteerism globally, is appreciated by organizations and volunteers. Online volunteers mobilized through the Online Volunteering service are volunteers for the organization with which they collaborate. Online Volunteers do not follow the same conditions of service than UN Volunteers e.g. they do not receive a contract from UNV as such, do not receive a VLA. Since 2012, integrating volunteerism into discussions around the post-2015 development agenda has been a priority for UNV. In 2014, UNV focused on supporting the second round of UNDG dialogues on implementation of the post-2015 development agenda; the dialogues were framed around six themes: localizing the post-2015 development agenda, helping to strengthen capacities and build effective institutions, participatory monitoring for accountability, partnerships with civil society, engaging with the private sector, culture and development.

UNV co-led the dialogues on partnerships with civil society and was engaged in the dialogues


Friendraising is a form of fundraising that involves befriending an organization or individual for the purpose of supporting the financial aspect of a charity, nonprofit group or other community benefit organization. Relationship fundraising, characterized as a fundraising approach that focuses on the development of a "unique and special relationship between a charity and its supporter" was first discussed in 1992 by Ken Burnett, who proposed that charitable institutions move towards dealing with donors as individuals, looking at their unique donation histories and motivations; the concept of friendraising involves a single organization or individual following a setup of guidelines and principles to establish a meaningful genuine and quality relationship with another person within the community, a business or organization. As a concept, the friendships that are established are purely authentic, regardless of financial prospects; the purpose of the relationship is to add value to the organization.

As such, the relationship is meant to be endurable and supportive of itself, other organizations, the community it serves. In actual practice, friendraising is dependent on the goals and hesitations of the organization; the goal to effective friendraising is to provide an outcome. To do this, a non-profit's support system must consist of an "army of an army of support; those friendships are the key to building sustainable efforts to improve the quality of life in our communities". Some ideals friendraising may uphold for optimal success involve polite persistence, a plan. Controversy stems from incidents where the organization exercises undue influence over a vulnerable person with the aim of benefitting from that person's estate after their death. Controversial friendraising practices include driving potential donors around, collecting prescriptions, providing referrals to lawyers for the drafting of wills and frequent home visits and other activities that involve befriending the person and enmeshing the organization's representatives in the donor's personal life.

Over the last 10 years, the term'friendraising' has been linked to more positive fundraising terms like'peer-to-peer' fundraising, where fundraisers reach out to their peer network for donations when they are doing a walk, run, a-thon or any of a number of participant-based fundraising activities. Friendraising is now used when describing how fundraisers get their friends to help raise funds for a worthy cause, similar to peer-to-peer

Articles of Agreement (cricket)

References to English cricket matches in the 1727 season between the 2nd Duke of Richmond and Mr Alan Brodrick mention that they drew up Articles of Agreement between them to determine the rules that must apply in their contests. This may be the first time that rules were formally agreed, although rules as such existed. In early times, the rules would be agreed subject to local variations. Articles of Agreement by and between his Grace the Duke of Richmond & Mr. Brodrick for two Cricket Matches concluded the Eleventh of July 1727: Imprimis'Tis by the aforesaid Parties agreed that the first Match shall be played some day of this Instant July in the county of Surry. 2d: That the wickets shall be pitched in a fair & place, at twenty three yards distance from each other. 3d: A Ball caught, cloathed or not cloathed, the Striker is out. 4th: When a Ball is caught out, the Stroke counts nothing. 5th: Catching out behind the Wicket allowed. 6th: That'tis lawfull for the Duke of Richmond to choose any Gamesters, who have played in either of His Grace's two last Matches with Sir William Gage.

7th: that twelve Gamesters shall play on each side. 8th: that the Duke of Richmond & Mr. Brodrick shall determine the Ball or Balls to be played with. 9th: if any of the Gamesters shall be taken lame or sick after the Match is begun, their Place may be supplied by any one chose conformably to the sixth Article, or in Case that can not be done, the other side shall be obliged to leave out one of their Gamesters, whomsoever They please. 10th: that each match shall be for twelve Guineas of each Side. 11th: that there shall be one Umpire of each side. 12th: If any Doubt or Dispute arises on any of the aforemd Articles, or whatever else is not settled therein, it shall be determined by the Duke of Richmond & Mr. Brodrick on their Honours. 13th: The Duke of Richmond's umpire shall pitch the Wickets when they play in Sussex. 14th: The Batt Men for every one they count are to touch the Umpires Stick. 15th: that it shall not be lawfull to fling down the Wicket: & that no Player shall be deemed out by any Wicket put down, unless with the Ball in Hand.

16th: that both the Matches shall be played upon, determined by, these Articles. The Articles were signed "Richmond" and "A. Brodrick". Comparison of the Articles to the Laws of 1744, which were adopted at that time, reveal that: twelve a side, though this may include an umpire apiece, would have been difficult for Richmond if his matches against Gage were eleven a side and he fielded the same team in both matches; the pitch length of 23 yards may be an error in the original document because the chain was a used measure in 1727. No run outs were allowed. Runs were only completed. There is no mention of batsmen not being allowed to hit the ball twice. In Harry Altham's history, he discusses the possibility of a so-called "popping hole" being in use in the early 18th century but disclaims it as "a local and transitory variety of the regulation game". Altham pointed out, as evidence, that the fielder had to have the ball in his hand when breaking the wicket. Derek Birley in his social history comments upon the significance of Lady Day in the articles as "the usual hiring day for new servants", given that Richmond and Brodrick had servants in their teams.

One of Richmond's regular players was Thomas Waymark. Rowland Bowen in his history comments on the 23-yard pitch length and says the 1744 Laws "expressly refer to twenty-two yards". In Timothy J. McCann's Sussex Cricket, the original handwritten articles document is pictured in one of the plates, it is sourced to the West Sussex Record Office re a Goodwood House manuscript which the WSRO acquired in 1884. Altham, H. S.. A History of Cricket, Volume 1. George Allen & Unwin. Birley, Derek. A Social History of English Cricket. Aurum. Bowen, Rowland. Cricket: A History of its Growth and Development. Eyre & Spottiswoode. Major, John. More Than A Game. HarperCollins. Marshall, John; the Duke, Cricket. Muller. Maun, Ian. From Commons to Lord's, Volume One: 1700 to 1750. Roger Heavens. ISBN 978-1-900592-52-9. McCann, Tim. Sussex Cricket in the Eighteenth Century. Sussex Record Society. Underdown, David. Start of Play. Allen Lane. "The official laws of cricket". Marylebone Cricket Club. 2007. Archived from the original on 11 March 2013

Ratcliffe Mound

The Ratcliffe Mound is a Native American mound in the southeastern part of the U. S. state of Ohio. Located in western Vinton County, it lies to the east of the community of Londonderry, at the bottom of a steep-walled valley. Sitting in the middle of farm fields near a stream, the mound is isolated in open countryside; the mound is a circular cone in 86 feet in diameter. Unlike those of many Native American mounds, the identity of the Ratcliffe Mound's builders is unknown. Two cultures from the Woodland period, the Adena and Hopewell, built large numbers of mounds in southeastern Ohio, the Adena are known to have built a group of six mounds in the Vinton County village of Zaleski, but the Ratcliffe Mound lacks features that enable archaeologists to identify its builders. Neither of these two cultures built mounds in locations such as that of the Ratcliffe, no identifiable artifacts have been found in the vicinity of the mound, so no identification can be made in the mound's present state. Furthermore, no archaeological excavation has been conducted at the Ratcliffe Mound, so no artifacts have been recovered from it.

Despite the inability of archaeologists to classify the mound's origins, it is to be a valuable archaeological site if investigated. In recognition of its archaeological value, the Ratcliffe Mound was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1975


Krabi-Krabong is a weapon-based martial art from Thailand. It is related to other Southeast Asian fighting styles such as Malay silat, Burmese banshay and Cambodian kbach kun boran; the royal bodyguard corps of the late King Bhumibol Adulyadej were said to be trained in krabi-krabong. The system's name refers to namely the Thai sword and staff. Two swords are wielded as a pair. Unarmed krabi-krabong makes use of kicks, pressure point strikes, joint locks and throws; the weapons of krabi-krabong include the following: Krabi: sabre/curved sword Daab: single-edge sword Krabong: stick/ cudgel either paired or used with a shield. Not popular in present-day so got confused with long pole Daab song mue: Thai double swords, one in each hand Kean/Lo: buckler/shield made from wood or buffalo hide Phlong: staff/pole mislabeled as Krabong Ngao: bladed staff Mai sok san: a pair of clubs worn on the forearms Krabi–krabong was developed by the ancient Thai warriors for fighting on the battlefield, it was used in conjunction with muay boran but whether the two arts were developed together or independently is uncertain.

Early warfare in Indochina was between rival kingdoms and were fought en masse. Individual fighters carried rhino hide shields; the Burmese invasion of 1767 resulted in the loss of cultural documents. However, the Thai fighting arts were traditionally passed down orally and did not rely on written documents for their preservation. Simon de la Loubère, the French diplomat from the court of Louis XIV, observed the existence of muay Thai and Krabi–krabong in his famous account Du Royaume de Siam while visiting the Ayutthaya Kingdom in 1688. We thus can assume that Krabi–krabong, along with Muay Thai, has long been practiced in the pre-modern Siam. Archaeological findings and classical dances bear testament to the myriad of weapons that were once used in Thailand; some of them are no longer found in the country's martial arts today, such as the kris, trishula and vajra. Entire dances were built on individual weapons, calisthenics used by the modern Thai military are still based on these dances; the weapons, their design and the pre-fight war dance in krabi-krabong show evidence of Indian derivation combined with Chinese characteristics.

South Indian scholars, holy men and traders were influential in the evolution of Thai culture and martial arts. The Tamil stick-fighting style of silambam was of particular importance to the history of numerous Southeast Asian fighting systems. During the colonial period, silambam became more common in Southeast Asia than in India where it was banned by the British rulers. Asian elephants were an integral part of warfare in Thailand, they would be mounted by higher-ranking warriors like generals or royalty. To choose a successor to Intaraja I, his two sons fought on elephants. Krabi–krabong was practiced by the palace mahouts or elephant trainers. From the back of an elephant, archers could shoot arrows at enemies below or, if he was wielding a polearm, engage in hand-to-hand combat with another mounted fighter. After the 15th-century introduction of gunpowder, elephants served as tanks with cannons mounted on their backs; the legs were the war-elephant's weak spot, so they had to be guarded by up to four foot soldiers.

Although mahouts no longer practice martial arts, reenactments of such battles are staged by performers who are from families that have been training elephants since the Ayutthaya Kingdom. As Indochinese trade extended to Japan, small communities of Japanese people were living and trading around the region. After the Battle Of Sekigahara in 1600, many of those from the losing side of the war came to Thailand. Others were pirates or official traders; the Japanese fled Ayutthaya after the Bamars invaded in 1767 but they left their influence on the local fighting arts. Many of the techniques, stances and throws of krabi-krabong are similar to those found in jujutsu and Okinawan kobudō. In Thailand, as with other countries in Southern and Southeast Asia, monks acted as teachers to their local community. Young boys would be sent to the temples where, aside from learning about Theravada Buddhism, they would be taught subjects ranging from languages to astrology. One such establishment was the Buddhaisawan Temple in Ayutthaya where the monks taught sword-fighting to their students.

The origin of these monks is unknown but they are believed to have come from the kingdom of Lan Na in Northern Thailand. The modern Buddhaisawan Sword Fighting Institute was led by Sumai Mesamana until his death in 1998, his son Pramote Mesamana began training in krabi-krabong at the age of 6. According to the younger Mesamana, the art was passed down in his family from father to son since the Ayutthaya Kingdom. During the 16th century, the First Toungoo Empire ruled over parts of Thailand. Naresuan was born to King Maha Thammaracha but until the age of 16 he was a hostage of the Bamars. Upon his return to the Ayutthaya Kingdom, he renounced allegiance to Bamars on behalf of his father the king. Having studied at Wat Buddhaisawan, Naresuan was well-versed in fighting with the single-edge sword; the Bamars attacked the capital numerous times in succession but were always repelled by Naresuan's forces. In a final attempt to retake their Thai states, the Bamars sent an army of 25,000 warriors led by Mingyi Swa, th