Lincoln County, Oregon
Lincoln County is a county located in the U. S. state of Oregon. As of the 2010 census, its population was 46,034, the county is named for Abraham Lincoln, 16th president of the United States. Lincoln County comprises the Newport, OR Micropolitan Statistical Area, Lincoln County was created by the Oregon Legislative Assembly on February 20,1893, from the western portion of Benton and Polk counties. The county adjusted its boundaries in 1923,1925,1927,1931, at the time of the countys creation, Toledo was picked as the temporary county seat. In 1896 it was chosen as the permanent county seat, three elections were held to determine if the county seat should be moved from Toledo to Newport. Twice these votes failed—in 1928 and 1938, in 1954, the vote went in Newports favor. While Toledo has remained the hub of Lincoln County, the city has never regained the position it once had. Like Tillamook County to the north, for the first decades of its existence Lincoln County was isolated from the rest of the state and this was solved with the construction of U. S.
Route 101, and the Salmon River Highway. In 1936, as one of many federally funded projects, bridges were constructed across the bays at Waldport, Newport. The northern part of Lincoln County includes the Siletz Reservation, created by treaty in 1855, the reservation was open to non-Indian settlement between 1895 and 1925. The Siletzs tribal status was terminated by the government in 1954. The current reservation totals 3,666 acres, principal industries of the county are travel, health services and construction. Paper manufacturing and fishing are important although they contribute proportionally less to the countys employment than they used to. Newport is one of the two fishing ports of Oregon that ranks in the top twenty of fishing ports in the U. S. Its port averaged 105 million pounds of fish landed in 1997-2000, Newport is home of Oregon State Universitys Hatfield Marine Science Center, as well as the Oregon Coast Aquarium, and their fleet of ocean-going vessels. Many of the communities in Lincoln county depend on tourism as their principal source of income.
The countys average nonfarm employment was 18,820 in 2007, according to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,194 square miles, of which 980 square miles is land and 214 square miles is water. The population density was 45 people per square mile, there were 26,889 housing units at an average density of 27 per square mile
Whale Cove (Oregon)
Whale Cove is a small cove, approximately one-third of a mile in diameter, located on the Pacific Coast of Oregon in the United States, approximately 1.4 mi south of the city of Depoe Bay. The cove is located at approximately 44 deg 44 min N latitude, the ocean portion of the cove is protected as a marine reserve, and land portions of the cove are protected as parts of Rocky Creek State Scenic Viewpoint and Oregon Islands National Wildlife Refuge. In 1978, British amateur historian Bob Ward proposed that Whale Cove was the location where Francis Drake spent the summer of 1579 during his circumnavigation of the globe by sea. The exact location of Drakes landing spot, at which he claimed a portion of the west coast of North America as New Albion, has claimed to be identified by proponents of more than twenty sites. The officially-recognized Drake landing site is at the Drakes Bay Historic, Ward proposed Whale Cove as the actual spot of Drakes landing based on its similarity to a 16th-century map made by Jodocus Hondius.
One longstanding puzzling feature of the Hondius map is the island on the peninsula protecting the cove. According to Ward, a strip of the peninsula protecting Whale Cove has a strip through which water flows at high tide turning 80% of the peninsula into an island. Whale Cove is not considered a usable bay by any size of vessel, samuel Bawlf, The Secret Voyage of Sir Francis Drake, Penguin Books, ISBN 0-14-200459-6
New Albion, known as Nova Albion, was the name of all North America north of Mexico, from sea to sea, claimed by Sir Francis Drake for England in 1579. The extent of New Albion and the location of Drakes port have long debated by historians. Albion is a name for the island of Great Britain. The name may refer to the White Cliffs of Dover, along with Martin Frobishers claims in Greenland and Baffin Island and Drakes claims at the tip of South America, New Albion was one of the earliest English territorial claims in the New World. Like Humphrey Gilberts 1583 claim of Newfoundland, it was followed up by settlement of the Roanoke Colony in 1584, by Jamestown, Virginia in 1607. Assertions that Drake left some of his men behind as a colony in California are based merely on the reduced number who were with him in the Moluccas. Wherever his actual landing place was, it was north of San Diego Bay where Cabrillo had asserted Spains claim. Drake explored the coasts around his port by ship for some time as well as the land on foot.
Upon his return to England on 4 April 1581, Francis Drake was knighted by the French Ambassador on behalf of Queen Elizabeth I for his deeds against the Spanish during the circumnavigational voyage. However, in order to keep a peace with Spain, and to avoid having Spain threaten Englands other claims in the New World, Drakes logs, charts. Thus, the discovery and claim on New Albion was ordered by the Queen to be considered a state secret and his crew were sworn to silence on pain of death. Only years later, after Englands destruction of the Spanish Armada in 1588, an account of the voyage, said to be based on the notes of his chaplain, Francis Fletcher, including many details of New Albion was published in 1628 by Drakes nephew and namesake. After Elizabeths death, maps began to mark the area of North America above Mexico and New Mexico as Nova Albion, although the location of Drakes Port greatly differs among maps. However, Drakes claiming land on the Pacific coast became the basis for subsequent colonial charters issued by English monarchs that purported to grant lands from sea to sea.
Soon afterwards, the Columbia Fur District of the Hudsons Bay Company, the only confirmed sixteenth-century archaeological evidence consists of pieces of porcelain found at Drakes Bay, north of San Francisco. The site of Drakes landing officially recognized by the U. S. Department of the Interior and other bodies is Drakes Cove, the bay is in Marin County, near Point Reyes, just north of the Golden Gate. 38. 034°N122. 941°W /38.034, -122.941 Starting in the seventeenth century, george Vancouver studied Drake’s landing site and concluded it was in Drakes Bay. Drakes Bay, he says, is a harbor in northwest winds
Oregon is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. Oregon is bordered on the west by the Pacific Ocean, on the north by Washington, on the south by California, on the east by Idaho, the Columbia River delineates much of Oregons northern boundary, and the Snake River delineates much of the eastern boundary. The parallel 42° north delineates the boundary with California and Nevada. Oregon was inhabited by indigenous tribes before Western traders, explorers. An autonomous government was formed in the Oregon Country in 1843 before the Oregon Territory was created in 1848, Oregon became the 33rd state on February 14,1859. Today, at 98,000 square miles, Oregon is the ninth largest and, with a population of 4 million, the capital of Oregon is Salem, the second most populous of its cities, with 164,549 residents. Portland is Oregons most populous city, with 632,309 residents, Portlands metro population of 2,389,228 ranks the 23rd largest metro in the nation. The Willamette Valley in western Oregon is the states most densely populated area, the tall conifers, mainly Douglas fir, along Oregons rainy west coast contrast with the lighter-timbered and fire-prone pine and juniper forests covering portions to the east.
Abundant alders in the west fix nitrogen for the conifers, stretching east from central Oregon are semi-arid shrublands, deserts and meadows. At 11,249 feet, Mount Hood is the states highest point, Oregons only national park, Crater Lake National Park, comprises the caldera surrounding Crater Lake, the deepest lake in the United States. The state is home to the single largest organism in the world, Armillaria ostoyae. Because of its landscapes and waterways, Oregons economy is largely powered by various forms of agriculture, fishing. It is the top timber-producer of the lower 48 states, Technology is another one of the states major economic forces, which began in the 1970s with the establishment of the Silicon Forest and the expansion of Tektronix and Intel. Sportswear company Nike, Inc. headquartered in Beaverton, is the states largest public corporation with a revenue of $30.6 billion. The earliest evidence of the name Oregon has Spanish origins and this chronicle is the first topographical and linguistic source with respect to the place name Oregon.
There are two other sources with Spanish origins such as the name Oregano which grows in the part of the region. Another early use of the name, spelled Ouragon, was in a 1765 petition by Major Robert Rogers to the Kingdom of Great Britain, the term referred to the then-mythical River of the West. By 1778 the spelling had shifted to Oregon, in his 1765 petition, Rogers wrote, The rout. is from the Great Lakes towards the Head of the Mississippi, and from thence to the River called by the Indians Ouragon
The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of the Earths oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Southern Ocean in the south and is bounded by Asia and Australia in the west, the Mariana Trench in the western North Pacific is the deepest point in the world, reaching a depth of 10,911 metres. Both the center of the Water Hemisphere and the Western Hemisphere are in the Pacific Ocean, the oceans current name was coined by Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan during the Spanish circumnavigation of the world in 1521, as he encountered favourable winds on reaching the ocean. He called it Mar Pacífico, which in both Portuguese and Spanish means peaceful sea, important human migrations occurred in the Pacific in prehistoric times. Long-distance trade developed all along the coast from Mozambique to Japan and therefore knowledge, extended to the Indonesian islands but apparently not Australia. By at least 878 when there was a significant Islamic settlement in Canton much of trade was controlled by Arabs or Muslims.
In 219 BC Xu Fu sailed out into the Pacific searching for the elixir of immortality, from 1404 to 1433 Zheng He led expeditions into the Indian Ocean. The east side of the ocean was discovered by Spanish explorer Vasco Núñez de Balboa in 1513 after his expedition crossed the Isthmus of Panama and he named it Mar del Sur because the ocean was to the south of the coast of the isthmus where he first observed the Pacific. Later, Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan sailed the Pacific East to West on a Castilian expedition of world circumnavigation starting in 1519, Magellan called the ocean Pacífico because, after sailing through the stormy seas off Cape Horn, the expedition found calm waters. The ocean was often called the Sea of Magellan in his honor until the eighteenth century, sailing around and east of the Moluccas, between 1525 and 1527, Portuguese expeditions discovered the Caroline Islands, the Aru Islands, and Papua New Guinea. In 1542–43 the Portuguese reached Japan, in 1564, five Spanish ships consisting of 379 explorers crossed the ocean from Mexico led by Miguel López de Legazpi and sailed to the Philippines and Mariana Islands.
The Manila galleons operated for two and a half centuries linking Manila and Acapulco, in one of the longest trade routes in history, Spanish expeditions discovered Tuvalu, the Marquesas, the Cook Islands, the Solomon Islands, and the Admiralty Islands in the South Pacific. In the 16th and 17th century Spain considered the Pacific Ocean a Mare clausum—a sea closed to other naval powers, as the only known entrance from the Atlantic the Strait of Magellan was at times patrolled by fleets sent to prevent entrance of non-Spanish ships. On the western end of the Pacific Ocean the Dutch threatened the Spanish Philippines, Spain sent expeditions to the Pacific Northwest reaching Vancouver Island in southern Canada, and Alaska. The French explored and settled Polynesia, and the British made three voyages with James Cook to the South Pacific and Australia and the North American Pacific Northwest, one of the earliest voyages of scientific exploration was organized by Spain in the Malaspina Expedition of 1789–1794.
It sailed vast areas of the Pacific, from Cape Horn to Alaska and the Philippines, New Zealand and the South Pacific. Growing imperialism during the 19th century resulted in the occupation of much of Oceania by other European powers, and later, Japan, in Oceania, France got a leading position as imperial power after making Tahiti and New Caledonia protectorates in 1842 and 1853 respectively. After navy visits to Easter Island in 1875 and 1887, Chilean navy officer Policarpo Toro managed to negotiate an incorporation of the island into Chile with native Rapanui in 1888, by occupying Easter Island, Chile joined the imperial nations
Captain James Cook FRS RN was a British explorer, navigator and captain in the Royal Navy. Cook joined the British merchant navy as a teenager and joined the Royal Navy in 1755 and he saw action in the Seven Years War, and subsequently surveyed and mapped much of the entrance to the Saint Lawrence River during the siege of Quebec. This helped bring Cook to the attention of the Admiralty and Royal Society, in three voyages Cook sailed thousands of miles across largely uncharted areas of the globe. He mapped lands from New Zealand to Hawaii in the Pacific Ocean in greater detail, as he progressed on his voyages of discovery he surveyed and named features, and recorded islands and coastlines on European maps for the first time. He displayed a combination of seamanship, superior surveying and cartographic skills, physical courage, Cook was attacked and killed while attempting to kidnap the native chief of Hawaii during his third exploratory voyage in the Pacific in 1779. He left a legacy of scientific and geographical knowledge which was to influence his successors well into the 20th century, and numerous memorials worldwide have been dedicated to him.
James Cook was born on 7 November 1728 in the village of Marton in Yorkshire and baptised on 14 November in the church of St Cuthbert. He was the second of eight children of James Cook, a Scottish farm labourer from Ednam in Roxburghshire, in 1736, his family moved to Airey Holme farm at Great Ayton, where his fathers employer, Thomas Skottowe, paid for him to attend the local school. In 1741, after five years schooling, he work for his father. For leisure, he would climb a hill, Roseberry Topping, enjoying the opportunity for solitude. Cooks Cottage, his parents last home, which he is likely to have visited, is now in Melbourne, having moved from England and reassembled, brick by brick. In 1745, when he was 16, Cook moved 20 miles to the village of Staithes. Historians have speculated that this is where Cook first felt the lure of the sea while gazing out of the shop window. After 18 months, not proving suitable for work, Cook travelled to the nearby port town of Whitby to be introduced to friends of Sandersons, John.
The Walkers, who were Quakers, were prominent local ship-owners in the coal trade and their house is now the Captain Cook Memorial Museum. Cook was taken on as a merchant navy apprentice in their fleet of vessels. His first assignment was aboard the collier Freelove, and he spent several years on this and various other coasters, sailing between the Tyne and London. As part of his apprenticeship, Cook applied himself to the study of algebra, trigonometry and his three-year apprenticeship completed, Cook began working on trading ships in the Baltic Sea
Depoe Bay, Oregon
Depoe Bay is a city in Lincoln County, United States, located on U. S. Route 101 next to the Pacific Ocean. The population was 1,398 at the 2010 census, the bay of the same name is a 6-acre harbor that the city promotes as the worlds smallest navigable harbor. Depoe Bay was named for Siletz Indian Charles Charley Depot who was allotted the land in 1894 as part of the Dawes Act of 1887. There are conflicting accounts of the origin of his name, One says he was given the name Depot Charley for working at the military depot near Toledo, Oregon. The family was known as DePoe. His original tribal affiliation was Tututni, in 1975, the fishing trip sequence in One Flew Over the Cuckoos Nest was filmed in Depoe Bay. In 2008, restaurant scenes from The Burning Plain were filmed in Depoe Bay, on March 11,2011, Depoe Bays port was damaged by a tsunami caused by the Tōhoku earthquake off the coast of Japan. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 1.81 square miles. As of the census of 2010, there were 1,398 people,714 households, the population density was 772.4 inhabitants per square mile.
There were 1,158 housing units at a density of 639.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 92. 9% White,1. 5% Native American,1. 2% Asian,0. 2% Pacific Islander,1. 5% from other races, hispanic or Latino of any race were 4. 8% of the population. 32. 8% of all households were made up of individuals and 13. 3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 1.96 and the average family size was 2.39. The median age in the city was 56.6 years. 9. 7% of residents were under the age of 18, 5% were between the ages of 18 and 24,16. 5% were from 25 to 44,38. 9% were from 45 to 64, and 29. 8% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 48. 1% male and 51. 9% female, as of the census of 2000, there were 1,174 people,584 households, and 359 families residing in the city. The population density was 652.2 people per square mile, there were 911 housing units at an average density of 506.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 92.
50% White,0. 34% African American,1. 70% Native American,0. 60% Asian,0. 17% Pacific Islander,1. 02% from other races, and 3. 66% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3. 58% of the population,31. 0% of all households were made up of individuals and 11. 3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older
Basalt is a common extrusive igneous rock formed from the rapid cooling of basaltic lava exposed at or very near the surface of a planet or moon. Flood basalt describes the formation in a series of basalt flows. By definition, basalt is an igneous rock with generally 45-55% silica and less than 10% feldspathoid by volume. Basalt commonly features a very fine-grained or glassy matrix interspersed with visible mineral grains, the average density is 3.0 gm/cm3. Basalt is defined by its content and texture, and physical descriptions without mineralogical context may be unreliable in some circumstances. Basalt is usually grey to black in colour, but rapidly weathers to brown or rust-red due to oxidation of its mafic minerals into hematite, although usually characterized as dark, basaltic rocks exhibit a wide range of shading due to regional geochemical processes. Due to weathering or high concentrations of plagioclase, some basalts can be quite light-coloured and these phenocrysts usually are of olivine or a calcium-rich plagioclase, which have the highest melting temperatures of the typical minerals that can crystallize from the melt.
Basalt with a texture is called vesicular basalt, when the bulk of the rock is mostly solid. Gabbro is often marketed commercially as black granite and these ultramafic volcanic rocks, with silica contents below 45% are usually classified as komatiites. Agricola applied basalt to the black rock of the Schloßberg at Stolpen. Tholeiitic basalt is relatively rich in silica and poor in sodium, included in this category are most basalts of the ocean floor, most large oceanic islands, and continental flood basalts such as the Columbia River Plateau. Basalt rocks are in some cases classified after their content in High-Ti and Low-Ti varieties. High-Ti and Low-Ti basalts have been distinguished in the Paraná and Etendeka traps and it has greater than 17% alumina and is intermediate in composition between tholeiite and alkali basalt, the relatively alumina-rich composition is based on rocks without phenocrysts of plagioclase. Alkali basalt is relatively poor in silica and rich in sodium and it is silica-undersaturated and may contain feldspathoids, alkali feldspar and phlogopite.
Boninite is a form of basalt that is erupted generally in back-arc basins. Ocean island basalt Lunar basalt On Earth, most basalt magmas have formed by melting of the mantle. Basalt commonly erupts on Io, the third largest moon of Jupiter, and has formed on the Moon, Venus. The crustal portions of oceanic tectonic plates are composed predominantly of basalt, produced from upwelling mantle below, the mineralogy of basalt is characterized by a preponderance of calcic plagioclase feldspar and pyroxene