Regional Government of Andalusia
The Regional Government of Andalusia is the government of the Autonomous Community of Andalusia. It consists of the Parliament of Andalusia, the President of the Government of Andalusia, the 2011 budget was 31.7 billion euros. The Parliament of Andalusia is the Legislative Assembly and its main functions are to enact, amend or repeal laws and to appoint/remove the President. It is composed of deputies chosen by direct, universal suffrage, the Parliament was constituted in 1982, after the approval of the Statute of Autonomy in 1981. Its current headquarters is in the former Hospital de las Cinco Llagas, the Government Council is the political organ and administrative superior of the Community. It regulates legal authority and the performance of the executive and administrative function of the Government and it is composed of the President and named Counselors to take charge of the various Departments. The Government Council meets every Tuesday, website of the Regional Government of Andalusia Andalusian Parliament High Court of Andalusia
Spanish protectorate in Morocco
The Spanish protectorate in Morocco was established on 27 November 1912 by a treaty between France and Spain that converted the Spanish sphere of influence in Morocco into a formal protectorate. The Spanish protectorate consisted of a strip on the Mediterranean and the Strait of Gibraltar. The northern zone was retroceded to an independent Morocco on 7 April 1956, Spain finally ceded her southern zone through the Treaty of Angra de Cintra around Cintra Bay on 1 April 1958, only after the short Ifni War. The city of Tangiers was excluded of the Spanish protectorate and received an special internationally controled status, since France already held a protectorate over the entire country and controlled Moroccos foreign affairs, it held the power to delegate a zone to Spanish protection. The surface area of the zone was about 20,948 km2, in a convention dated 27 June 1900, France and Spain agreed to recognize separate zones of influence in Morocco, but did not specify their boundaries. In 1902, France offered Spain all of Morocco north of the Sebu River and south of the Sous River, in regard to these interests the French Government will come to an understanding with the Spanish Government.
The agreement which may be come to on the subject between France and Spain shall be communicated to His Britannic Majestys Government. The British goal in negotiations with France was to ensure that a weaker power held the strategic coast opposite Gibraltar in return for Britain ceding all interest in Morocco. France began negotiating with Spain at once, but the offer of 1902 was no longer on the table, since France had given up her ambitions in Ottoman Libya in a convention with Italy in 1903, she felt entitled to a greater share of Morocco. On 3 October 1904, France and Spain concluded a treaty that defined their precise zones, Spain received a zone of influence consisting of a northern strip of territory and a southern strip. The northern strip did not reach to the border of French Algeria, nor did it include Tangier, the treaty recognized the Spanish enclave of Ifni and delimited its borders. In March 1905, the German kaiser, Wilhelm II, visited Tangier, there he loudly touted Germanys economic interests in Morocco and assured the sultan of financial assistance in the event of a threat to Moroccan independence.
At Wilhelms urging, Sultan Abd el Aziz called for an international conference, the final Spanish zone of influence consisted of a northern strip and a southern strip centred on Cape Juby. The consideration of the strip as part of the protectorate back in 1912 eventually gave Morocco a solid legal claim to the territory in the 1950s. The Protectorate system was established in 1912, the Islamic legal system of qadis was formally maintained. The Spanish lost more than 13,000 soldiers at Annual in July–August 1921, controversy in Spain over the early conduct in the war was a driving factor behind the military coup by General Miguel Primo de Rivera in 1923 which foreshadowed the Spanish Civil War of 1936–39. After the successful 1925 Alhucemas landing, the French–Spanish alliance ended up achieving victory, before 1934, the southern part of the protectorate was governed from Cape Juby since 1912, Cape Juby was head of the Spanish West Africa. The Spanish Civil War started in 1936 with the partially successful coup against the Republican Government
Charles IV of Spain
Charles IV was King of Spain from 14 December 1788, until his abdication on 19 March 1808. Charles was the son of Charles III and his wife. He was born in Naples, while his father was King of Naples and his elder brother, Don Felipe, was passed over for both thrones, due to his learning disabilities and epilepsy. In Naples and Sicily, Charles was referred to as the Prince of Taranto and he was called El Cazador, due to his preference for sport and hunting, rather than dealing with affairs of the state. Charles was considered by many to have been amiable, but simple-minded, in 1788, Charles III died and Charles IV succeeded to the throne. He intended to maintain the policies of his father, and retained his prime minister, the Count of Floridablanca, in office. Even though he had a belief in the sanctity of his office. The affairs of government were left to his wife, Maria Luisa, in 1792, political and personal enemies ousted Floridablanca from office, replacing him with Pedro Pablo Abarca de Bolea, Count of Aranda.
Humboldts Political Essay on the Kingdom of New Spain was a key publication from his five-year travels, Godoy continued Arandas policy of neutrality towards France, but after Spain protested the execution of Louis XVI of France, the deposed king, in 1793, France declared war on Spain. After the declaration and Spain signed a treaty of protection against France. In 1795 France forced Godoy to enter into an alliance, Spain remained an ally of France and supported the Continental Blockade until the British naval victory at Trafalgar, when Spain became allied with Britain. However, after Napoleons victory over Prussia in 1807, Godoy again steered Spain back onto the French side and this switching of alliances devalued Charles position as a trustworthy ally, increasing Godoys unpopularity, and strengthening the fernandistas, who favoured an alliance with the United Kingdom. Economic troubles, rumours about a relationship between the Queen and Godoy, and the Kings ineptitude, caused the monarchy to decline in prestige among the population.
Anxious to take over from his father, and jealous of the prime minister, and a popular revolt at the winter palace Aranjuez, in 1808 forced the king to abdicate on 19 March, in favor of his son. Ferdinand took the throne as Ferdinand VII, but was mistrusted by Napoleon, the ousted King, having appealed to Napoleon for help in regaining his throne, was summoned before Napoleon in Bayonne, along with his son, in April 1808. Napoleon forced both Charles and his son to abdicate, declared the Bourbon dynasty of Spain deposed, and installed his brother, Joseph Bonaparte, as King Joseph I of Spain. Following Napoleons deposing of the Bourbon dynasty, the ex-King, his wife, after the collapse of the regime installed by Napoleon, Ferdinand VII was restored to the throne. The former Charles IV drifted about Europe until 1812, when he settled in Rome
Tarfaya is a town, previously known as Villa Bens during the Spanish period, located in the Tarfaya Province of the Laâyoune-Sakia El Hamra region of southwestern Morocco. It is a town on the Atlantic coast, close to Cape Juby, which shares its name with the southern region of Morocco. According to the 2004 census, Tarfaya has a population of 5,615, the smallest of the four municipalities of the region, in the 1920s, the French commercial air carrier Aéropostale constructed an airfield here. A small monument now stands at that site to honour the air carrier, its pilots in general and he served as station manager here during his career as an airmail pilot. Tarfaya was occupied by the British in 1882, when they built a trading post called Casa del Mar, the building is currently in a state of complete disrepair. The Sahrawi tribes solicited the intervention of Sultan Hassan I who negotiated the withdrawal of the British in 1885 by acquiring their trading office, in 1912 the territory of Tarfaya, named Cape Juby, was occupied by Spain as part of the Spanish Sahara.
The greater Cape Juby region plus Tarfaya were unified with Morocco in 1958, in December 2014 the Tarfaya Wind Farm, largest wind farm in Africa, was commissioned. Tarfayas association with Aéropostale began in 1927, the airmail carrier, based in Toulouse, was founded by French industrialist Pierre-Georges Latécoère, who envisioned an air route connecting France to its French colonies in Africa. Latécoère firmly believed in the future of aviation as a means of transportation and communication between people. The nearby Cape Juby airfield was an important refueling and stopover station for Aéropostale, author-aviator Antoine de Saint-Exupéry was named its station manager in 1927. There he remained for 18 months, on occasion negotiating with the rebellious Moorish tribes to release his imprisoned pilots, as he wrote in his first novel, Southern Mail. On 28 September 2004 a museum opened in honour of the memory of Aéropostale, Saint-Exupéry and its pilots, supported notably by the city of Toulouse, the museum was inaugurated by renowned aviation journalist Bernard Chabbert, whose father was part of Aéropostales history.
The town maintains an airport with the IATA code TFY, from December 2007, to April 2008, when the Assalama, a ship from Naviera Armas run aground, a Ferry connecting Tarfaya and Fuerteventura, Canary Islands, run. Plans are reported existing to have the back to operations. Tarfaya has a desert climate. Citations Bibliography Didier Daurat, Saint-Exupéry tel que je lai connu, France, Édition Dynamo,1954
The Qattara Depression is a depression in the north west of Egypt in the Matruh Governorate and is part of the Western Desert. It lies below sea level and is covered with salt pans, sand dunes, the region extends between latitudes of 28°35 and 30°25 north and longitudes of 26°20 and 29°02 east. The region was created by the interplay of salt weathering and wind erosion, some 20 kilometres west of the depression lie the oases of Siwa and Jaghbub in smaller but similar depressions. The Qattara Depression contains the second lowest point in Africa at an altitude of 133 metres below sea level, the depression covers about 19,605 square kilometres, a size comparable to Lake Ontario or twice as large as Lebanon. Due to its size and proximity to the Mediterranean Sea shore, the depression has the shape of a teardrop, with its point facing east and the broad deep area facing the south west. The northern side of the depression is characterised by steep escarpments up to 280 meters high, to the south the depression slopes gently up to the Great Sand Sea.
Within the Depression are salt marshes, under the northwestern and northern escarpment edges, the marshes occupy approximately 300 square kilometres, although wind-blown sands are encroaching in some areas. About a quarter of the region is occupied by dry lakes composed of hard crust and sticky mud, the salts break up the depression floor, the wind blows away the resulting sands. This process is effective in the eastern part of the depression. Groves of Acacia raddiana, growing in sandy depressions. The acacia groves vary widely in biodiversity and rely on runoff from rainfall, the Moghra Oasis in the northeast of the Depression has a 4 km2 brackish lake and a Phragmites swamp. The south western corner of the depression is part of the Siwa Protected Area which protects the wild oasis in, gazelles inhabit the Qattara Depression, being an important food source for the cheetah. The largest gazelle population exists in the part of the Qattara Depression within a vast area of wetlands. Other common fauna include the Cape hare, Egyptian jackal, sand fox, barbary sheep were once common throughout but now are few in numbers.
Extinct species from the area include the scimitar oryx, the Droseridites baculatus, an extinct plant known only from fossils of its pollen, was found at the Ghazalat-1 Well. The climate of the Qattara Depression is highly arid with annual precipitation between 25 and 50 mm on the rim to less than 25 mm in the south of the depression. The average daily temperature averages between 36.2 to 6.2 °C during summer and winter months, the prevailing wind comes from the north varying between north easterly and westerly directions. Wind speeds peak in March with of 11.5 m/s, the average wind speed is about 5–6 m/s
Morocco, officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a sovereign country located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. Geographically, Morocco is characterized by a mountainous interior, large tracts of desert. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of 446,550 km2 and its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tetouan, Salé, Agadir, Oujda, Kenitra, a historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, the Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1666. In 1912 Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with a zone in Tangier. Moroccan culture is a blend of Arab, indigenous Berber, Sub-Saharan African, Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara as its Southern Provinces. Morocco annexed the territory in 1975, leading to a war with indigenous forces until a cease-fire in 1991.
Peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock, Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy, the king can issue decrees called dahirs which have the force of law. He can dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister, Moroccos predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Tamazight. The Moroccan dialect, referred to as Darija, and French are widely spoken, Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean, and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa, the full Arabic name al-Mamlakah al-Maghribiyyah translates to Kingdom of the West, although the West in Arabic is الغرب Al-Gharb. The basis of Moroccos English name is Marrakesh, its capital under the Almoravid dynasty, the origin of the name Marrakesh is disputed, but is most likely from the Berber words amur akush or Land of God.
The modern Berber name for Marrakesh is Mṛṛakc, in Turkish, Morocco is known as Fas, a name derived from its ancient capital of Fes. The English name Morocco is an anglicisation of the Spanish Marruecos, the area of present-day Morocco has been inhabited since Paleolithic times, sometime between 190,000 and 90,000 BC. During the Upper Paleolithic, the Maghreb was more fertile than it is today, twenty-two thousand years ago, the Aterian was succeeded by the Iberomaurusian culture, which shared similarities with Iberian cultures. Skeletal similarities have been suggested between the Iberomaurusian Mechta-Afalou burials and European Cro-Magnon remains, the Iberomaurusian was succeeded by the Beaker culture in Morocco
Postage stamps and postal history of Cape Juby
Cape Juby is a cape on the coast of southern Morocco, near its border with Western Sahara, directly east of the Canary Islands. In 1879, the British North West Africa Company established a trading post named Port Victoria, in 1912, Spain negotiated with France for concessions on the southern edge of Morocco, and on July 29,1916, Francisco Bens officially occupied Cape Juby. The location was used as a staging post for airmail flights, when Morocco became independent in 1956, it asked for the cession of Moroccan areas controlled by Spain. After some resistance and some fighting in 1957 during the Ifni War, the region is now known as the Tarfaya Strip. Spain issued a number of overprinted postage stamps for Cape Juby. The first set, in 1916, were surcharges reading CABO JUBI on stamps of Río de Oro, thereafter overprints read Cabo Juby in various forms, on stamps of Spain from 1919 to 1929, on stamps of Spanish Morocco. Overprinted sets of Spanish Moroccan stamps were issued in 1934 through 1940,1942,1944,1946 and 1948.
Most of the issues were printed in larger quantities than the residents of Cape Juby could ever possibly use, were sold to collectors, the 1916 issue and the highest values of issues command prices in the US$50 range. A1938 cover from Cape Juby to the United States, the first stamps of Cape Juby
The city of Sidi Ifni was incorporated into the Spanish colonial empire in 1860. In 1946, the various coastal and inland colonies were consolidated as Spanish West Africa. Sultan Mohammed V encouraged efforts to re-capture the land and personally funded anti-Spanish conspirators, Moroccan insurgents, violent demonstrations against Spanish rule erupted in Ifni on April 10,1957, followed by civil strife and widespread killings of those loyal to Spain. In response, Generalissimo Franco dispatched two battalions of the Spanish Legion, Spains elite fighting force, to El Aaiún in June, Spanish military mobilization resulted in the Moroccan army converging near Ifni. On October 23,1957, two villages on the outskirts of Sidi Ifni and Bou Izarguen, were occupied by 1,500 Moroccan soldiers, the encirclement of Ifni was the beginning of the Ifni War. Two more Legionary battalions reached the Spanish Sahara before the opening of hostilities, on 21 November, Spanish intelligence in Ifni reported that attacks were imminent by Moroccans operating out of Tafraout.
Two days later, Spanish lines of communication were cut, although the Moroccan drive into Sidi Ifni was easily repulsed, two nearby Spanish outposts were abandoned in the face of enemy attacks and many others remained under heavy siege. At Tiluin,60 Tiradores de Ifni, struggled to hold off a force of several hundred Moroccans, on November 25, a relief attempt was authorized. Five CASA2.111 bombers, bombed enemy positions, while a number of CASA352 transports dropped a force of 75 paratroopers into the outpost. On 3 December, soldiers of the Spanish Legions 6th battalion arrived, breaking the siege, all military and civilian personnel were evacuated overland to Sidi Ifni. The relief of Telata was less successful, leaving Sidi Ifni on 24 November aboard several old trucks, a platoon of the Spanish Legion paratroop battalion under Captain Ortiz de Zárate made slow progress through difficult terrain. This problem was compounded by frequent Moroccan ambushes, which by the day had left several men wounded and forced the Spaniards off the road.
On 26 November, food ran out, the Spanish, low on ammunition, resumed their advance, only to dig in again in the face of repeated enemy attacks. Rations were dropped by air, but Spanish casualties continued to mount, one of the dead was Captain Ortiz de Zárate. On 2 December, a column of infantry, among them the erstwhile defenders of Telata, broke through the Moroccan lines, the survivors of the paratroop detachment reached Sidi Ifni once more on 5 December. The company had suffered two dead and fourteen wounded, initial Moroccan attacks had been generally successful. In the space of two weeks, the Moroccans and their allies had asserted control over most of Ifni. Simultaneous attacks had been launched throughout Spanish Sahara, overrunning garrisons and ambushing convoys, Moroccan units and greatly reinforced, tried to surround and besiege Sidi Ifni, hoping to incite a popular uprising
Mohammed ben Abdallah
Mohammed Ben Abdellah al-Khatib was Sultan of Morocco from 1757 to 1790 under the Alaouite dynasty. He was the governor of Marrakech around 1750 and he was sultan briefly during 1748. He was the son of Sultan Abdallah IV who reigned 1745–1757, a more open-minded ruler than many of his forebears, he signed numerous peace treaties with the European powers, and curtailed the power of the Barbary corsairs. He revived the city of Essaouira and invited Jews and English to trade there and he built the old medina of Casablanca and renovated the kasbah of Marrakesh. Mohammed III used numerous European technicians and architects for his projects, such as Théodore Cornut, Mohammed ben Abdallah took steps to remove the foreign presence on Moroccan coasts. He repulsed the French in the 1765 Larache expedition and he conquered Mazagan from the Portuguese in 1769. However, the Siege of Melilla against the Spanish ended in defeat in 1775 when British aid failed to materialize, in 1777, under the rule of Mohammed ben Abdallah, the Sultanate of Morocco became the first nation to recognize the United States as an independent nation.
Mohammed al-Duayf List of Kings of Morocco History of Morocco Moroccan–American Treaty of Friendship Morocco Alaoui dynasty History of Morocco
Headlands and bays
Headlands and bays are two related coastal features. Headlands and bays are found on the same coastline. A bay is a body of water, either seawater or fresh water, headlands are characterized by high, breaking waves, rocky shores, intense erosion, and steep sea cliffs. Bays generally have less activity, and often less wind activity than the areas of water outside the bay. Headlands and bays form on discordant coastlines, where the land consists of bands of rock of alternating resistance run perpendicular to the coast. Refraction of waves occurs on headlands concentrating wave energy on them, so many other landforms, such as caves, natural arches, and stacks, form on headlands. Wave energy is directed at angles to the wave crest. Orthogonals converge on headlands and diverge in bays, which concentrates wave energy on the headlands, in the formation of sea cliffs, wave erosion undercuts the slopes at the shoreline, which retreat landward. This increases the stress in the cliff-forming material and accelerates mass movement.
The debris from these landslides collects at the base of the cliff and is removed by the waves, usually during storms. This debris provides sediment, which is transported through longshore current for the nearby bay, joints in the headlands are eroded back to form caves, which erode further to form arches. These gaps eventually collapse and leave tall stacks at the ends of the headlands, eventually these too are eroded by the waves. Wave refraction disperses wave energy through the bay, and along with the effect of the headlands this protects bays from storms. This effect means that the waves reaching the shore in a bay are weaker than the waves reaching the headland, through the deposition of sediment within the bay and the erosion of the headlands, coastlines eventually straighten out. But the process starts all over again. Beaches are dynamic geologic features that can fluctuate between advancement and retreat of sediment, the natural agents of fluctuation include waves, tides and winds. Man-made elements such as the interruption of sediment supply, such as a dam, a headland bay beach can be classified as being in three different states of sedimentation.
Static equilibrium refers to a beach that is stable and does not experience littoral drift or sediment deposition or erosion, waves generally diffract around the headland and near the beach when the beach is in a state of static equilibrium