Alaska is a U. S. state in the northwest extremity of North America, just across the Bering Strait from Asia. The Canadian province of British Columbia and territory of Yukon border the state to the east and southeast, its most extreme western part is Attu Island, it has a maritime border with Russia to the west across the Bering Strait. To the north are the Chukchi and Beaufort seas—southern parts of the Arctic Ocean; the Pacific Ocean lies to southwest. It is the largest U. S. state by the seventh largest subnational division in the world. In addition, it is the most sparsely populated of the 50 United States. Half of Alaska's residents live within the Anchorage metropolitan area. Alaska's economy is dominated by the fishing, natural gas, oil industries, resources which it has in abundance. Military bases and tourism are a significant part of the economy; the United States purchased Alaska from the Russian Empire on March 30, 1867, for 7.2 million U. S. dollars at two cents per acre. The area went through several administrative changes before becoming organized as a territory on May 11, 1912.
It was admitted as the 49th state of the U. S. on January 3, 1959. The name "Alaska" was introduced in the Russian colonial period when it was used to refer to the Alaska Peninsula, it was derived from an Aleut-language idiom. It means object to which the action of the sea is directed. Alaska is the northernmost and westernmost state in the United States and has the most easterly longitude in the United States because the Aleutian Islands extend into the Eastern Hemisphere. Alaska is the only non-contiguous U. S. state on continental North America. It is technically part of the continental U. S. but is sometimes not included in colloquial use. S. called "the Lower 48". The capital city, Juneau, is situated on the mainland of the North American continent but is not connected by road to the rest of the North American highway system; the state is bordered by Yukon and British Columbia in Canada, to the east, the Gulf of Alaska and the Pacific Ocean to the south and southwest, the Bering Sea, Bering Strait, Chukchi Sea to the west and the Arctic Ocean to the north.
Alaska's territorial waters touch Russia's territorial waters in the Bering Strait, as the Russian Big Diomede Island and Alaskan Little Diomede Island are only 3 miles apart. Alaska has a longer coastline than all the other U. S. states combined. Alaska is the largest state in the United States by total area at 663,268 square miles, over twice the size of Texas, the next largest state. Alaska is larger than all but 18 sovereign countries. Counting territorial waters, Alaska is larger than the combined area of the next three largest states: Texas and Montana, it is larger than the combined area of the 22 smallest U. S. states. There are no defined borders demarcating the various regions of Alaska, but there are six accepted regions: The most populous region of Alaska, containing Anchorage, the Matanuska-Susitna Valley and the Kenai Peninsula. Rural unpopulated areas south of the Alaska Range and west of the Wrangell Mountains fall within the definition of South Central, as do the Prince William Sound area and the communities of Cordova and Valdez.
Referred to as the Panhandle or Inside Passage, this is the region of Alaska closest to the rest of the United States. As such, this was where most of the initial non-indigenous settlement occurred in the years following the Alaska Purchase; the region is dominated by the Alexander Archipelago as well as the Tongass National Forest, the largest national forest in the United States. It contains the state capital Juneau, the former capital Sitka, Ketchikan, at one time Alaska's largest city; the Alaska Marine Highway provides a vital surface transportation link throughout the area, as only three communities enjoy direct connections to the contiguous North American road system. Designated in 1963; the Interior is the largest region of Alaska. Fairbanks is the only large city in the region. Denali National Park and Preserve is located here. Denali is the highest mountain in North America. Southwest Alaska is a sparsely inhabited region stretching some 500 miles inland from the Bering Sea. Most of the population lives along the coast.
Kodiak Island is located in Southwest. The massive Yukon–Kuskokwim Delta, one of the largest river deltas in the world, is here. Portions of the Alaska Peninsula are considered part of Southwest, with the remaining portions included with the Aleutian Islands; the North Slope is tundra peppered with small villages. The area is known for its massive reserves of crude oil, contains both the National Petroleum Reserve–Alaska and the Prudhoe Bay Oil Field; the city of Utqiagvik known as Barrow, is the northernmost city in the United States and is located here. The Northwest Arctic area, anchored by Kotzebue and containing the Kobuk River valley, is regarded as being part of this region. However, the respective Inupiat of the No
Adam Johann von Krusenstern
Adam Johann von Krusenstern was a Baltic German admiral and explorer, who led the first Russian circumnavigation of the globe. Krusenstern was born in Hagudi, Governorate of Estonia, Russian Empire into a Baltic German family descended from the Swedish aristocratic family von Krusenstjerna, who remained in the province after the country was ceded to Russia. In 1787, he joined the Russian Imperial Navy, served in the war against Sweden. Subsequently, he served in the Royal Navy between 1793 and 1799, visiting America and China. After publishing a paper pointing out the advantages of direct communication by sea between Russia and China by passing Cape Horn at the southern tip of South America and the Cape of Good Hope at the tip of South Africa, he was appointed by Tsar Alexander I to make a voyage to the Far East coast of Asia to endeavour to carry out the project. Under the patronage of Alexander, Count Nikolay Petrovich Rumyantsev and the Russian-American Company, Krusenstern led the first Russian circumnavigation of the world.
The chief object of this undertaking was the development of the fur trade with Russian America. Other goals of the two-ship expedition were to establish trade with China and Japan, facilitate trade in South America, examine the coast of California in western North America for a possible colony; the two ships, Nadezhda under the command of Krusenstern, Neva under the command of Captain-Lieutenant Yuri F. Lisianski, set sail from Kronstadt in August 1803, rounded Cape Horn of South America, reached the northern Pacific Ocean, returned via the Cape of Good Hope at South Africa. Krusenstern arrived back at Kronstadt in August 1806. Both seafarers made detailed recordings of their voyages. Upon his return, Krusenstern wrote a detailed report, "Reise um die Welt in den Jahren 1803, 1804, 1805 und 1806 auf Befehl Seiner Kaiserlichen Majestät Alexanders des Ersten auf den Schiffen Nadeschda und Newa" published in Saint Petersburg in 1810, it was published in 1811–1812 in Berlin. His scientific work, which includes an atlas of the Pacific, was published in 1827 in Saint Petersburg.
The geographical discoveries of Krusenstern made his voyage important for the progress of geographical science. His work won him an honorary membership in the Russian Academy of Sciences. In 1816, he was elected a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences; as director of the Russian naval school Krusenstern did much useful work. He was a member of the scientific committee of the marine department, his contrivance for counteracting the influence of the iron in vessels on the compass was adopted in the navy. Krusenstern became an admiral in 1841 and he was awarded the Pour le Mérite in 1842, he died in 1846 in Kiltsi manor, an Estonian manor he had purchased in 1816, was buried in the Tallinn Cathedral. The Russian training tall ship Kruzenshtern is named after him. To commemorate the 200th anniversary of Krusenstern's circumnavigation, the ship retraced his route around the globe in 2005–2006. Another ship named. An Aeroflot Airbus 320 VP-BKC is named after him; the crater Krusenstern on the Moon is named after him.
There is Krusenstern Island in the Bering Strait, as well as a small group of islands in the Kara Sea, southwest of the Nordenskiöld Archipelago, called Krusenstern Islands. Cape Krusenstern in Northwest Alaska is the site of Cape Krusenstern National Monument, one of the most important archaeological sites in the state. In Russia, a fictional steamship Admiral Ivan Fyodorovich Kruzenshtern from the popular Prostokvashino animated film series is well-known as part of a catchphrase "Admiral I. F. Kruzenshtern, a man and a steamship", "pirated" from the title of a requiem poem by Vladimir Mayakovsky, To Comrade Nette, a Man and a Steamship; as a third-level linguistic derivation, there is a Russophone Israel klezmer-rock band, Kruzenshtern & Parohod. Another legacy is that the Cook Islands in the South Pacific bear that name thanks to von Krusenstern. Known as the Hervey Islands, he changed their name in 1835 to honour Captain Cook. More he changed the name of those which comprised the Southern Group and it was subsequently applied to all 15 islands when the New Zealand Parliament passed "The Cook Islands and other Islands Government Act" in 1901.
He recorded the new name in his "Atlas de l'Océan Pacifique" published at St. Petersburg between 1824 and 1835. Otto von Kotzebue Empire of Japan–Russian Empire relations European and American voyages of scientific exploration List of Baltic German explorers Family Krusenstern, in a straight line from Adam Johan von Krusenstern live in Poland Ilya Vinkovetsky, Empire, Race: The Impact of Round-the-World Voyages on Russia's Imperial Consciousness "Meeting of Frontiers" Conference, 2001 Kiltsi manor at Estonian Manors Portal Hagudi manor at Estonian Manors Portal Biographic entry from Nordisk familjebok Baltic nobility genealogy handbook Adam Johann von Krusenstern's family
Northwest Arctic Borough, Alaska
Northwest Arctic Borough is a borough located in the U. S. state of Alaska. As of the 2010 census, the population was 7,523; the borough seat is Kotzebue. The borough was formed on June 2, 1986. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the borough has a total area of 40,749 square miles, of which 35,573 square miles is land and 5,176 square miles is water. By land area, it is larger in total area than the state of Indiana, its coastline is limited by the Chukchi Sea. The Kotzebue Sound, a significant wildlife area, is a prominent water body within the Northwest Arctic Borough; the largest polar bear sighted in history, a male weighing 2209 pounds, was sighted at Kotzebue sound. North Slope Borough, Alaska - north Yukon-Koyukuk Census Area, Alaska - east Nome Census Area, Alaska - south Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge Chamisso Wilderness Bering Land Bridge National Preserve Cape Krusenstern National Monument Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve Gates of the Arctic Wilderness Kobuk Valley National Park Kobuk Valley Wilderness Koyukuk National Wildlife Refuge Noatak National Preserve Noatak Wilderness Selawik National Wildlife Refuge Selawik Wilderness At the 2000 census, there were 7,208 people, 1,780 households and 1,404 families residing in the borough.
The population density was 0.18 per square mile. There were 2,540 housing units at an average density of 0 per square mile; the racial makeup of the borough was 12.32% White, 0.21% Black or African American, 82.46% Native American, 0.89% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 0.36% from other races, 3.70% from two or more races. 0.79% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 40.00 % "Eskimo" at home. There were 1,780 households of which 55.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.90% were married couples living together, 19.70% had a female householder with no husband present, 21.10% were non-families. 16.60% of all households were made up of individuals and 2.10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.87 and the average family size was 4.36. Age distribution was 41.50% under the age of 18, 10.00% from 18 to 24, 28.10% from 25 to 44, 15.50% from 45 to 64, 5.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 24 years. For every 100 females, there were 114.50 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 120.70 males. Noatak Red Dog Mine List of airports in the Northwest Arctic Borough Official website Borough map: Alaska Department of Labor Summaries of Division of Subsistence research projects in northwest Alaska / Division of Subsistence, Alaska Department of Fish and Game. Hosted by the Alaska State Publications Program. Subsistence wildlife harvests in five northwest Alaska communities, 2001-2003: results of a household survey / by Kawerak, Inc. Maniilaq Association, the Alaska Department of Fish and Game. Hosted by Alaska State Publications Program
Kivalina is a city and village in Northwest Arctic Borough, United States. The population was 377 at the 2000 census and 374 as of the 2010 census; the island on which the village lies is threatened by coastal erosion. As of 2013, it is predicted that the island will be inundated by 2025. Kivalina is an Inupiat community first reported as "Kivualinagmut" in 1847 by Lt. Lavrenty Zagoskin of the Imperial Russian Navy, it has long been a stopping place for travelers between Arctic coastal areas and Kotzebue Sound communities. Three bodies and artifacts were found in 2009 representing the Ipiutak culture, a pre-Thule, non-whaling civilization that disappeared over a millennium ago, it is the only village in the region. The original village was relocated. In about 1900, reindeer were brought to the area and some people were trained as reindeer herders. An airstrip was built at Kivalina in 1960. Kivalina incorporated as a second-class city in 1969. During the 1970s, a new school and an electric system were constructed in the city.
On December 5, 2014 the only general store in Kivalina burned down. In July 2015, a newer store was opened after months of rebuilding to make the store more convenient and safe. Kivalina is on the southern tip of a 12 km long barrier island located between the Chukchi Sea and a lagoon at the mouth of the Kivalina River, it lies 130 km northwest of Kotzebue. According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 3.9 square miles, of which, 1.9 square miles of it is land and 2.0 square miles of it is water. Kivalina first appeared on the 1920 U. S. Census as an unincorporated village, it formally incorporated in 1969. As of the census of 2000, there were 377 people, 78 households, 64 families residing in the village; the population density was 202.1 people per square mile. There were 80 housing units at an average density of 42.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 96.55 % Native American. There were 78 households out of which 61.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.8% were married couples living together, 15.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 17.9% were non-families.
16.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 3.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 4.83 and the average family size was 5.50. In the village the population was spread out with 44.0% under the age of 18, 13.3% from 18 to 24, 20.7% from 25 to 44, 15.9% from 45 to 64, 6.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 21 years. For every 100 females, there were 106.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 113.1 males. The median income for a household in the village was $30,833, the median income for a family was $30,179. Males had a median income of $31,875 versus $21,875 for females; the per capita income for the village was $8,360. About 25.4% of families and 26.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 27.9% of those under age 18 and 30.0% of those age 65 or over. Due to severe sea wave erosion during storms, the city hopes to relocate again to a new site 12 km from the present site. According to the U.
S. Army Corps of Engineers, the estimated cost of relocation runs between $95 and $125 million, whereas the Government Accountability Office estimates it to be between $100 and $400 million. In 2011, Haymarket Books published _Kivalina: A Climate Change Story_ by Christine Shearer; the city of Kivalina and a federally recognized tribe, the Alaska Native Village of Kivalina, sued Exxon Mobil Corporation, eight other oil companies, 14 power companies and one coal company in a lawsuit filed in federal court in San Francisco on February 26, 2008, claiming that the large amounts of greenhouse gases they emit contribute to global warming that threatens the community's existence. The lawsuit estimates the cost of relocation at $400 million; the suit was dismissed by the United States district court on September 30, 2009, on the grounds that regulating greenhouse emissions was a political rather than a legal issue and one that needed to be resolved by Congress and the Administration rather than by courts.
Kivalina has sued Canadian mining company Teck Cominco for polluting its water source. On August 4, 2011, it was reported that residents of the city of Kivalina had seen a strange orange goo wash up on the shores. According to the Associated Press, "Tests have been conducted on the substance on the surface of the water in Kivalina. City Administrator Janet Mitchell told the Associated Press that the substance has shown up in some residents' rain buckets." On August 8, 2011, Associated Press reported that the substance consisted of millions of microscopic eggs. Officials of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration confirmed that the orange colored materials were some kind of crustacean eggs or embryos, but subsequent examination resulted in a declaration that the substance consisted of spores from a undescribed species of rust fungus revealed to be Chrysomyxa ledicola. Kivalina's environmental issues were prominently featured in The 2015 Weather Channel documentary "Alaska: State of Emergency" hosted by Dave Malkoff.
Kivalina was one of the two towns featured in the Al Jazeera English Fault Lines documentary, When the Water Took the Land. The community, who were nomadic, were given an ultimatum that they would have to settle in the permanent community or their children would be taken from them; the village's plight was exami
Cape Krusenstern National Monument
Cape Krusenstern National Monument and the colocated Cape Krusenstern Archeological District is a U. S. National Monument and a National Historic Landmark centered on Cape Krusenstern in northwestern Alaska; the national monument is one of fifteen new National Park Service units designated by the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act of 1980. It was declared a national monument under the authority of the Antiquities Act by President Jimmy Carter on December 1, 1978. Cape Krusenstern is a coastal plain, containing large lagoons and rolling hills of limestone; the bluffs record thousands of years of change in the shorelines of the Chukchi Sea, as well as evidence of some 9,000 years of human habitation. The park's central features, 114 beach ridges at the eponymous cape, alternate between sandy and gravelly ridges and narrow ponds. Located above the Arctic Circle in a region of permafrost, the monument's lands include typical thermokarst features. Cape Krusenstern National Monument comprises the coast of the Chukchi Sea from the opening of the Hotham Inlet at the mouth of the Kobuk River, extending northwards along the coast to a point just short of Imikruk Lagoon.
It extends inland toward the Kobuk Valley about 20 miles, with a high point in the north at Kikmiksot Mountain in the Mulgrave Hills and in the south at Mount Noak in the Igichuk Hills. The coastline is marked by a series of lagoons separated from the sea by sandspits; the largest is the Krusenstern Lagoon at Cape Krusenstern. Others include Imik Lagoon and Aukulak Lagoon; the local bedrock is composed of limestone, dolomite and chert from the Precambrian through Devonian times. The land was glaciated during the Illinoian glaciation, but was free of permanent ice during the Wisconsonian glaciation. Longshore currents have deposited beach ridges since for 6,000 years; the archeological district comprises 114 ancient beach ridges which formed 60 years apart. They provide a sequential look at over 5000 years of habitation; the area in the National Historic Landmark is vast, making this one of the largest NHLs in the U. S. along with the Adirondack Park. The national historic landmark was designated on November 7, 1973.
The beach ridges are the primary reason for the area's preservation, which serves to safeguard evidence of 5,000 years of occupation by the Inupiat people, more than 9,000 years of human occupation. Initial investigations by archaeologist J. Louis Giddings in the late 1940s found campsites on the cape as much as 4,000 years old, older sites on the mainland. University of Washington researchers have undertaken several years of excavations to document about one third of the 9,000-acre beach complex. Researchers found campsites and animal bones, with a few stone tools and pieces of pottery. In newer locations the team documented the remains of semi-subterranean houses built into the beach ridges; the oldest mainland sites such as Battle Rock, Rabbit Mountain and the Lower Bench date to the Paleo-Arctic Tradition, about 10,000 to 7,000 years before present. Similar materials have been recovered in the Trail Creek caves of Bering Land Bridge National Preserve on the Seward Peninsula; the Palisades site has yielded materials from the Northern Archaic period dating to about 6,000 years before the present.
Periods described in the region include the Arctic Small Tool tradition and the Northern Maritime tradition. The western Thule culture, which used dogs and seal oil extended from 950 AD to 1400, was succeeded by the Kotzebue culture from about 1400 to about 1850, when Europeans began to affect native cultures. Kotzebue sites are widespread within the monument. Europeans visited the Cape Krusenstern region to pursue whales beginning in the 1850s. During the American Civil War the Confederate raider CSS Shenandoah captured whalers in the area. In early modern times the Kotzebue area was the site of an Iqatngut," a kind of trade fair for the region's native people; the Iqatngut tradition died out with the foundation of Nome as the region's principal town in the early 20th century. A short-lived gold rush brought prospectors to Kotzebue in the 1890s. A few 20th century structures exist in the monument, including an Alaska Road Commission cabin at Anigaaq, evaluated for historic significance. In the 1950s the area's lack of good natural harbors, a desire to develop the Alaskan frontier facing the Soviet Union and the Operation Plowshare drive for the peaceful use of nuclear weapons brought proposals for Operation Chariot, a proposed deepwater harbor at Cape Thompson 50 miles northwest of the monument, to be excavated using nuclear devices.
The project, though popular elsewhere in Alaska, was discarded. The lands within the monument, which lies above the Arctic Circle, are all tundra in which the permafrost dominates soils and vegetation; the monument is in a permafrost region. In the lowland areas the land is shaped by thermokarst forces. Typical thermokarst features seen in the monument include polygon ice wedges and thaw ponds. Low vegetation covers the land in tussocks of cottongrass, with shrubby growth of willow, Labrador tea, dwarf birch, mountain alder and other species in moist tundra areas. Wetter aras in the southern part of the monument feature sedges. Upland regions are Arctic tundra, with lichen, saxifrage and heather. Few trees grow, the white spruce that do grow are confined to the southeastern corner of the monument; the coastal region supports a variety of large marine mammals. The abundant caribou are part of the West. Large predators include brown bears and wolf packs. Smaller mammals i
The Baltic Germans are ethnic German inhabitants of the eastern shores of the Baltic Sea, in what today are Estonia and Latvia. Since their expulsion from Estonia and Latvia and resettlement during the upheavals and aftermath of the Second World War, Baltic Germans have markedly declined as a geographically determined ethnic group; the largest groups of present-day descendants of the Baltic Germans are found in Canada. It is estimated that several thousand still reside in Estonia. For centuries Baltic Germans and the Baltic nobility constituted a ruling class over native non-German serfs; the emerging Baltic-German middle class was urban and professional. In the 12th and 13th centuries Catholic Germans, both traders and crusaders, began settling in the eastern Baltic territories. After the Livonian Crusade, they assumed control of government, economics and culture of these lands, ruling for more than 700 years until 1918 — in alliance with Polish, Swedish or Russian overlords. With the decline of Latin, German became the language of all official documents, commerce and government.
At first the majority of German settlers lived in military castles. Their elite formed the Baltic nobility, acquiring large rural estates and comprising the social, commercial and cultural elite of Latvia and Estonia for several centuries. After 1710 many of these men took high positions in the military and civilian life of the Russian Empire in Saint Petersburg. Baltic Germans held citizenship in the Russian Empire until the Revolution of 1918, they held Estonian or Latvian citizenship until the occupation and annexation of these areas by the Soviet Union in 1939–1940. The Baltic German population never surpassed more than 10% of the total population. In 1881 there were 180,000 Baltic Germans in Russia's Baltic provinces, but by 1914 this number had declined to 162,000. In 1881 there were 46,700 Germans in Estonia. According to the Russian Empire Census of 1897, there were 120,191 Germans in Latvia, or 6.2% of the population. Baltic German history and presence in the Baltics came to an end in late 1939, following the signing of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact and the subsequent Nazi–Soviet population transfers.
All the Baltic Germans were resettled by Nazi Germany under the Heim ins Reich program into the newly formed Reichsgaue of Wartheland and Danzig-West Prussia. In 1945, most ethnic Germans were expelled from these lands by the Soviet army. Resettlement was planned for the territory remaining to Germany under terms of the border changes promulgated at the Potsdam Conference, i.e. west of the Oder–Neisse line, or elsewhere in the world. Ethnic Germans from East Prussia and Lithuania are sometimes incorrectly considered Baltic Germans for reasons of cultural and historical affinities, but the Germans of East Prussia held Prussian, after 1871, German citizenship, because the territory they lived in was part of the Kingdom of Prussia. Baltic Germans were not a purely German ethnic group; the early crusaders and craftsmen married local women, as there were no German women available. Some noble families, such as the Lievens, claimed descent through such women from native chieftains. Many of the German Livonian Order soldiers died during the Livonian War.
New German arrivals came to the area. During this time the Low German of the original settlers was replaced by the High German of the new settlers. In the course of their 700-year history, Baltic German families had ethnic German roots, but had extensive intermarriage with Estonians and Latvians, as well as with other Northern or Central European people, such as Danes, Irish, Scots, Poles and Dutch. In cases where intermarriage occurred, members of the other ethnic groups assimilated into German culture, adopting language and German family names, they were considered Germans, leading to the ethnogenesis of the Baltic Germans. Barclay de Tolly and George Armitstead, who emigrated from the British Isles, married into and became part of the Baltic-German community. Baltic German settlements in the Baltic area consisted of the following territories: Estland the northern half of present-day Estonia. Livland the southern half of present-day Estonia and the northern and eastern part of today's Latvia.
Kurland the western half of present-day Latvia. Ösel belonging to present-day Estonia. Small numbers of Ethnic Germans began to settle in the area in the late 12th century when traders and Christian missionaries began to visit the coastal lands inhabited by tribes who spoke Finnic and Baltic languages. Systematic conquest and settlement of these lands was completed during the Northern Crusades of the 12th and 13th centuries which resulted in creation of the Terra Mariana confederation, under the protection of Roman Popes and Holy Roman Empire. After the heavy defeat in the 1236 Battle of Saule the Livonian Brothers of the Sword became a part of
Kotzebue Sound is an arm of the Chukchi Sea in the western region of the U. S. state of Alaska. It bounded the east by the Baldwin Peninsula, it is 100 miles long and 70 miles wide. Kotzebue Sound is located in the transitional climate zone, characterized by long, cold winters and cool summers; the average low temperature during January is −12 °F. Temperature extremes have been measured from −52 °F to 85 °F. Snowfall averages 40 inches, with total precipitation of 9 inches per year. Kotzebue Sound is ice-free from early July until early October; the towns of Kotzebue and Deering are on the shores of Kotzebue Sound. Kotzebue Sound was explored and named in 1816 by Baltic German Lieutenant Otto von Kotzebue while searching for the Northeast Passage in the service of Russia. A wide variety of birdlife is apparent at Kotzebue Sound including the tufted puffin, black-throated diver and red-throated loon; the sound is a location for the presence of the polar bear, Ursus maritimus. Giddings, J. Louis, Douglas D. Anderson.
Beach Ridge Archeology of Cape Krusenstern Eskimo and Pre-Eskimo Settlements Around Kotzebue Sound, Alaska. Washington DC: National Park Service, U. S. Dept. of the Interior, 1986. Lucier, Charles V. and James W. VanStone. Traditional Beluga Drives of the Iñupiat of Kotzebue Sound, Alaska. Fieldiana, new ser. no. 25. Chicago: Field Museum of Natural History, 1995. Joseph Grinnell. Birds of the Kotzebue sound region, Alaska. Cooper Ornithological Society