Cape Cod is a geographic cape extending into the Atlantic Ocean from the southeastern corner of mainland Massachusetts, in the northeastern United States. Its historic, maritime character and ample beaches attract heavy tourism during the summer months; as defined by the Cape Cod Commission's enabling legislation, Cape Cod is conterminous with Barnstable County, Massachusetts. It extends from Provincetown in the northeast to Woods Hole in the southwest, is bordered by Plymouth to the northwest. Since 1914, most of Cape Cod has been separated from the mainland by the Cape Cod Canal; the canal cuts 7 miles across the base of the peninsula, though small portions of the Cape Cod towns of Bourne and Sandwich lie on the mainland side of the canal. Two highway bridges cross the Cape Cod Canal: the Bourne Bridge. In addition, the Cape Cod Canal Railroad Bridge carries railway freight and limited passenger services onto the Cape. Cape territory is divided into 15 towns with many villages. Like Cape Cod itself, the islands south of the Cape have evolved from whaling and trading areas to become resort destinations, attracting wealthy families and other tourists.
These include the large nearby islands of Nantucket and Martha's Vineyard, which have grown in population by 6.8 percent and 10.3 percent between 2000 and 2010 while the year-round population of Barnstable County dropped 3 percent according to the Census. Both islands are famous summer tourist destinations accessed by ferry from several locations on the cape; the phrases Cape Cod and the Islands and the Cape and Islands are used to describe the whole region of Barnstable County, Dukes County, Nantucket County. Several small islands right off Cape Cod, including Monomoy Island, Monomoscoy Island, Popponesset Island, Seconsett Island, are in Barnstable County; the Forbes family-owned Naushon Island was first purchased by John Murray Forbes. Naushon is one of the Elizabeth Islands, many of which are owned. One of the publicly accessible Elizabeths is the southernmost island in the chain, with a year-round population of 52 people. Several prominent families have established compounds or estates on the larger islands, making these islands some of the wealthiest resorts in the Northeast, yet they retain much of the early merchant trading and whaling culture.
Cape Cod in particular is a popular retirement area. And the average age of residents is the highest of any area in New England. By voter registration numbers, Democrats outnumber Republicans by less in the three counties than in the whole of Massachusetts, to varying degrees; the bulk of the land in the area is glacial terminal moraine and represents the southernmost extent of glacial coverage in southeast New England. The name "Cape Cod", as it was first used in 1602, applied only to the tip of the peninsula, it remained that way for 125 years, until the "Precinct of Cape Cod" was incorporated as the Town of Provincetown. No longer in "official" use over the ensuing decades, the name came to mean all of the land east of the Manomet and Scusset rivers – along the line that became the Cape Cod Canal; the creation of the canal separated the majority of the peninsula from the mainland. Most agencies, including the Cape Cod Commission and the Federal Emergency Management Agency, treat the Cape as an island with regard to disaster preparedness, groundwater management, the like.
Cape Codders tend to refer to the land on the mainland side of the canal as "off-Cape", though the legal delineation of Cape Cod, coincident to the boundaries of Barnstable County, includes portions of the towns of Bourne and Sandwich that are located north of the canal. Cape Cod Bay lies in between Cape Cod and the mainland – bounded on the north by a horizontal line between Provincetown and Marshfield. North of Cape Cod Bay is Massachusetts Bay, which contains the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary, located 5 miles north of Provincetown; the Atlantic Ocean is to the east of Cape Cod, to the southwest of the Cape is Buzzards Bay. The Cape Cod Canal, completed in 1916, connects Buzzards Bay to Cape Cod Bay. Cape Cod extends 65 miles into the Atlantic Ocean, with a breadth of between 1–20 miles, covers more than 400 miles of shoreline, its elevation ranges from 306 feet at its highest point, at the top of Pine Hill, in the Bourne portion of Joint Base Cape Cod, down to sea level. One of the biggest barrier islands in the world, Cape Cod shields much of the Massachusetts coastline from North Atlantic storm waves.
This protection erodes the Cape's shoreline at the expense of its cliffs, while protecting towns from Fairhaven to Marshfield. Cape Cod and the Islands are part of a continuous archipelagic region consisting of a thin line of islands stretching west to include Long Island; this region is and collectively known by naturalists as the Outer Lands. Cape Cod incorporates all of Barnstable County, which comprises 15 towns: Bourne, Falmouth, Barnstable, Harwich, Brewster, Orleans, Wellfleet and Provincetown; each of these towns include a number of villages. Barnstable, the most populated municipality on Cape Cod, is the only one to have adopted a city form of government, whose legislative body is an elected 13-member council. However, like other smaller Massa
Mashpee is a town in Barnstable County, United States, on Cape Cod. The population was 14,006 as of 2010, it is the site of the headquarters and most members of the federally recognized Mashpee Wampanoag Tribe, one of two Wampanoag. For geographic and demographic information on specific parts of the town of Mashpee, please see the articles on Mashpee Neck, Monomoscoy Island, New Seabury, Popponesset Island and Seconsett Island. Cape Cod was occupied for more than ten thousand years by indigenous peoples; the historic Algonquian-speaking Wampanoag were the native people encountered by the English colonists here and in the area of the Massachusetts Bay Colony in the seventeenth century. The Wampanoag controlled considerable coastal area; these two cultures would interact. After English colonists arrived, they began to settle the area of present-day Mashpee in 1658 with the assistance of the missionary Richard Bourne, from the neighboring town of Sandwich. In 1660 the colonists allowed those Christian Wampanoag, converted about 50 square miles in the English settlement.
Beginning in 1665, the Wampanoag governed themselves with a court of law and trials according to English custom. Following their defeat in King Philip's War, the Wampanoag of the mainland were resettled with the Sakonnet in present-day Rhode Island. Others of the people were brought, together with the Nauset, into the praying towns, such as Mashpee, in Barnstable County. There were Wampanoag on Martha's Vineyard and other areas; the colonists designated Mashpee on Cape Cod as the largest Indian reservation in Massachusetts. The town's name is an Anglicization of a native name, mass-nippe: mass is "great", or "greater", nippe is "water"; the name has been translated as "the greater cove" or "great pond," or "land near great cove", where the water being referenced is Wakeby Pond, greater at one end. In the year 1763, the British Crown designated Mashpee as a plantation, against the will of the Wampanoag. Designation as a plantation meant that the area governed by the Mashpee Wampanoag was integrated into the colonial district of Mashpee.
The colony gave the natives the "right" to elect their own officials to maintain order in their area, but otherwise subjected them to colonial government. The population of the plantation declined due to the conditions placed upon the Wampanoag, they suffered from encroachment on their lands by the English. Following the American Revolutionary War, the town in 1788 revoked Mashpee self-government, which European-American officials considered a failure, they appointed a committee, to supervise the Mashpee. William Apess, a Pequot Methodist preacher, helped the Mashpee Wampanoag lead a peaceful protest of this action, the governor threatened a military response. In 1834, the state returned a certain level of self-government to the Wampanoag, although they were not autonomous. With the idea that emulating European-American farming would encourage assimilation, in 1842 the state broke up some of the Wampanoag communal land, it distributed 2,000 acres of their 13,000-acre property in allotments of 60-acre parcels to heads of households, so that each family could have individual ownership for subsistence farming.
The legislature passed laws against the encroachments on Wampanoag land by European Americans, but did not enforce them. The competing settlers stole wood from the reservation, it was a large region, once rich in wood and game, desired by white settlers, who envied the growing community of Mashpee. The Mashpee Indians suffered more conflicts with their white neighbors than did other more isolated or less desirable Indian settlements in the state. In 1870 the state approved the incorporation of Mashpee as a town, the second-to-last jurisdiction on the Cape to undergo the process; the Wampanoag lost control of their land and self-government. Many of their descendants have remained in the area and identified as Mashpee by their communal culture. In the early 1970s the Mashpee reorganized and filed a land claim against the state for the loss of lands. While they did not win their case, the Mashpee continued to develop as an organized community and gained federal recognition as a tribe in 2007. Today the town of Mashpee is known both for tourist recreation and for its distinctive minority Wampanoag culture.
The population is predominately European American in ancestry. As the town attracts numerous summer visitors, there are many seasonal businesses and service jobs to support this tourism; the Mashpee Wampanoag Tribe has its headquarters here, it is one of two federally recognized tribes of Wampanoag people in Massachusetts. In 2015 the Department of Interior took into trust 170 acres in Mashpee as a reservation for the Wampanoag, who controlled the land, they took into trust 150 acres in Taunton, which the Wampanoag tribe had acquired. That action was challenged in October 2016 by a United States District Court decision, reached after a suit was filed earlier that year by opponents to Mashpee Wampanoag plans to build a gaming casino on their Taunton land; the Wampanoag hold an annual pow-wow at which they display traditional crafts. According to the United States Census Bureau, Mashpee has a total area of 27.2 square miles, of which 23.4 square miles is land and 3.8 square miles, or 14.10%, is water.
Mashpee is on the "upper," or western, portion of Cape Cod. It is bounded by Sandwich to the north and northwest, Barnstable to the east, Nantucket
Jacob Sears Memorial Library
The Jacob Sears Library is the public library of Dennis, Massachusetts. It is located at 23 Center Street in East Dennis, in a building funded by a bequest from Jacob Sears, a longtime East Dennis resident; the Shingle style structure was built in 1895 to a design by the Boston firm of Taylor. The library building was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2009; the Jacob Sears Memorial Library is set on the south side of Center Street in the village of East Dennis, just north of Massachusetts Route 6A. It is a rectangular single-story wood frame structure, with a stone foundation; the ridge line of the roof is T shaped, with the section at the right end perpendicular to the street. This section extends to shelter the main entrance, flaring out form a portico supported by square posts and large brackets. Just to the right of the entrance is a turreted polygonal projection. Wall dormers line the front facade to the left of the entrance; the interior is divided into the primary library space at the western end, a large meeting space in the center, with backstage spaces at the far eastern end.
The first library services were provided in East Dennis by a private lending association founded in 1866. Jacob Sears, a lifelong resident of East Dennis, gave funding for the construction and endowment of this library building, completed in 1895 to a design by the Boston firm of Rand & Taylor; the meeting hall has been used for a wide variety of social functions. The building underwent a major restoration in 2005-06. National Register of Historic Places listings in Barnstable County, Massachusetts Jacob Sears Library website
A library consortium is a group of libraries who partner to coordinate activities, share resources, combine expertise. The International Coalition of Library Consortia is an informal discussion group of such consortia. Library consortia offer significant advantages to strapped libraries; the sharing of resources, collaboration on shared goals enable libraries to deliver higher quality services than they would be able to deliver on their own. Interlibrary loan is a system that allows for libraries to borrow and share materials across a wide variety of topics as well as vast geographic locations, it is the most common use of cooperation between libraries as well as within specific consortia. Consortia can grow into something that covers much larger ground than a simple inter-library loan agreement. Many consortia within the United States have ventured further and developed collaborative integrated library systems, or ILS. Examples of these integrated systems include OhioLINK. There are many benefits for libraries that wish to join consortia.
Though many have fees for entry, in the end the library finds itself saving a great deal on funding by sharing resources with other members of the consortia. A single library's collection will increase much faster than staying solitary. Additionally, the creation and utilization of inter-library cooperation has the ability to improve communication and relationships across vast fields and can encourage cross-discipline cooperation as well as collaborations. A library system is a central organization created to manage and coordinate operations and services in or between different centers, buildings or libraries branches and library patrons, they use a library classification to organize their volumes and nowadays use an Integrated library system - an enterprise resource planning system for a library used to track items owned, orders made, bills paid, patrons who have borrowed. Many counties and universities have developed their own library systems. For example, the London Public Library in Canada has 16 branches, the Helsinki Metropolitan Area Libraries, in Finland, has 63 libraries.
Some countries, such as Venezuela, have only one library system for the whole country. List of largest libraries List of library associations
Eldredge Public Library
Eldredge Public Library is the public library of Chatham, Massachusetts. It is located at 564 Main Street, in a National Register-listed Romanesque Revival building donated by Chatham native Marcellus Eldredge, it was designed by Boston architect A. M. Marble; the library is set at the southeast corner of Main Street and Library Lane in Chatham's central business district. It is a 1-1/2 story stone structure, with a slate roof and a granite foundation, its Romanesque Revival features include parapeted end walls, eyebrow dormers, brownstone trim, including beltcourses, window trim, corner quoining. A 1968 addition, extending the building to the rear, was rebuilt in the early 1990s to more sympathetically resemble the original building; the interior has floors of marble and oak, lavish oak woodwork. The Chatham library has its origins in a small library in South Chatham in 1875, a library and reading room in Chatham village in 1887. Marcellus Eldredge, a Chatham native who made a fortune as a brewer in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, offered the town a new library building, constructed in 1896 at a cost of $30,000.
The designer was the otherwise little-known Boston architect A. M. Marble. Eldredge established a $20,000 endowment to maintain the library; this building was enlarged in 1968 to a design by Alger and Gunn of Hyannis, again in 1991-92 by A. Anthony Tappe of Tappé Architects in Boston; the library was listed on the National Register of Historic Places for its architectural significance in 1992. It is the only major Romanesque Revival work in the town, one of few in Barnstable County. National Register of Historic Places listings in Barnstable County, Massachusetts Eldredge Public Library - official site
Orleans is a town in Barnstable County, Massachusetts situated along Cape Cod. The population was 5,890 at the 2010 census. For geographic and demographic information on the census-designated place Orleans, please see the article Orleans, Massachusetts. Orleans was first settled in 1693 by Pilgrims from the Plymouth Colony who were dissatisfied with the poor soil and small tracts of land granted to them; the southern parish of neighboring Eastham, Orleans was incorporated in 1797. Orleans was named in honor of Louis Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, in recognition of France's support for the 13 colonies during the American Revolution, because the town did not want an English name, as they had been captured twice by the British during the war. Early history, like much of the Cape, revolved around fishing and agriculture; as the fishing industry grew, salt works sprang up in the town to help preserve the catches. However, the town's growth helped deplete the town of lumber, a situation that did not begin to be remedied until the railroad came and brought lumber from the mainland in the mid-to-late 19th century.
The rail helped bring tourism to the town. In 1898, the French Cable Company built a 3,200-mile-long transatlantic cable to Orleans, which operated from the French Cable Station; the town's historical society is located in the 1834 Universalist Meeting House. In July 1918, Orleans was shelled by a German submarine. S during World War I; the town's tourism industry was helped in 1961 with the creation of the Cape Cod National Seashore by President John F. Kennedy. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 22.7 square miles, of which 14.1 square miles is land and 8.5 square miles, or 37.59%, is water. Orleans is bordered by Eastham to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the east, Pleasant Bay and the town of Chatham to the south, Harwich to the southwest, Brewster to the west, Cape Cod Bay to the northwest. Orleans is 27 miles south of Provincetown, 22 miles east of Barnstable, 36 miles east of the Sagamore Bridge, 90 miles southeast of Boston. Orleans is located on the inner "elbow" section of Cape Cod.
The town is dotted with bogs and ponds in the western part of town, with many inlets and harbors along the eastern coast of the town, including Town Cove, Nauset Harbor, Pleasant Bay, Little Pleasant Bay. Rock Harbor, bounded by and shared with the town of Eastham, is located in the "crease" of the inner elbow and provides boating access to Cape Cod Bay. Cape Cod National Seashore lies along the coast as well; the town line between Eastham and Orleans is the site of the termini of Massachusetts Routes 6A and 28. The two routes join in the Orleans town center and end at a rotary with Route 6 at the Eastham town line. Massachusetts Route 39, which traces a portion of the Brewster town line, ends in the southern part of Orleans at Route 28. Other than two small non-outleted lanes, only Route 6 and Bridge Road pass northward into Eastham. Orleans has no air service in town; the nearest regional air service can be reached in nearby Chatham, the nearest national and international airport is Logan International Airport in Boston.
As of the census of 2000, there were 6,341 people, 3,087 households, 1,771 families residing in the town. The population density was 447.3 people per square mile. There were 5,073 housing units at an average density of 357.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 97.57% White, 0.58% Black or African American, 0.17% Native American, 0.54% Asian, 0.14% from other races, 0.99% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.77% of the population. There were 3,087 households out of which 14.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.4% were married couples living together, 6.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 42.6% were non-families. 37.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 21.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.00 and the average family size was 2.55. In the town, the population was spread out with 13.8% under the age of 18, 3.5% from 18 to 24, 17.3% from 25 to 44, 29.4% from 45 to 64, 36.0% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 56 years. For every 100 females, there were 87.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 84.2 males. The median income for a household in the town was $42,594, the median income for a family was $62,909. Males had a median income of $44,246 versus $30,017 for females; the per capita income for the town was $29,553. About 2.7% of families and 6.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5.6% of those under age 18 and 5.6% of those age 65 or over. Orleans is represented in the Massachusetts House of Representatives as a part of the Fourth Barnstable district, which includes all the towns east and north of Harwich on the Cape; the town is represented in the Massachusetts Senate as a part of the Cape and Islands District, which includes all of Cape Cod, Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket except the towns of Bourne, Sandwich and a portion of Barnstable. The town is patrolled by the Second Barracks of Troop D of the Massachusetts State Police. On the national level, Orleans is a part of Massachusetts's 9th congressional district, is represented by William R. Keating.
The state's senior member of the United States Senate, elected in 2012, is Elizabeth Warren. The junior member, elected in 2013, is Ed Markey. Orleans is governed by the open town meeting form of government, is led by a town secretary and a board of se
Barnstable (village), Massachusetts
Barnstable is the name of one of the seven villages within the Town of Barnstable, Massachusetts. The Village of Barnstable is located on the north side of the town, centered along "Old King's Highway", houses the County Complex of Barnstable County, a small business district, a working harbor, several small beaches; the village is home to many small attractions, including Sturgis Library, the Olde Colonial Courthouse, the Barnstable Comedy Club, the Trayser Museum. The Sturgis Library was constructed in 1644 for founder of Barnstable; the building is one of the oldest houses remaining on Cape Cod. The house which forms the original part of the library is the oldest building housing a public library in the United States. Since Reverend Lothrop used the front room of the house for public worship, another distinction of the Sturgis Library is that it is the oldest structure still standing in America where religious services were held; this room is now called "The Lothrop Room" and contains a beamed ceiling and pumpkin-colored wide-board floors that exemplify the quintessential early character of authentic Cape Cod houses.
The Olde Colonial Courthouse is one of the oldest courthouses in the United States. Built of wood, court proceedings of the King's Court were interrupted in 1774 by James Otis, Samuel Adams and 1,500 other protestors opposed to the King's bill of attainder that denied the right of colonists to a jury trial; as a result, the King's judge decided to cease holding cases. It served as a state courthouse until 1838; this courthouse in now a museum and hosts the "Tales of Cape Cod", a local tourist attraction. The village is arguably the most historic village in Barnstable. G. Bacon, F. D. Cobb, several other homes dating from the mid-19th century; the area holds the renowned Cummaquid Golf Club, the Barnstable Comedy Club and the Trayser Museum. The Barnstable Comedy Club is the oldest and longest-running community theater in Massachusetts; the Trayser Museum is the former county custom house, which now houses a Coast Guard Heritage Museum. On the grounds of the museum is a jail, complete with inmates' graffiti.
The jail dates back to 1690. Barnstable Village is home to the Crocker Tavern, built around 1754 and is listed in the National Register of Historic Places; the Crocker Tavern served as a stagecoach stop, an inn, an important meeting place into the mid-19th century. Cornelius Crocker, one of the wealthiest men on the Cape, was the first keeper of the tavern. Under the stewardship of Crocker, the inn became the central meeting place for American patriots including James Otis prior to, during, the Revolutionary War. In his collection of short stories, Welcome to the Monkey House, author Kurt Vonnegut references Barnstable Village on more than one occasion. Vonnegut and his family lived in Barnstable, in a house overlooking Barnstable Harbor, from 1951 to 1971. Town of Barnstable