Broken Bay, a semi–mature tide-dominated drowned valley estuary, is a large inlet of the Tasman Sea located about 50 kilometres north of Sydney central business district on the coast of New South Wales, Australia. Broken Bay is the first major bay north of Sydney Harbour. Broken Bay has its origin at the confluence of the Hawkesbury River and Brisbane Water and flows into the Tasman Sea; the total catchment area of the bay is 17.1 square kilometres. The entrance to Broken Bay lies between the northern Box Barrenjoey Head to the south. Barrenjoey Lighthouse was constructed in 1881 to guide ships away from the prominent headland; the bay comprises three arms, being the prominent estuary of the Hawkesbury River in the west, Pittwater to the south, Brisbane Water to the north. These three arms are flooded rivers formed at a time when the sea level was much lower than it is at the present day; the Hawkesbury River flows from the confluence of the Grose and Nepean Rivers at the base of the Blue Mountains.
Pittwater is the northernmost extent of the greater Sydney area. Pittwater's calm waters make it a popular sailing area. West Head, west of Barrenjoey Head, marks the divide between the Hawkesbury. Brisbane Water is the northern arm of Broken Bay and has the towns of Gosford and Woy Woy on its shores. Lion Island, named for its profile's resemblance to a Sphinx from some viewpoints, is located at the entrance of Broken Bay. Lion Island Nature Reserve covers the entire island, is home to a colony of fairy penguins. James Cook recorded "broken land" seen north of Port Jackson just before sunset on 7 May 1770, named it Broken Bay. However, there has been some controversy over whether what is now known as'Broken Bay' was what was sighted by Cook. Matthew Flinders, The colonists have called this place Broken Bay, but it is not what was so named by Captain Cook. Ray Parkin in his book H. M. Bark Endeavour claims that the modern'Broken Bay' was passed unremarked at night, that Cook was in fact referring to the area around Narrabeen Lagoon.
Matthew Flinders placed Cook's'Broken Bay' at 33° 42' South, near to the mouth of Narrabeen Lagoon. Whatever the case, Governor Phillip was the first to examine the present day Broken Bay in a longboat from the Sirius on 2 March 1788. On 28 November 2005, documentary film-maker Damien Lay claimed that the wreckage of M-24, a Japanese midget submarine involved in the attack on Sydney Harbour in 1942 and disappeared soon afterward, was buried under sand on the seabed, just east of Lion Island. Lay claimed to have confirmed that copper wiring found at the site was consistent with that used in similar Japanese vessels. A few weeks New South Wales Planning Minister Frank Sartor announced that sonar scans conducted by the New South Wales Heritage Office at the location specified had found no trace of the lost submarine. M-24 was found 13 kilometres south of Broken Bay, 5 kilometres off Bungan Head, proving the hypothesis that M-24 chose to not draw attention to its mother submarines to the south of Sydney Harbour and instead moved north towards Broken Bay.
Batemans Bay is a town in the South Coast region of the state of New South Wales, Australia. Batemans Bay is administered by the Eurobodalla Shire council; the town is situated on the shores of an estuary formed where the Clyde River meets the South Pacific Ocean. Batemans Bay is located on the Princes Highway about 280 kilometres from Sydney and 760 km from Melbourne. Canberra is located about 151 km via the Kings Highway. At the 2016 census, Batemans Bay had a population of 11,294 with surrounding communities including Long Beach, Maloneys Beach and the coastal fringe extending south to Rosedale bringing the total population of the urban area to 16,044, it is the closest seaside town to Canberra, making Batemans Bay a popular holiday destination for residents of Australia's National Capital. Geologically, it is situated in the far southern reaches of the Sydney Basin. Batemans Bay is a popular retiree haven, but has begun to attract young families seeking affordable housing and a relaxed seaside lifestyle.
Other local industries include oyster farming, eco-tourism and retail services. The traditional custodians of the land surrounding Batemans Bay are the Indigenous Australian Yuin people of the Walbunja clan; the traditional language spoken by the Walbunja people is Dhurga. A number of sites in the region are considered culturally significant to the Aboriginal peoples. On 22 April 1770, European explorer Captain James Cook first named the bay. Cook gave no reason for the name, which may commemorate either Nathaniel Bateman, the captain of HMS Northumberland when Cook was serving as her master from 1760–62, or John Bateman, 2nd Viscount Bateman, a former Lord Commissioner of the Admiralty in the 1750s. A colonial vessel, was driven into Batemans Bay by bad weather during 1808. Local indigenous Australians attacked her crew. In 1821 Lt Robert Johnston entered the bay and explored the lower reaches of the Clyde River on board the cutter Snapper. Snapper Island within the bay is named after Johnston's boat.
Johnston returned with Alexander Berry and Hamilton Hume and they traced the river to its source. When the district was surveyed in 1828, a deserted hut and stockyards were found. Cedar getters and land clearers were in the district in the 1820s. From the 1820s through to the 1840s, the area to the Moruya River was the southernmost official limit of location for the colony of New South Wales; the Illawarra and South Coast Steam Navigation Co found the Clyde River to be navigable in 1854. Regular services by the company in the 1860s and 1870s contributed to growth of the district; the village of China Bay was surveyed in 1859. Oyster farming commenced in 1860. By 1870, there was a fleet of 40 oyster boats. A sawmill was erected in 1870; the port was proclaimed in 1885. A ferry service across the Clyde ran from 1891 until the bridge was opened in 1956. In 1942 during World War II, a trawler was attacked by a Japanese submarine between Batemans Bay and Moruya. In May 2016, an estimated 120,000 bats descended upon and swarmed the town, prompting the town to declare a state of emergency.
Due to the fact that they were flying foxes, they had to be removed using non-lethal methods, including smoke, noise and removing vegetation. The town received AUS$2.5 million. The change of population of Batemans Bay since 1881. 1881 was 266 1961 was 1,183 1981 was 4,924 1996 was 9,568 2006 was 10,845 2011 was 11,334According to the 2016 census of Population, there were 11,294 people in the Batemans Bay urban centre. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people made up 7.3% of the population. 77.1% of people were born in Australia. The next most common countries of birth were England 5.0% and New Zealand 1.5%. 88.1% of people only spoke English at home. The most common responses for religion were No Religion 26.3%, Anglican 24.8% and Catholic 23.4%. The median age in Batemans Bay is 53 years, compared with the Australian national average of 37 years. For people aged 60 years and above, Batemans Bay is well above the national average, has twice as many people aged 70 years or over than the national average.
Conversely, in all age demographic groups below 60 years, Batemans Bay is below national averages. This is most presented in the categories for ages 19 years to 35 years; this skewed demographic is attributed to Batemans Bay’s proximity to Canberra, from where it attracts a large number of retirees. In recent years, community concern has grown as hotels and resorts in the region have been purchased and converted to aged care and retirement living, creating a perceived threat to the town’s primary industry – tourism. In addition, the aged demographic has been said to create a culture were the towns infrastructure is geared towards the aged, resulting in a net migration away from Batemans Bay of younger families exacerbating the imbalance. In 2015, research from Nielsen revealed older people were less to support rates funding towards youth focussed infrastructure. With its stunning natural features at the forefront, an aged population, the arts and cultural scene in Batemans Bay was seen for some time as underdeveloped for a regional hub.
As the town has enjoyed a renaissance of its CBD, so too its arts and cultural landscape, with a growing and interesting calendar of events and a strong community of practicing artists. This shift is best illustrated in the announcement of 26 million dollars toward the development of an indoor aquatic and cultural centre. To be built at the Mackay Park precinct, the cultural facility will include a purpose-built exhibition and performance centre, as well as workshop and storage space that will serve the wider region’s 18 art and theatre groups. (
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First voyage of James Cook
The first voyage of James Cook was a combined Royal Navy and Royal Society expedition to the south Pacific Ocean aboard HMS Endeavour, from 1768 to 1771. It was the first of three Pacific voyages; the aims of this first expedition were to observe the 1769 transit of Venus across the Sun, to seek evidence of the postulated Terra Australis Incognita or "unknown southern land". The voyage was commissioned by King George III and commanded by Lieutenant James Cook, a junior naval officer with good skills in cartography and mathematics. Departing from Plymouth Dockyard in August 1768, the expedition crossed the Atlantic, rounded Cape Horn and reached Tahiti in time to observe the transit of Venus. Cook set sail into the uncharted ocean to the south, stopping at the Pacific islands of Huahine and Raiatea to claim them for Great Britain, unsuccessfully attempting to land at Rurutu. In September 1769 the expedition reached New Zealand, being the second Europeans to visit there, following the first European discovery by Abel Tasman 127 years earlier.
Cook and his crew spent the following six months charting the New Zealand coast, before resuming their voyage westward across open sea. In April 1770 they became the first Europeans to reach the east coast of Australia, making landfall at Point Hicks, proceeding to Botany Bay; the expedition continued northward along the Australian coastline, narrowly avoiding shipwreck on the Great Barrier Reef. In October 1770 the badly damaged Endeavour came into the port of Batavia in the Dutch East Indies, her crew sworn to secrecy about the lands they had discovered, they resumed their journey on 26 December, rounded the Cape of Good Hope on 13 March 1771, reached the English port of Deal on 12 July. The voyage lasted three years; the year following his return Cook set out on a second voyage of the Pacific, which lasted from 1772 to 1775. His third and final voyage lasted from 1776 to 1779. On 16 February 1768 the Royal Society petitioned King George III to finance a scientific expedition to the Pacific to study and observe the 1769 transit of Venus across the sun to enable the measurement of the distance from the Earth to the Sun.
Royal approval was granted for the expedition, the Admiralty elected to combine the scientific voyage with a confidential mission to search the south Pacific for signs of the postulated continent Terra Australis Incognita. The aims of the expedition were revealed in the press: "To-morrow morning Mr. Banks, Dr. Solano, with Mr. Green, the Astronomer, will set out for Deal, to embark on board the Endeavour, Capt. Cook, for the South Seas, under the direction of the Royal Society, to observe the Transit of Venus next summer, to make discoveries to the South and West of Cape Horn"; the London Gazetteer was more explicit when it reported on 18 August 1768: "The gentlemen, who are to sail in a few days for George's Land, the new discovered island in the Pacific ocean, with an intention to observe the Transit of Venus, are we are credibly informed, to attempt some new discoveries in that vast unknown tract, above the latitude 40". Another article reported that "the principal and sole national advantage" of the island discovered by Captain Wallace, Tahiti, was "its situation for exploring the Terra Incognita of the Southern Hemisphere", that, "The Endeavour, a North-Country Cat, is purchased by the Government, commanded by a Lieutenant of the Navy.
The Gazette de France of 20 June 1768 reported that the British Admiralty was outfitting two sloops of war to go to "the newly discovered island", from whence they would "essay the discovery of the Southern Continent". The Royal Society suggested command be given to Scottish geographer Alexander Dalrymple, who had urged that an expedition be sent to make contact with the estimated 50 million inhabitants of the Southern Continent with whom, he said, there was "at present no trade from Europe thither, though the scraps from this table would be sufficient to maintain the power and sovereignty of Britain, by employing all its manufacturers and ships"; as a condition of his acceptance, Dalrymple demanded a brevet commission as a captain in the Royal Navy. However, First Lord of the Admiralty Edward Hawke refused, going so far as to say he would rather cut off his right hand than give command of a Navy vessel to someone not educated as a seaman. In refusing Dalrymple's command, Hawke was influenced by previous insubordination aboard the sloop HMS Paramour in 1698, when naval officers had refused to take orders from civilian commander Dr. Edmond Halley.
The impasse was broken when the Admiralty proposed James Cook, a naval officer with a background in mathematics and cartography. Acceptable to both parties, Cook was promoted to Lieutenant and named as commander of the expedition; the vessel chosen by the Admiralty for the voyage was a merchant collier named Earl of Pembroke, launched in June 1764 from the coal and whaling port of Whitby in North Yorkshire. She was ship-rigged and sturdily built with a broad, flat bow, a square stern and a long box-like body with a deep hold. A flat-bottomed design made her well-suited to sailing in shallow waters and allowed her to be beached for loading and unloading of cargo and for basic repairs without requiring a dry dock, her length was 106 feet, with a beam of 29 feet 3 inches, measuring 36871⁄94 tons burthenEarl of Pembroke was purchased by the Admiralty in May 1768 for £2,840 10s 11d and sailed to Deptford on the River Thames to be prepared for the voyage. Her hull was sheathed and caulked, a third internal deck installed to provide cabins
Indian Head (Fraser Island)
Indian Head is a coastal headland on the eastern side of Fraser Island in Queensland, Australia. The landmark is the most easterly point on a popular tourist destination. Indian Head is located at one end of Seventy Five Mile Beach; the headland was named by Captain Cook when he passed it on the evening of 19 May 1770, for the aboriginal people he saw assembled there. The term "Indian" was used at that time for the native people of many lands; the outcrop consists of rhyolite, created by volcanic activity about 50 to 80 million years ago. Camping around the headland is not permitted. Climbing Indian Head provides 360° views as well as good wildlife spotting opportunities, Such as mantarays and whales
Dunk Island is an island within the Cassowary Coast Region, Australia. The island lies 4 km off the Australian east coast, opposite the town of Mission Beach; the island forms part of the Family Islands National Park and is in the larger Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area. The island has a diverse population of birds; the Bandjin and Djiru peoples once used the island as a source of food. Europeans first settled on the island in 1897. Dunk Island was used by the Royal Australian Air Force during World War II. In recent years the island and its resort facilities were affected by both Cyclone Larry and Cyclone Yasi. Dunk Island is by far the largest island in the Family Islands National Park, all of which consist of granite rock. All of the islands were part of the mainland. Dunk Island covers 970ha, of which 730 ha is national park and the rest is freehold, its topography varies, with sandy beaches and rocky shores undulating slopes and steeper semi-rugged terrain. Mount Kootaloo is the island's highest point, at 271 m above sea level.
There are over 100 species including rare and vulnerable seabirds. During the summer months, the island becomes a breeding site for noddies; the lack of predators, along with a plentiful supply of food from the surrounding reef waters, make it an ideal nesting site. Dunk Island is home to reptiles such as pythons, tree snakes and skinks; the island's fringing reefs and surrounding waters are home to an array of marine life such as sea turtles, corals, fish and crabs. Purtaboi Island is closed and inaccessible for guests from October through to April each year due to the crested terns nesting on the island; the traditional Aboriginal owners of Dunk Island are the Bandjin and Djiru people, who have lived in this area for tens of thousands of years. After the sea level rise, they paddled to the islands in bark canoes to gather food and materials; the Aboriginal name for Dunk Island is Coonanglebah, or "The Island of Peace and Plenty". It received its European name from Captain Cook, who sailed past it on 8 June 1770, remarked that it was a "tolerable high island" and named it after George Montague-Dunk, 2nd Earl of Halifax.
Europeans settled the nearby mainland during the 1800s, seeking gold and grazing land. In 1848, John MacGillivray studied the fauna and flora of the island while HMS Rattlesnake was anchored off the island for ten days, he subsequently wrote of its natural features in the Narrative of the Voyage of HMS Rattlesnake, published in England in 1852. Dunk Island, eight or nine miles in circumference, is well wooded—it has two conspicuous peaks, one of, 857 feet in height. Our excursions were confined to the vicinity of the watering place and the bay in which it is situated; the shores are sandy on the other, where a low point runs out to the westward. At their junction, under a sloping hill with large patches of brush, a small stream of fresh water, running out over the beach, furnished a supply for the ship, although the boats could approach the place only at high-water. In 1897, suffering from work anxiety and exhaustion, advised by doctors that he had just six months to live, writer Edmund James Banfield moved to Dunk Island with his wife Bertha – so becoming the island’s first white settlers.
A journalist and senior editor with the Townsville Daily Bulletin for fifteen years, Banfield let the tranquillity of this unspoilt tropical paradise weave its magic and he lived on Dunk Island for the remaining 26 years of his life until his death in 1923. A small hut built with the assistance of an Aborigine called. Over a period of time they cleared four acres of land for a plantation of fruit and vegetables. Combined with their chickens and goats as well as the abundance of seafood and mangrove vegetation, they lived self-sufficiently. Fascinated by Dunk Island’s flora and fauna Banfield meticulously recorded his observations and went on to write a series of articles about island life under the pseudonym Rob Krusoe, he was further inspired to write a full-length book entitled Confessions of a Beachcomber, published in 1908. The book became a celebrated text for romantics and escapists and established Dunk Island’s reputation as an exotic island paradise. In the ensuing years, Banfield wrote several other books about Dunk including My Tropical Isle in 1911 and Tropic Days in 1918.
In these he shared the secrets of nature that he had uncovered and described the customs and legends of the Aboriginal people on the island. E. J. Banfield died on 2 June 1923 and his final book Last Leaves from Dunk was published posthumously in 1925, his widow remained on the island for another year before moving to Brisbane where she died, ten years after her husband. Today both are buried on the trail to Mt Kootaloo; the island was bought in 1934 by Captain Brassey and Banfield's bungalow provided the basis for the beginnings of a resort. The Royal Australian Air Force occupied Dunk Island during World War II, building its airstrip in 1941, they installed a radar station on the island's highest point a year, dismantled when the war ended in 1945. The Brassey family returned to run the resort for a period at the end of the war; the island went through a succession of owners. In 1956, Gordon & Kathleen Stynes purchased the island and relocated their family from Victoria to Dunk Island; the Stynes Family set about to redevelop and upgrade the resort’s facilities to establish the island as a tourist destination.
As a result, Dunk Island bec