Cairns is a city in the Cairns Region, Australia. It is on the east coast of Far North Queensland; the city is the 5th-most-populous in ranks 14th overall in Australia. Cairns was founded in 1876 and named after William Wellington Cairns, Governor of Queensland from 1875 to 1877, it was formed to serve miners heading for the Hodgkinson River goldfield, but declined when an easier route was discovered from Port Douglas. It developed into a railhead and major port for exporting sugar cane and other metals and agricultural products from surrounding coastal areas and the Atherton Tableland region; the population of the Cairns urban area at the 2016 Census was 144,787. Based on 2015 data, the associated local government area has experienced an average annual growth rate of 2.3% over the last 10 years. Cairns is a popular tourist destination because of its tropical climate and access to both nearby tropical rainforest and the Great Barrier Reef, one of the seven natural wonders of the world. Prior to British settlement, the Cairns area was inhabited by the Gimuy Walubara Yidinji people, who still claim their Native Title rights.
The area is known in the local Yidiny language as Gimuy. From 1770 to the early 1870s the area was known to the British as Trinity Bay; the arrival of beche de mer fishermen from the late 1860s saw the first European presence in the area. On the site of the modern-day Cairns foreshore, there was a large native well, used by these fishermen. A violent confrontation occurred in 1872 between local Yidinji people and Phillip Garland, a beche de mer fisherman, over the use of this well; the area from this date was subsequently called Battle Camp. In 1876, hastened by the need to export gold mined from the Hodgkinson goldfields on the tablelands to the west, closer investigation by several official expeditions established its potential for development into a port. Brinsley G. Sheridan surveyed the area and selected a place further up Trinity Inlet known to the diggers as Smith's Landing for a settlement which he renamed Thornton. However, after Native Police officers Alexander Douglas-Douglas and Robert Arthur Johnstone opened a new track from the goldfields to Battle Camp, this more coastal site became preferable.
Battle Camp was renamed Cairns in late 1876 in honour of the Governor of Queensland, William Cairns. The site was sand ridges. Labourers cleared the swamps, the sand ridges were filled with dried mud, sawdust from local sawmills, ballast from a quarry at Edge Hill. Debris from the construction of a railway to Herberton on the Atherton Tableland, a project which started in 1886, was used; the railway opened up land used for agriculture on the lowlands, for fruit and dairy production on the Tableland. The success of local agriculture helped establish Cairns as a port, the creation of a harbour board in 1906 supported its economic future. On 25 April 1926, the Cairns Sailors and Soldiers War Memorial was unveiled by Alexander Frederick Draper, the mayor of the City of Cairns. During World War II, the Allied Forces used Cairns as a staging base for operations in the Pacific, with United States Army Air Forces and Royal Australian Air Force operational bases, as well as a major military seaplane base in Trinity Inlet, United States Navy and Royal Australian Navy bases near the current wharf.
Combat missions were flown out of Cairns in support of the Battle of the Coral Sea in 1942. Edmonton and White Rock south of Cairns were major military supply areas and U. S. Paratroopers trained at the Goldsborough Valley. A Special Forces training base was established at the old "Fairview" homestead on Munro's Hill, Mooroobool; this base was known as the Z Experimental Station, but referred to informally as "The House on the Hill". After World War II, Cairns developed into a centre for tourism; the opening of the Cairns International Airport in 1984 helped establish the city as a desirable destination for international tourism. According to the 2016 census of Population, there were 144,787 people in Cairns. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people made up 8.9% of the population. 67.9% of people were born in Australia. The next most common countries of birth were England 4.0%, New Zealand 3.1%, Papua New Guinea 1.5%, Philippines 1.2% and Japan 1.1%. 76.9% of people only spoke English at home.
Other languages spoken at home included Japanese 1.6%, Mandarin 0.8%, Italian 0.7%, Korean 0.7% and German 0.6%. The most common responses for religion were No Religion 32.1%, Catholic 22.4% and Anglican 13.2%. Cairns is located on the east coast of Cape York Peninsula on a coastal strip between the Coral Sea and the Great Dividing Range; the northern part of the city is located on Trinity Bay and the city centre is located on Trinity Inlet. To the south of the Trinity Inlet lies the Aboriginal community of Yarrabah; some of the city's suburbs are located on flood plains. The Mulgrave River and Barron River flow within the greater Cairns area but not through the CBD; the city's centre foreshore is located on a mud flat. Cairns is a provincial city, with a linear urban layout that runs from the south at Edmonton to the north at Ellis Beach; the city is 52 km from north to south. The Northern Beaches consist of a number of beach communities extending north along the coast. In general, each beach suburb is at the end of a spur road extending from the Captain Cook Highway.
From south to north, these are Machans Beach, Holloways Beach, Yorkeys Knob, Trinity Park, Trinity B
Postcodes in Australia
Postcodes are used in Australia to more efficiently sort and route mail within the Australian postal system. Postcodes in Australia are placed at the end of the Australian address. Postcodes were introduced in Australia in 1967 by the Postmaster-General's Department and are now managed by Australia Post, are published in booklets available from post offices or online from the Australia Post website. Australian envelopes and postcards have four square boxes printed in orange at the bottom right for the postcode; these are used. Postcodes were introduced in Australia in 1967 by the Postmaster-General's Department to replace earlier postal sorting systems, such as Melbourne's letter and number codes and a similar system used in rural and regional New South Wales; the introduction of the postcodes coincided with the introduction of a large-scale mechanical mail sorting system in Australia, starting with the Sydney GPO. By 1968, 75% of mail was using postcodes, in the same year post office preferred-size envelopes were introduced, which came to be referred to as “standard envelopes”.
Postcode squares were introduced in June 1990 to enable Australia Post to use optical character recognition software in its mail sorting machines to automatically and more sort mail by postcodes. Australian postcodes consist of four digits, are written after the name of the city, suburb, or town, the state or territory: Mr John Smith 100 Flushcombe Road BLACKTOWN NSW 2148When writing an address by hand, a row of four boxes is pre-printed on the lower right hand corner of an envelope, the postcode may be written in the boxes. If addressing a letter from outside Australia, the postcode is recorded before'Australia'. Australian postcodes are sorting information, they are linked with one area. Due to post code rationalisation, they can be quite complex in country areas; the south-western Victoria 3221 postcode of the Geelong Mail Centre includes twenty places around Geelong with few people. This means that mail for these places is not sorted until it gets to Geelong; some postcodes cover large populations, while other postcodes have much smaller populations in urban areas.
Australian postcodes range from 0200 for the Australian National University to 9944 for Cannonvale, Queensland. Some towns and suburbs have two postcodes — one for street deliveries and another for post office boxes. For example, a street address in the Sydney suburb of Parramatta would be written like this: Mr John Smith 99 George Street PARRAMATTA NSW 2150But mail sent to a PO Box in Parramatta would be addressed: Mr John Smith PO Box 99 PARRAMATTA NSW 2124Many large businesses, government departments and other institutions receiving high volumes of mail had their own postcode as a Large Volume Receiver, e.g. the Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital has the postcode 4029, the Australian National University had the postcode 0200. More postcode ranges were made available for LVRs in the 1990s. Australia Post has been progressively discontinuing the LVR programme since 2006; the first one or two numbers show the state or territory that the postcode belongs to Sometimes near the state and territory borders, Australia Post finds it easier to send mail through a nearby post office, across the border: Some of the postcodes above may cover two or more states.
For example, postcode 2620 covers both a locality in NSW as well as a locality in the ACT, postcode 0872 covers a number of localities across WA, SA, NT and QLD. Three locations straddle the NSW-Queensland border. Jervis Bay Territory, once an exclave of the ACT but now a separate territory, is geographically located on the coast of NSW, it is just south of the towns of Huskisson, with which it shares a postcode. Mail to the Jervis Bay Territory is still addressed to the ACT; the numbers used to show the state on each radio callsign in Australia are the same number as the first number for postcodes in that state, e.g. 2xx in New South Wales, 3xx in Victoria, etc. Radio callsigns pre-date postcodes in Australia by more than forty years. Australia's external territories are included in Australia Post's postcode system. While these territories do not belong to any state, they are addressed as such for mail sorting: Three scientific bases in Antarctica operated by the Australian National Antarctic Research Expeditions share a postcode with the isolated sub-Antarctic island of Macquarie Island: Each state's capital city ends with three zeroes, while territorial capital cities end with two zeroes.
Capital city postcodes were the lowest postcodes in their state or territory range, before new ranges for LVRs and PO Boxes were made available. The last number can be changed from "0" to "1" to get the postcode for General Post Office boxes in any capital city: While the first number of a postcode shows the state or territory, the second number shows a region within the state. However, postcodes with the same second number are not always next to each other; as an example, postcodes in the range 2200–2299 are split between the southern suburbs of Sydney and the Central Coast of New South Wales. Postcodes with a second number of "0" or "1" are always located within the metropolitan area of the state's capital city. Postcodes with higher secon
The Cairns Region is a local government area in Far North Queensland, Australia, centred on the regional centre of Cairns. It was established in 2008 by the amalgamation of the Shire of Douglas. However, following public protest and a referendum in 2013, on 1 January 2014, the Shire of Douglas was separated from the Cairns Region and re-established as a local government authority; the Cairns Regional Council has an estimated operating budget of A$300 million. Prior to the 2008 amalgamation, the new Cairns Region consisted the entire area of three previous local government areas: the City of Cairns; the City, which for most of its existence covered only the central business district and inner suburbs of Cairns, had its beginning in the Borough of Cairns, proclaimed on 28 May 1885 under the Local Government Act 1878. With the passage of the Local Authorities Act 1902, it became a Town on 31 March 1903 and was proclaimed a City on 12 October 1923; the Shire of Mulgrave had its origins in the Cairns Division, one of Queensland's 74 divisions created under the Divisional Boards Act 1879 on 11 November 1879.
The Douglas Division was created on 3 June 1880. They became the Shire of Cairns and the Shire of Douglas on 31 March 1903. On 20 December 1919, it grew to include some territory from the abolished Shire of Barron, on 16 November 1940, the shire was renamed Mulgrave. On 21 November 1991, the Electoral and Administrative Review Commission, created two years earlier, produced its second report, recommended that local government boundaries in the Cairns area be rationalised, that the Shire be dissolved and amalgamated with the City of Cairns; the Local Government Regulation 1994 was gazetted on 16 December 1994. On 22 March 1995, the Shire became part of the new City of Cairns. In July 2007, the Local Government Reform Commission released its report and recommended that Cairns amalgamate with the Shire of Douglas, that the new Cairns Regional Council be undivided with 10 councillors and a mayor. On 15 March 2008, the City and Shire formally ceased to exist, elections were held on the same day to elect councillors and a mayor to the Regional Council.
In 2012, a proposal was made to de-amalgamate the Shire of Douglas from the Cairns Region. On 9 March 2013, the citizens of the former Douglas shire voted in a referendum to de-amalgamate; the shire was re-established on 1 January 2014. The Region is divided into 10 divisions, each of whom elects one councillor to the Cairns Regional Council. At present, Division 10 contains all of the former Shire of Douglas, whilst Division 1 covers the southern districts which were part of the Shire of Mulgrave prior to 1995; the Cairns Region includes the following settlements: 1 - shared with Cassowary Coast Region2 - shared with Cassowary Coast Region and Tablelands Region The Cairns Regional Council operate public libraries at Babinda, Cairns City, Edmonton, Manunda and Stratford. The populations given relate to the component entities prior to 2008; the next census, due in 2016, will be the second for the Region. 2008–2012: Val Schier 2012–: Bob Manning The council members elected in 2016 were: Cairns Regional Council
A bulldozer or dozer is a crawler equipped with a substantial metal plate used to push large quantities of soil, rubble, or other such material during construction or conversion work and equipped at the rear with a claw-like device to loosen densely compacted materials. Bulldozers can be found on a wide range of sites and quarries, military bases, heavy industry factories, engineering projects and farms; the term "bulldozer" refers only to a tractor fitted with a dozer blade. Bulldozers are large and powerful tracked heavy equipment; the tracks give them excellent ground holding capability and mobility through rough terrain. Wide tracks help distribute the bulldozer's weight over a large area, thus preventing it from sinking in sandy or muddy ground. Extra wide tracks are known as LGP tracks. Bulldozers have transmission systems designed to take advantage of the track system and provide excellent tractive force; because of these attributes, bulldozers are used in road building, mining, land clearing, infrastructure development, any other projects requiring mobile and stable earth-moving equipment.
Another type of bulldozer is the wheeled bulldozer, which has four wheels driven by a 4-wheel-drive system and has a hydraulic, articulated steering system. The blade is mounted forward of the articulation joint, is hydraulically actuated; the bulldozer's primary tools are the ripper. The word "bulldozer" is sometimes used inaccurately for other similar construction vehicles such as a large front loader; the bulldozer blade is a heavy metal plate on the front of the tractor, used to push objects, shove sand, soil and sometimes snow. Dozer blades come in three varieties: A straight blade, short and has no lateral curve and no side wings and can be used for fine grading. A universal blade, tall and curved, has large side wings to carry more material. An "S-U" combination blade, shorter, has less curvature, smaller side wings; this blade is used for pushing piles of large rocks, such as at a quarry. Blades can be fitted straight across the frame, or at an angle, sometimes using additional'tilt cylinders' to vary the angle while moving.
The bottom edge of the blade can be sharpened. Sometimes a bulldozer is used to push another piece of earth moving equipment known as a "scraper"; the towed Fresno Scraper, invented in 1883 by James Porteous, was the first design to enable this to be done economically, removing the soil from the cut and depositing it elsewhere on shallow ground. Many dozer blades have a reinforced center section with this purpose in mind, are called "bull blades". In military use, dozer blades are fixed on combat engineering vehicles and can optionally be fitted on other vehicles, such as artillery tractors such as the Type 73 or M8 Tractor. Dozer blades can be mounted on main battle tanks, where it can be used to clear antitank obstacles and dig improvised shelters. Combat applications for dozer blades include clearing battlefield obstacles and preparing fire positions; the ripper is the long claw-like device on the back of the bulldozer. Rippers can come in groups of two or more. A single shank is preferred for heavy ripping.
The ripper shank is fitted with a replaceable tungsten steel alloy tip, referred to as a'boot'. Ripping rock breaks the ground surface rock or pavement into small rubble easy to handle and transport, which can be removed so grading can take place. With agricultural ripping, a farmer breaks up rocky or hard earth, otherwise unploughable, in order to farm it. For example, much of the best land in the California wine country consists of old lava flows; the grower shatters the lava with heavy bulldozers so surface trees can be planted. Some bulldozers are equipped with a less common rear attachment referred to as a stumpbuster, a single spike that protrudes horizontally and can be raised to get it out of the way. A stumpbuster is used to split a tree stump. A bulldozer with a stumpbuster is used for landclearing operations, is equipped with a brush-rake blade. Bulldozers have been further modified over time to evolve into new machines which can work in ways that the original bulldozer cannot. One example is that loader tractors were created by removing the blade and substituting a large volume bucket and hydraulic arms which can raise and lower the bucket, thus making it useful for scooping up earth and loading it into trucks, these are known as a Drott, trackscavator or track loader.
Other modifications to the original bulldozer include making it smaller to let it operate in small work areas where movement is limited, such as in mining. Some lightweight form of bulldozer are used in snow removal and as a tool for preparing winter sports areas for ski and snowboard sports. A small light bulldozer is sometimes called a "calfdozer". In an angledozer the blade can be pushed forward at one end to make it easier to push material away to the side; the original earthmoving bulldozers are still irreplaceable as their tasks are concentrated in deforestation, ground levelling, road carving. Heavy bulldozers are employed to level the terrain to prepare it for construction; the construction, however, is done by small bulldozers and loader tractors. Bulldozers employed for combat engineering roles are fitted with arm
The Bloomfield River is a river located in the Wet Tropics of Far North Queensland, noted for its Bloomfield River cod fish species, found only in the river. The river rises in the Great Dividing Range below southeast of Wujal Wujal; the river flows east by north before reaching its mouth and emptying into Weary Bay in the Coral Sea near the settlement of Ayton, north of Daintree. The river enters the Coral Sea north of Cape Tribulation; the river estuary is in near pristine conditions. In 2014 the Australian and Queensland governments completed a A$21 million bridge across the river, called the Bobby and Jacky Ball Bloomfield River Bridge; the bridge was named after brother Bobby and Jacky Ball. The land where the bridge was constructed and south to Degarra is their traditional country; the Ball brothers are the eldest remaining sons of their family. During the construction of the bridge, they would visit the site daily, they walk from the Wujal Wujal Shire to Degarra each day to visit a river fishing spot.
The river was named Blomfield's Rivulet by Phillip Parker King on 26 June 1818. It is prohibited to catch the Bloomfield river cod in Queensland; the controversial Bloomfield Track which connects Cape Tribulation with Cooktown crosses the Bloomfield River. This crossing was closed in February 2011 by the Cairns Regional Council after flooding destroyed the causeway. A passenger-only ferry service was in place until a four-wheel drive only temporary crossing opened in May 2011. Construction of an all weather bridge began in October 2013 and was completed April 2014. A bridge over Woobada creek was completed late 2014. Douglas Shire Council maintains the Bloomfield Track. List of rivers of Queensland Media related to Bloomfield River at Wikimedia Commons "Bloomfield River environmental values and water quality objectives: Basin No. 108, including all tributaries of the river". Environmental Protection Policy 2009. Department of Environment and Resource Management, Queensland Government. July 2010
A blockade is an effort to cut off supplies, war material or communications from a particular area by force, either in part or totally. A blockade should not be confused with an embargo or sanctions, it is distinct from a siege in that a blockade is directed at an entire country or region, rather than a fortress or city. While most blockades took place at sea, blockade is still used on land to prevent someone coming into a certain area. A blockading power can seek to cut off all maritime transport to the blockaded country. Blockades restrict the trading rights of neutrals, who must submit for inspection for contraband, which the blockading power may define narrowly or broadly, sometimes including food and medicine. In the 20th century air power has been used to enhance the effectiveness of the blockade by halting air traffic within the blockaded airspace. Close patrol of hostile ports, in order to prevent naval forces from putting to sea, is referred to as a blockade; when coastal cities or fortresses were besieged from the landward side, the besiegers would blockade the seaward side as well.
Most blockades have sometimes included cutting off electronic communications by jamming radio signals and severing undersea cables. Although primitive naval blockades had been in use for millennia, the first successful attempts at establishing a full naval blockade were made by Admiral of the Fleet Edward Hawke during the Seven Years' War. Following the British naval victory at Quiberon Bay, which ended any immediate threat of a major invasion of the British Isles, the British implemented a tight economic blockade on the French coast; this began further weakening France's economy. Hawke took command of the blockading fleet off Brest and extended the blockade of the French coast from Dunkirk to Marseilles; the British were able to take advantage of the Navy's position to develop plans for amphibious landings on the coast. However, these plans were abandoned, due to the formidable logistical challenge this would have posed; the strategic importance of the blockade was cemented during the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, during which successful blockades on France were imposed by the Royal Navy, leading to major economic disruptions.
The Union blockade of southern ports was a major factor in the American Civil War, as was the failure of the U-boat blockade in World War I and again in World War II. Julian Corbett and Admiral Mahan emphasized that naval operations were chiefly to be won by decisive battles and blockade. A close blockade entails placing warships within sight of the blockaded coast or port, to ensure the immediate interception of any ship entering or leaving, it is both the most difficult form of blockade to implement. Difficulties arise because the blockading ships must remain continuously at sea, exposed to storms and hardship far from any support, vulnerable to sudden attack from the blockaded side, whose ships may stay safe in harbor until they choose to come out. In a distant blockade, the blockaders stay well away from the blockaded coast and try to intercept any ships going in or out; this may require more ships on station, but they can operate closer to their bases, are at much less risk from enemy raids.
This was impossible prior to the 16th century due to the nature of the ships used. A loose blockade is a close blockade where the blockading ships are withdrawn out of sight from the coast but no farther; the object of loose blockade is to lure the enemy into venturing out but to stay close enough to strike. British admiral Horatio Nelson applied a loose blockade at Cádiz in 1805; the Franco-Spanish fleet under Pierre-Charles Villeneuve came out, resulting in the Battle of Trafalgar. Until 1827, blockades, as part of economic warfare, were always a part of a war; this changed when France and Britain came to the aid of the Greek rebels against Turkey. They blockaded the Turkish-occupied coast. War was never declared, however; the first pacific blockade, involving no shooting at all, was the British blockade of the Republic of New Granada in 1837, established to compel New Granada to release an imprisoned British consul. Since 1945, the UN Security Council determines the legal status of blockades and by article 42 of the UN Charter, the Council can apply blockades.
The UN Charter allows for the right of self-defense but requires that this must be reported to the Security Council to ensure the maintenance of international peace. According to the not ratified document San Remo Manual on International Law Applicable to Armed Conflicts at Sea, 12 June 1994, a blockade is a legal method of warfare at sea but is governed by rules; the manual describes. The blockading nation is free to select anything else as contraband in a list, which it must publish; the blockading nation establishes a blockaded area of water, but any ship can be inspected as soon as it is established that it is attempting to break the blockade. This inspection can occur inside the blockaded area or in international waters, but never inside the territorial waters of a neutral nation. A neutral ship must obey a request to stop for inspection from the blockading nation. If the situation so demands, the blockading nation can request that the ship divert to a known place or harbour for inspection.
If the ship does not stop the ship is subject to capture. If people aboard the ship resist capture, they can be lawfully attacked
Electorates of the Australian states and territories
A State Electoral District is an electorate within the Lower House or Legislative Assembly of Australian states and territories. Most state electoral districts send a single member to a state or territory's parliament using the preferential method of voting; the area of a state electoral district is dependent upon the Electoral Acts in the various states and vary in area between them. At present, there are 409 state electoral districts in Australia. State electoral districts do not apply to the Upper House, or Legislative Council, in those states that have one. In New South Wales and South Australia, MLCs represent the entire state, in Tasmania they represent single-member districts, in Victoria and Western Australia they represent a region formed by grouping electoral districts together. There are five electorates for the Legislative Assembly, each with five members each, making up 25 members in total. There are 93 electoral districts in New South Wales. There are 25 single-member electoral divisions in the Northern Territory, 17 former divisions.
There are 93 electoral districts in Queensland, for the Legislative Assembly of Queensland. Information about the QLD electoral districts for the 2006 elections can be obtained from the Electoral Commission of Queensland website. There are 47 single-member electoral districts in South Australia, for the South Australian House of Assembly. There are 15 electoral divisions in Tasmania for the upper house Legislative Council. In the lower house the five federal divisions are used, but electing 5 members each There are 88 electoral districts in Victoria, for the Victorian Legislative Assembly. There are 59 single-member electoral districts in Western Australia for the Western Australian Legislative Assembly. 42 are in the Perth metropolitan area and 17 are in the rest of the state. Divisions of the Australian House of Representatives Local government in Australia Parliaments of the Australian states and territories