Bass Strait is a sea strait separating Tasmania from the Australian mainland the state of Victoria. The International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of Bass Strait as follows: On the west; the eastern limit of the Great Australian Bight. On the east; the western limit of the Tasman Sea between Gabo Island and Eddystone Point [being a line from Gabo Island to the northeast point of East Sister Island thence along the 148th meridian to Flinders Island. Some authorities consider the strait to be part of the Pacific Ocean as in the never-approved 2002 IHO Limits of Oceans and Seas draft. In the in-force IHO 1953 draft, it is instead listed as part of the Indian Ocean; the Australian Hydrographic Service does not consider it to be part of the Southern Ocean, using the expanded Australian definition, states that it lies with the Tasman Sea. The strait between the Furneaux Islands and Tasmania is a subdivision of Bass Strait. Aboriginal Tasmanians came to Tasmania 40,000 years, ago across a land bridge called the Bassian Plain during the last glacial period.
Sea levels rose to form Bass Strait 8,000 years ago leaving them isolated from the rest of Australia. Based on the recorded language groups, there were at least three successive waves of aboriginal colonisation; the strait was detected by Captain Abel Tasman when he charted Tasmania's coast in 1642. On 5 December, Tasman was following the east coast northward to see; when the land veered to the north-west at Eddystone Point, he tried to keep in with it but his ships were hit by the Roaring Forties howling through Bass Strait. Tasman was on a mission to find the Southern Continent, not more islands, so he abruptly turned away to the east and continued his continent hunting; the next European to enter the strait was Captain James Cook in the Endeavour in April 1770. A talented and diligent hydrographer, Cook identified the strait, but knew he had to conceal it, he was working during the period of intense Anglo-French rivalry that filled the twelve years between Britain's success in the Seven Years' War and France's revanche in the American Revolutionary War.
The Admiralty had issued its usual verbal instructions to hide strategically important discoveries that could become security risks, such as off-shore islands from which operations could be mounted by a hostile power. In his journal Cook disguised his discovery with a riddle. Cook's ploy worked and Tasmania's insularity was suppressed for three more decades; when news of the 1798 discovery of Bass Strait reached Europe, the French government despatched a reconnaissance expedition commanded by Nicolas Baudin. This prompted Governor King to send two vessels from Sydney to the island to establish a garrison at Hobart; the strait was named after George Bass, after he and Matthew Flinders passed through it while circumnavigating Van Diemen's Land in the Norfolk in 1798–99. At Flinders' recommendation, the Governor of New South Wales, John Hunter, in 1800 named the stretch of water between the mainland and Van Diemen's Land "Bass's Straits", it became known as Bass Strait. The existence of the strait had been suggested in 1797 by the master of Sydney Cove when he reached Sydney after deliberately grounding his foundering ship and being stranded on Preservation Island.
He reported that the strong south westerly swell and the tides and currents suggested that the island was in a channel linking the Pacific and southern Indian Ocean. Governor Hunter thus wrote to Joseph Banks in August 1797. Strong currents between the Antarctic-driven southeast portions of the Indian Ocean and the Tasman Sea's Pacific Ocean waters provide a strait of powerful, wild storm waves; the shipwrecks on the Tasmanian and Victorian coastlines number in the hundreds, although stronger metal ships and modern marine navigation have reduced the danger. Many vessels, some quite large, have disappeared without a trace, or left scant evidence of their passing. Despite myths and legends of piracy and alleged supernatural phenomena akin to those of the Bermuda Triangle, such disappearances can be invariably ascribed to treacherous combinations of wind and sea conditions, the numerous semi-submerged rocks and reefs within the Straits. Despite the strait's difficult waters, it provided a safer and less boisterous passage for ships on the route from Europe or India to Sydney in the early 19th century.
The strait saved 1,300 km on the voyage. Bass Strait is 250 km wide and 500 km long, with an average depth of 60 m; the widest opening is about 350 km between Cape Portland on the North-Eastern tip of Tasmania and Point Hicks on the Australian mainland. Jennings’ study of the submarine topography of Bass Strait described the bathymetric Bass Basin, a shallow depression 120 km wide and 400 km long in the centre of Bass Strait, a maximum depth is the channel between Inner Sister and Flinders, which navigation charts indicate reaches 155 m. Two plateaus, the Bassian Rise and King Island Rise located on the eastern and western margins of Bass Strait are composed of
Bass Coast Shire
The Bass Coast Shire is a local government area in Victoria, located in the south-eastern part of the state. It covers an area of 864 square kilometres and, at the 2016 Census, had a population of 32,804, it includes the towns of Bass, Cape Paterson, Cape Woolamai, Coronet Bay, Inverloch, Lang Lang, Rhyll, San Remo and Wonthaggi as well as the historic locality of Krowera. It includes the popular tourist destination, Phillip Island, it was formed in 1994 from the amalgamation of the Shire of Bass, Shire of Phillip Island, Borough of Wonthaggi, parts of the Shire of Woorayl, Shire of Korumburra and City of Cranbourne. The Shire is administered by the Bass Coast Shire Council; the Shire is named after the coasts of Bass Strait and Western Port. Suburb, postcode Almurta 3979 Bass 3991 Corinella 3984 Coronet Bay 3984 Glen Alvie 3979 Glen Forbes 3990 Grantville 3984 Gurdies, The 3984 Jam Jerrup 3984 Kernot 3979 Kongwak 3951 Krowera 3945 Pioneer Bay 3984 Pound Creek 3996 San Remo 3925 Tenby Point 3984 Wattle Bank 3995 Woodleigh 3945 Wonthaggi 3995 North Wonthaggi 3995 Cape Paterson 3995 Harmers Haven 3995 South Dudley 3995 Anderson 3995 Archies Creek 3995 Hicksborough 3995 Kilcunda3995 Lance Creek 3995 Powlett River 3995 St Clair 3995 Wattle Bank 3995 Woolamai 3995 Rhyll 3923 Cape Woolamai 3925 Newhaven 3925 Phillip Island Cowes 3922 Silverleaves 3922 Smiths Beach 3922 Summerlands 3922 Sunderland Bay 3922 Sunset Strip 3922 Surf Beach 3992 Ventnor 3992 Wimbledon Heights 3992 Dalyston 3992 Blackwood Forest 3992 Ryanston 3992 West Creek 3992 Inverloch 3996 Local markets Swimming Rockpool – Safety Beach, Browns Bay, Surf Beach Road Bunurong Marine Park Lower Powlett Road – Williamsons Beach, Powlett River, Wonthaggi Wind Farm and Victorian Desalination Plant Bass Coast Rail Trail – walk/cycle/horse trot Historic mine whistle – sounds 12 noon every day in the centre of Wonthaggi, mine shaft tower, Apex Park, Murray Street Wonthaggi Museum – open Saturday mornings, Murray Street State Coal Mine – museum and tours, Garden Street Coal mine ruins – Number 5 Brace & the McBride tunnel entry, off West Area Road Wonthaggi and scattered around the region Wonthaggi Golf Course – 18 hole, par 72, ACR 70, easy walk, McKenzie Street Large chain stores Wonthaggi Hospital – Smoking ban, Graham Street Phillip Island Penguin Parade Australian motorcycle Grand Prix Pyramid Rock Festival on New Year's Eve Nobbies Centre at Seal Rocks Garlic Farm, Olive Farm, Wayside Lookout, Dairy Farms Kilcunda Trestle Bridge Inverloch Shell Museum and Dinosaur Exhibition The council is composed of three wards and nine councillors, with three councillors per ward elected to represent each ward.
The council meets in the council chambers at the council headquarters in the Wonthaggi Municipal Offices, the location of the council's administrative activities. It provides customer services at both its administrative centre in Wonthaggi, its service centre in Cowes. Collecting empty seashells and other dead remnants is legal on most Australian Beaches except for state national parks and some nature parks and reserves. If you are unsure contact the states parks authority and the local shire offices. Collecting empty seashells, twigs, sea glass and other non-living materials or interesting rubbish of small size and in small quantities is legal from most beaches along the Bass Coast, with the exception being Wilsons Promontory, the Bunurong Marine National Park and most of Phillip Island. On Phillip Island most beaches are off limits for shell collecting and are run by Phillip Island Nature Parks, with the exceptions of Ventnor, Cowes and Newhaven; the Bunurong Marine National Park is a middle outstretching section of Bunurong Marine Park, along the coastline of Harmers Haven, Cape Paterson and Inverloch.
The restricted zone is an area south-west past Cape Paterson's Safety Undertow Bay namely. List of localities Mornington Peninsula and Western Port Biosphere Reserve Bass Coast Shire Council official website Metlink local public transport map Link to Land Victoria interactive maps Bass Coast Security
The Melbourne Cup is Australia's most famous annual Thoroughbred horse race. It is a 3200-metre race for three-year-olds and over, conducted by the Victoria Racing Club on the Flemington Racecourse in Melbourne, Victoria as part of the Melbourne Spring Racing Carnival, it is the richest "two-mile" handicap in the world, one of the richest turf races. The event starts at 3pm on the first Tuesday in November and is known locally as "the race that stops a nation"; the Melbourne Cup has a long tradition, with the first race held in 1861. It was over two miles but was shortened to 3,200 metres in 1972 when Australia adopted the metric system; this reduced the distance by 18.688 metres, Rain Lover's 1968 race record of 3:19.1 was accordingly adjusted to 3:17.9. The present record holder is the 1990 winner Kingston Rule with a time of 3:16.3. The race is a quality handicap for horses 3 years old and over, run over a distance of 3200 metres, on the first Tuesday in November at Flemington Racecourse; the minimum handicap weight is 50 kg.
There is no maximum weight. The weight allocated to each horse is declared by the VRC Handicapper in early September; the Melbourne Cup race is a handicap contest in which the weight of the jockey and riding gear is adjusted with ballast to a nominated figure. Older horses carry more weight than younger ones, weights are adjusted further according to the horse's previous results. Weights were theoretically calculated to give each horse an equal winning chance in the past, but in recent years the rules were adjusted to a "quality handicap" formula where superior horses are given less severe weight penalties than under pure handicap rules. After the declaration of weights for the Melbourne Cup, the winner of any handicap flat race of the advertised value of A$55,000 or over to the winner, or an internationally recognised Listed, Group, or Graded handicap flat race, shall carry such additional weight, for each win, as the VRC Handicapper shall determine. Entries for the Melbourne Cup close during the first week of August.
The initial entry fee is $600 per horse. Around 300 to 400 horses are nominated each year. Following the allocation of weights, the owner of each horse must on four occasions before the race in November, declare the horse as an acceptor and pay a fee. First acceptance is $960, second acceptance is $1,450 and third acceptance is $2,420; the final acceptance fee, on the Saturday prior to the race, is $45,375. Should a horse be balloted out of the final field, the final declaration fee is refunded; the race directors retain the absolute discretion to exclude any horse from the race, or exempt any horse from the ballot on the race, but in order to reduce the field to the safety limit of 24, horses are balloted out based on a number of factors which include: 1000 prize money earned in the previous two years, 9 wins or placings in certain lead-up races 3 allocated handicap weight The winner of the following races are exempt from any ballot: Lexus Stakes LKS Mackinnon Stakes Cox Plate Caulfield Cup The Bart Cummings Andrew Ramsden Stakes Doncaster Cup Irish St. Leger Tenno Sho Sankei Sho All Comers Arlington Million San Juan Capistrano Handicap Australian Stayers ChallengeThe limitation of 24 starters is stated explicitly to be for safety reasons.
However, in the past far larger numbers were allowed - the largest field raced was 39 runners in 1890. International horses that are entered for the Melbourne Cup must undergo quarantine in an approved premises in their own country for a minimum period of 14 days before travelling to Australia; the premises must meet the Australian Government Standards. The Werribee International Horse Centre at Werribee racecourse is the Victorian quarantine station for international horses competing in the Melbourne Spring Racing Carnival; the facility has stabling for up to 24 horses in five separate stable complexes and is located 32 km from the Melbourne CBD. The total prize money for the 2018 race is A$7,300,000, plus trophies valued at $250,000; the first 12 past the post receive prize money, with the winner Cross Counter being paid $4 million, second $1 million, third $500,000, fourth $250,000, fifth $175,000, with sixth through to twelve place earning $150,000. Prizemoney is distributed to the connections of each horse in the ratio of 85 percent to the owner, 10 percent to the trainer and 5 percent to the jockey.
The 1985 Melbourne Cup, won by "What a Nuisance", was the first race run in Australia with prize money of $1 million. The Cup has a $500,000 bonus for the owner of the winner if it has won the group one Irish St. Leger run the previous September; the winner of the first Melbourne Cup in 1861 received a gold watch. The first Melbourne Cup trophy was awarded in 1865 and was an elaborate silver bowl on a stand, manufactured in England; the first existing and un-altered Melbourne Cup is from 1866, presented to the owners of The Barb. The silver trophy presented in 1867, now in the National Museum of Australia, was made in England but jewellers in Victoria complained to the Victorian Racing Club that the trophy should have been made locally, they believed the work of Melbournian, William Edwards, to be superior in both design and workmanship to the English made trophy. No trophy was awarded to the Melbourne Cup winner for the next eight years. In 1876 Edward Fischer, an immigrant from Austria, produced the first Australian-made trophy.
It was an Etruscan shape with two handles
The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser was the first newspaper printed in Australia, running from 5 March 1803 until 20 October 1842. It was an official publication of the government of New South Wales, authorised by Governor King and printed by George Howe. On 14 October 1824, under the editorship of Robert Howe, it ceased to be censored by the colonial government; the introductory address, by Howe, was published on the first page in the third column. It read: ADDRESSInnumerable as the Obstacles were which threatened to oppose our Undertaking, yet we are happy to affirm that they were not insurmountable, however difficult the task before us; the utility of a PAPER in the COLONY, as it must open a source of solid information, will we hope, be universally felt and acknowledged, We have courted the assistance of the INGENIOUS and INTELLIGENT:--- We open no channel to Political Discussion, or Personal Animadversion:--- Information is our only purpose. The newspaper's original editor and printer was George Howe, transported to New South Wales for shoplifting in 1800.
After Howe's death in 1821, the Gazette was printed by his son, until he drowned in a boating accident in Port Jackson in 1829. The business passed to Robert's co-editor and friend Ralph Mansfield. Mansfield soon left the Gazette, was replaced by a series of short-term editors including Edward O'Shaughnessy, George Thomas Graham and Horatio Wills, Robert Howe's apprentice and step-brother. From 1833, the paper was nominally edited by Anne Howe, Robert's widow, but managed by O'Shaughnessy and William Watt, a ticket of leave convict whom Anne married. After Watt's banishment to Port Macquarie in 1835, ownership of the Gazette passed to Richard Jones, co-executor to Robert Howe's estate. Jones helped establish Howe's eldest illegitimate son, as the legal owner. Howe sold the newspaper in 1841 to Patrick Grant, its final editor, from 2 August 1842, was Richard Sanderson. The Gazette was printed alongside government orders and regulations on a small printing press and used type brought to the colony by Governor Phillip in January 1788.
It was printed as a single sheet, folded into four pages of foolscap size, with each page typeset in three columns. Its masthead was a locally produce woodcut of Sydney and carried the imprimatur'Published by Authority'. For a long time the wood-cut depicted a female figure seated on a bale surrounded by the words, "Thus we hope to prosper". On 24 June, this woodcut was replaced by another which represented the royal arms; the scarcity of type in the Colony was shown by the fact that the capital W in "Wales", the capital V in "Advertiser" were formed using inverted V's. In addition the lack of paper meant the quality of the publication was variable and led to the printer sending out numerous requests for Spanish paper to enable him to complete his work. In May 1803, Howe requested new type and additional engravings to replace the worn type, used previously; the printing materials were further upgraded by Howe's son, when he enlarged the newspaper to Demy size in 1824. From the 5 March 1803, for some time afterwards the "Gazette' was published weekly.
The sixth edition was published on Sunday 10 April, 1803 and for the next 7 years continued to be issued on that day. From the 29 September 1825, the Gazette was issued weekly, after which it was published bi-weekly until 30 December 1826. For six weeks, from 1 January to 10 February 1827, it appeared daily, but the postal service could not accommodate this schedule; the Gazette appeared on the 23rd of December, 1843. When the newspaper first began publishing in 1803 the use of the long s was still in usage by published books and newspapers across English speaking countries; the masthead last used the long s on the edition on Sunday 17 June 1804, reading as:THE SYDNEY GAZETTE And New South Wales AdvertiſerThe next week's edition on the Sunday 24 June 1804 introduced a new masthead with the modern s, reading as:THE Sydney Gazette AND NEW SOUTH WALES ADVERTISERThe articles within the newspaper, continued to use the long s for just over eight more years with declining usage. The apparent last edition that used the long s was on 27 June 1812, reading as:ON SALE, at reduced Prices, for Ready Money,the valuable Inveſtment, imported per BrigEagle, Captain McLardie.
Application to be made to Mr. RobertCampbell, jun. at his Office, No. 15, Hunter-ſtreet, Sydney. The next edition on 4 July 1812 has no articles that use it and editions appear to be the same; the paper has been digitised as part of the Australian Newspapers Digitisation Program project of the National Library of Australia. List of newspapers in Australia List of newspapers in New South Wales Michael Massey Robinson The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser at Trove
Darby River, Victoria
Darby River is a locality in Gippsland in southeastern Victoria, Australia. Located within Wilson's Promontory National Park, it was the location of the original park entrance, ranger station and accommodation centre from 1909 until the Second World War. Referred to just as The Darby, it was the location of the National Park Committee of Management Rooms from about 1909, a Ranger's cottage from 1913, the'Chalet' for tourist accommodation from 1923; the Chalet began as a small 6 room building and expanded to more than 24 accommodation rooms, dining hall and the like. During World War Two the area was the site of the Headquarters Camp of the No 7 Commando Training Centre. At this time large numbers of huts and tents were erected and the Chalet was taken over for the Officers Mess. Following the war most of the buildings were demolished; the Ranger's House was moved to Tidal River. Photograph of the Chalet, State Library, Victoria