A Christian denomination is a distinct religious body within Christianity, identified by traits such as a name, organization and doctrine. Individual bodies, may use alternative terms to describe themselves, such as church or sometimes fellowship. Divisions between one group and another are defined by doctrine. Groups of denominations—often sharing broadly similar beliefs and historical ties—are sometimes known as "branches of Christianity"; these branches differ in many ways through differences in practices and belief. Individual denominations vary in the degree to which they recognize one another. Several groups claim to be the direct and sole authentic successor of the church founded by Jesus Christ in the 1st century AD. Others, believe in denominationalism, where some or all Christian groups are legitimate churches of the same religion regardless of their distinguishing labels and practices; because of this concept, some Christian bodies reject the term "denomination" to describe themselves, to avoid implying equivalency with other churches or denominations.
The Catholic Church which claims 1.2 billion members – over half of all Christians worldwide – does not view itself as a denomination, but as the original pre-denominational church, a view rejected by other Christians. Protestant denominations account for 37 percent of Christians worldwide. Together and Protestantism comprise Western Christianity. Western Christian denominations prevail in Western, Northern and Southern Europe, Sub-Saharan Africa, the Americas and Oceania; the Eastern Orthodox Church, with an estimated 225–300 million adherents, is the second-largest Christian organization in the world and considers itself the original pre-denominational church. Unlike the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church is itself a communion of independent autocephalous churches that mutually recognize each other to the exclusion of others; the Eastern Orthodox Church, together with Oriental Orthodoxy and the Assyrian Church of the East, constitutes Eastern Christianity. Eastern Christian denominations are represented in Eastern Europe, North Asia, the Middle East, Northeast Africa and South India.
Christians have various doctrines about the Church and about how the divine church corresponds to Christian denominations. Both Catholics and Eastern Orthodox hold that their own organizations faithfully represent the One Holy catholic and Apostolic Church to the exclusion of the other. Sixteenth-century Protestants separated from the Catholic Church because of theologies and practices that they considered to be in violation of their own interpretation. Members of the various denominations acknowledge each other as Christians, at least to the extent that they have mutually recognized baptisms and acknowledge orthodox views including the Divinity of Jesus and doctrines of sin and salvation though doctrinal and ecclesiological obstacles hinder full communion between churches. Since the reforms surrounding the Second Vatican Council of 1962–1965, the Catholic Church has referred to Protestant communities as "denominations", while reserving the term "church" for apostolic churches, including the Eastern Orthodox.
But some non-denominational Christians do not follow any particular branch, though sometimes regarded as Protestants. Each group uses different terminology to discuss their beliefs; this section will discuss the definitions of several terms used throughout the article, before discussing the beliefs themselves in detail in following sections. A denomination within Christianity can be defined as a "recognized autonomous branch of the Christian Church". "Church" as a synonym, refers to a "particular Christian organization with its own clergy and distinctive doctrines". Some traditional and evangelical Protestants draw a distinction between membership in the universal church and fellowship within the local church. Becoming a believer in Christ makes one a member of the universal church; some evangelical groups describe themselves as interdenominational fellowships, partnering with local churches to strengthen evangelical efforts targeting a particular group with specialized needs, such as students or ethnic groups.
A related concept is denominationalism, the belief that some or all Christian groups are legitimate churches of the same religion regardless of their distinguishing labels and practices.. Protestant leaders differ from the views of the leaders of the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church, the two largest Christian denominations; each church makes mutually exclusive claims for itself to be t
Frederikssundsvej is a major artery in the North-West, Brønshøj and Husum districts of Copenhagen, Denmark. It begins at Nørrebro Station as the direct continuation of Nørrebrogade and changes its name to Herlev Hovedgade and Skovlunde Byvej, Ballerup Byvej and Måløv Byvej before reaching the town of Frederikssund; the street originates in the old road between Frederikssund. Ot began at the Hyttebro, a bridge across the Lygte Stream which marked the boundary between Copenhagen and the civil parish of Brønshøj-Husum. Lygtekroen, a roadside inn frequented by travelers to and from Copenhagen, was located close to the bridge; the road passed the villages of Herlev and Islev on the way to Frederikssund. In 1901, Brønshøj-Husum was merged into Copenhagen; the Lygte Stream was covered and the Lygte Inn was demolished in 1904. Capernaum Church, a Church of Denmark parish church, was designed by Valdemar Koch. Frederikssundsvej School closed in June 2008; the building was designed by city architect Ludvig Fenger.
P. Ipsens Enke, a ceramics manufacturing company founded by Peter Ipsen in 1843 and continued by his widow and son, was located at No. 78. The building at No. 78A, a former charity called Poul Fechtels Hospital, is from 1908. The charity was, founded as far back as 1460, it had until been located at Møntergade. The Hulgårds Plads housing estate is from 1944-46 and was designed by city architect Hans Christian Hansen; the local fire station, Tornegårdens Brandstation, is located at No. 83B, It was designed by Hans Wright. A bronze cast of Otto Evens' 1854 sculpture Boy With Goat stands at the corner of Frederikssundsvej and Tranevej. Brønshøj Plads and Husum Plads, the two central public spaces of Brønshøj and Husum, are both located off the street. A number of parks and other greenspaces are situated along the street; these include Brønshøj Park, Bellahøj, Brønshøj Cemetery, Herlev Bypark and the former military rampart Vestvolden with its moat Fæstningskanalen. Hans Hedtoft lived with his wife Ella and their three children on Frederikssundsvej at Hyrdevangen before purchasing a house at Fuglsang Allé 63 in Brønshøj.
Dragør Church is a Lutheran church in Dragør, Denmark. It belongs to the Church of Denmark. In 1449, the Bishop of Roskilde authorized the installation of a temporary altar during the annual herring market at Dragør which attracted up to 30,000 traders and fishermen; the market disappeared in about 1500. The few permanent residents had to use Store Magleby Church in nearby Store Magleby some time between 1193 and 1370. After Christian II gave the church to the Dutch farmers who settled in the area in 1621, the church was adapted according to Dutch tradition. Service was conducted in Dutch and the best seats were reserved for the Dutch families. Dragør Church was inaugurated on 26 April 1885 but remained attached to Store Magleby until 1954 when Dragør became its own parish; the church is built in the Neo-Gothiv style. J. H. Wessel's design resembles that of Taarbæk Church north of Copenhagen, designed by Carl Emil Wessel, his father; the ceiling is inspired by the cathedral in Ireland. The clock on the east side of the tower is from 1764 and was installed by clockmaker Bernhard Larsen in 1882.
Notable people who are buried at the graveyard include the actor and comedian Dirch Passer, television presenter Otto Leisner and the marine painter Christian Mølsted whose home and studio in Dragør in now a museum dedicated to his art. Peter Boesen, actor Knud Bro, politician Christian Brochorst, actor Hans Isbrandtsen, shipowner Eigil Jensen and singer Jesper Emil Jensen, writer and songwriter Otto Leisner, television personality Tove Malzer, editor-in-chief and politician Hugo Marcussen and civil servant Knud Mühlhausen, painter Christian Mølsted, painter Dirch Passer and comedian Clara Selborn and translator Sophus Vermehren Official website
Copenhagen is the capital and most populous city of Denmark. As of July 2018, the city has a population of 777,218, it forms the core of the wider urban area of the Copenhagen metropolitan area. Copenhagen is situated on the eastern coast of the island of Zealand; the Øresund Bridge connects the two cities by road. A Viking fishing village established in the 10th century in the vicinity of what is now Gammel Strand, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century. Beginning in the 17th century it consolidated its position as a regional centre of power with its institutions and armed forces. After suffering from the effects of plague and fire in the 18th century, the city underwent a period of redevelopment; this included construction of the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden and founding of such cultural institutions as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. After further disasters in the early 19th century when Horatio Nelson attacked the Dano-Norwegian fleet and bombarded the city, rebuilding during the Danish Golden Age brought a Neoclassical look to Copenhagen's architecture.
Following the Second World War, the Finger Plan fostered the development of housing and businesses along the five urban railway routes stretching out from the city centre. Since the turn of the 21st century, Copenhagen has seen strong urban and cultural development, facilitated by investment in its institutions and infrastructure; the city is the cultural and governmental centre of Denmark. Copenhagen's economy has seen rapid developments in the service sector through initiatives in information technology and clean technology. Since the completion of the Øresund Bridge, Copenhagen has become integrated with the Swedish province of Scania and its largest city, Malmö, forming the Øresund Region. With a number of bridges connecting the various districts, the cityscape is characterised by parks and waterfronts. Copenhagen's landmarks such as Tivoli Gardens, The Little Mermaid statue, the Amalienborg and Christiansborg palaces, Rosenborg Castle Gardens, Frederik's Church, many museums and nightclubs are significant tourist attractions.
The largest lake of Denmark, Arresø, lies around 27 miles northwest of the City Hall Square. Copenhagen is home to the University of Copenhagen, the Technical University of Denmark, Copenhagen Business School and the IT University of Copenhagen; the University of Copenhagen, founded in 1479, is the oldest university in Denmark. Copenhagen is home to the FC Brøndby football clubs; the annual Copenhagen Marathon was established in 1980. Copenhagen is one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world; the Copenhagen Metro launched in 2002 serves central Copenhagen while the Copenhagen S-train, the Lokaltog and the Coast Line network serves and connects central Copenhagen to outlying boroughs. To relieve traffic congestion, the Fehmarn Belt Fixed Link road and rail construction is planned, because the narrow 9-9.5 mile isthmus between Roskilde Fjord and Køge Bugt forms a traffic bottleneck. The Copenhagen-Ringsted Line will relieve traffic congestion in the corridor between Roskilde and Copenhagen.
Serving two million passengers a month, Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup, is the busiest airport in the Nordic countries. Copenhagen's name reflects its origin as a place of commerce; the original designation in Old Norse, from which Danish descends, was Kaupmannahǫfn, meaning "merchants' harbour". By the time Old Danish was spoken, the capital was called Køpmannæhafn, with the current name deriving from centuries of subsequent regular sound change. An exact English equivalent would be "chapman's haven". However, the English term for the city was adapted from Kopenhagen. Although the earliest historical records of Copenhagen are from the end of the 12th century, recent archaeological finds in connection with work on the city's metropolitan rail system revealed the remains of a large merchant's mansion near today's Kongens Nytorv from c. 1020. Excavations in Pilestræde have led to the discovery of a well from the late 12th century; the remains of an ancient church, with graves dating to the 11th century, have been unearthed near where Strøget meets Rådhuspladsen.
These finds indicate. Substantial discoveries of flint tools in the area provide evidence of human settlements dating to the Stone Age. Many historians believe the town dates to the late Viking Age, was founded by Sweyn I Forkbeard; the natural harbour and good herring stocks seem to have attracted fishermen and merchants to the area on a seasonal basis from the 11th century and more permanently in the 13th century. The first habitations were centred on Gammel Strand in the 11thcentury or earlier; the earliest written mention of the town was in the 12th century when Saxo Grammaticus in Gesta Danorum referred to it as Portus
Frederiksberg is a part of the Capital Region of Denmark. It is formally an independent municipality, Frederiksberg Municipality, separate from Copenhagen Municipality, but both are a part of the City of Copenhagen, it occupies an area of less than 9 km2 and had a population of 103,192 in 2015. Frederiksberg is an enclave surrounded by Copenhagen Municipality and there is no clear border between the two; some sources ambiguously refer to Frederiksberg as a quarter or neighbourhood of Copenhagen, being one of the four municipalities that constitute the City of Copenhagen. However, Frederiksberg has its own mayor and municipal council, is fiercely independent. Frederiksberg is considered to be an affluent, or "posh", area, and is characterised by its many green spaces, such as the Frederiksberg Gardens, Søndermarken, Hostrups Have. Some institutions and locations that are considered to be part of Copenhagen are located in Frederiksberg. For example, Copenhagen Zoo as well as several stations of the Copenhagen Metro are located in Frederiksberg.
The Copenhagen S-train system has several stations in Frederiksberg, including Peter Bangs Vej station and Flintholm station. Frederiksberg's original name was Tulehøj, indicating that a thul lived there, the reciter of eldritch times; the term is known from the Snoldelev rune stone. In Beowulf, Unferth holds the same title. In Håvamål, Odin himself is referred to as "the old thul". Thula translates like in the Rigsthula poem from the Edda. By 1443 the name Tulehøj was spelled Tulleshøy, it was regarded as Copenhagen's border to the west. People lived here since the Bronze Age; the history of Frederiksberg goes back to 2 June 1651 when King Frederik III gave 20 Danish—Dutch peasants the rights to settle at Allégade, founded the town named "Ny Amager" or "Ny Hollænderby". Farming was not successful, in 1697 most of the town burned down; this meant that the peasants were unable to pay taxes, the land reverted to the crown by Frederik III's son Christian V. In 1700-1703, King Frederik IV built a palace on top of the hill known as Valby Bakke.
He named the palace Frederichs Berg, the rebuilt town at the foot of the hill changed its name to Frederiksberg. A number of the local houses were bought by wealthy citizens of Copenhagen who did not farm the land, but rather used the properties as country houses; the town changed from a farming community to a merchant town, with craftsmen and merchants. During the summer rooms were offered for rent, restaurants served food to the people of Copenhagen who had left the cramped city for the open land, to be near the royals; the town grew with population growing from 1,000 in 1770, to 1,200 in 1800, to 3,000 in 1850. In 1852 Parliament removed restrictions which prohibited permanent construction outside Copenhagen's city walls. Numerous residential areas were constructed, starting in the eastern part near Copenhagen, ending in the western part farthest away from Copenhagen in 1950; this led to rapid population growth. Today Frederiksberg consists entirely of 3- to 5-story residential houses, large single-family homes, large parks.
On aerial pictures Frederiksberg stands out from the surrounding city of Copenhagen as a green area with few large roads. It is considered to be one of Copenhagen's more prestigious areas to live in. Frederiksberg, which lies west of central Copenhagen, is surrounded by boroughs forming part of the city of Copenhagen – the result of an expansion of the Copenhagen Municipality's boundary in 1901, which did not include Frederiksberg in the list of municipalities to be incorporated in the enlarged area. Frederiksberg is thus a municipal island within the country's capital – a unique phenomenon in present-day Europe. Other than administratively, however, it is indistinguishable in character from the districts of Copenhagen city which surround it. Frederiksberg has several stations on the Copenhagen Metro system, is home to the tallest residential structure in Denmark and the second tallest residential building in Scandinavia: the 102-metre high Domus Vista; the Danmark Rundt cycling race traditionally finishes on Frederiksberg Alle in a sprint finish.
Frederiksberg houses the University of Copenhagen's Frederiksberg Campus, Copenhagen Business School, 9 public schools, 3 private schools, 1 technical college, more. The Lycée Français Prins Henrik, a French international school, is in Frederiksberg; the 3 streets Gammel Kongevej, Godthåbsvej, Falkoner Alle are the busiest shopping streets. The town houses the Frederiksberg Centret shopping mall. Frederiksberg Campus Frederiksberg Gardens Frederiksberg Hospital Frederiksberg Palace Frederiksberg Town Hall Copenhagen Business School Copenhagen Zoo Royal Danish Military Academy Population of Frederiksberg
Grundtvig's Church is located in the Bispebjerg district of Copenhagen, Denmark. It is a rare example of expressionist church architecture. Due to its unusual appearance, it is one of the best known churches in the city; the commission for the construction of a church to be named after the Danish philosopher and hymn writer N. F. S. Grundtvig was decided through a competition, won by Peder Vilhelm Jensen-Klint in 1913; the foundation of the new church was only laid after World War I, on 8 September 1921, Grundtvig's birthday. Building took place from 1921 to 1926 when the tower section was completed, leading to the initial inauguration of the so-called Tower Church in 1927. Further work on the interior and on adjacent buildings continued until 1940 and was completed by Klint's son Kaare Klint after his father's death in 1930; the church stands at the centre of a residential development in yellow brick, designed by Jensen-Klint in harmony with the church. Jensen-Klint's design for Grundtvig's Church is a synthesis of architectural styles.
In preparation for the project, the architect studied many Danish village churches those on the island of Zealand with stepped gables. Their traditional building techniques and decoration inspired his design. Klint merged the modern geometric forms of Brick Expressionism with the classical vertical of Gothic architecture; the most striking feature of the building is its west facade, reminiscent of a westwork or of the exterior of a church organ. It includes the 49 m tall bell tower; the imposing facade with its strong verticality guides one's eyes towards the sky. The bottom half of the tower is simple brick while the upper reaches present the appearance of one solid, rippling surface. Klint decorated the nave with a version of the stepped gables common on Danish churches, but reinterpreted by doubling the apex; the nave was designed with generous dimensions: the triple-aisled hall church is 76 m long in total and 35 m wide. The interior, inspired by Gothic architecture and comparable in size to Copenhagen cathedral, fits a congregation of 1,440.
Some five million yellow bricks, a typical Danish building material, were used for the edifice. In its floor plan, the interior resembles that of a typical Gothic church with a nave, two lateral aisles and a small transept, its proportions are Gothic: a long, narrow nave, an high ceiling, the columns which rise up to pointed arches and the ribbed groin vaults above the nave and aisles. But it is the yellow brick and the lack of ornamentation which contribute to the Gothic verticality while adhering to the minimalist modern aesthetic; the church has two organs. The one on the north side of the nave near the chancel was built in 1940 by Marcussen & Søn, the facade being designed by Kaare Klint, it has two manuals and a pedalboard. The much larger Marcussen instrument at the western end of the nave was added in 1965 with a facade designed by Kaare Klint's son, Esben Klint, it has four manuals and a pedalboard. The largest of its pipes weighs 425 kg and, with a length of 32 feet, is the longest organ pipe in Scandinavia.
The scheme included the construction of a number of buildings collectively known as On the Hill on each side of the church, placing it in a symmetrical context to enhance its visual impact. Designed by Jensen-Klint in collaboration with Vilhelm Wittrup, Charles I. Schou and Georg Gøssel, the buildings contain the parish hall and apartments and were built from 1924 to 1926. A long tree-lined road leads through Bispebjerg cemetery directly towards the church and the flanking buildings, creating a viewing axis similar to those of the Baroque period; the church is open to visitors all year, not just at the times of services. The great Marcussen organ is used for concerts; the church is equipped with a wheelchair stair lift for the disabled people. Hallgrímskirkja in Reykjavík, begun a few years after Grundtvig's Church, is a comparable synthesis of Gothic and modern stylistic elements. Harkær, Kaare Klint, Klintiana. Renderings in the Danish National Art Library
Denmark the Kingdom of Denmark, is a Nordic country and the southernmost of the Scandinavian nations. Denmark lies southwest of Sweden and south of Norway, is bordered to the south by Germany; the Kingdom of Denmark comprises two autonomous constituent countries in the North Atlantic Ocean: the Faroe Islands and Greenland. Denmark proper consists of a peninsula, an archipelago of 443 named islands, with the largest being Zealand and the North Jutlandic Island; the islands are characterised by flat, arable land and sandy coasts, low elevation and a temperate climate. Denmark has a total area of 42,924 km2, land area of 42,394 km2, the total area including Greenland and the Faroe Islands is 2,210,579 km2, a population of 5.8 million. The unified kingdom of Denmark emerged in the 10th century as a proficient seafaring nation in the struggle for control of the Baltic Sea. Denmark and Norway were ruled together under one sovereign ruler in the Kalmar Union, established in 1397 and ending with Swedish secession in 1523.
The areas of Denmark and Norway remained under the same monarch until Denmark -- Norway. Beginning in the 17th century, there were several devastating wars with the Swedish Empire, ending with large cessions of territory to Sweden. After the Napoleonic Wars, Norway was ceded to Sweden, while Denmark kept the Faroe Islands and Iceland. In the 19th century there was a surge of nationalist movements, which were defeated in the 1864 Second Schleswig War. Denmark remained neutral during World War I. In April 1940, a German invasion saw brief military skirmishes while the Danish resistance movement was active from 1943 until the German surrender in May 1945. An industrialised exporter of agricultural produce in the second half of the 19th century, Denmark introduced social and labour-market reforms in the early 20th century that created the basis for the present welfare state model with a developed mixed economy; the Constitution of Denmark was signed on 5 June 1849, ending the absolute monarchy, which had begun in 1660.
It establishes a constitutional monarchy organised as a parliamentary democracy. The government and national parliament are seated in Copenhagen, the nation's capital, largest city, main commercial centre. Denmark exercises hegemonic influence in the Danish Realm, devolving powers to handle internal affairs. Home rule was established in the Faroe Islands in 1948. Denmark negotiated certain opt-outs, it is among the founding members of NATO, the Nordic Council, the OECD, OSCE, the United Nations. Denmark is considered to be one of the most economically and developed countries in the world. Danes enjoy a high standard of living and the country ranks in some metrics of national performance, including education, health care, protection of civil liberties, democratic governance and human development; the country ranks as having the world's highest social mobility, a high level of income equality, is among the countries with the lowest perceived levels of corruption in the world, the eleventh-most developed in the world, has one of the world's highest per capita incomes, one of the world's highest personal income tax rates.
The etymology of the word Denmark, the relationship between Danes and Denmark and the unifying of Denmark as one kingdom, is a subject which attracts debate. This is centered on the prefix "Dan" and whether it refers to the Dani or a historical person Dan and the exact meaning of the -"mark" ending. Most handbooks derive the first part of the word, the name of the people, from a word meaning "flat land", related to German Tenne "threshing floor", English den "cave"; the -mark is believed to mean woodland or borderland, with probable references to the border forests in south Schleswig. The first recorded use of the word Danmark within Denmark itself is found on the two Jelling stones, which are runestones believed to have been erected by Gorm the Old and Harald Bluetooth; the larger stone of the two is popularly cited as Denmark's "baptismal certificate", though both use the word "Denmark", in the form of accusative ᛏᛅᚾᛘᛅᚢᚱᚴ tanmaurk on the large stone, genitive ᛏᛅᚾᛘᛅᚱᚴᛅᚱ "tanmarkar" on the small stone.
The inhabitants of Denmark are there called "Danes", in the accusative. The earliest archaeological findings in Denmark date back to the Eem interglacial period from 130,000–110,000 BC. Denmark has been inhabited since around 12,500 BC and agriculture has been evident since 3900 BC; the Nordic Bronze Age in Denmark was marked by burial mounds, which left an abundance of findings including lurs and the Sun Chariot. During the Pre-Roman Iron Age, native groups began migrating south, the first tribal Danes came to the country between the Pre-Roman and the Germanic Iron Age, in the Roman Iron Age; the Roman provinces maintained trade routes and relations with native tribes in Denmark, Roman coins have been found in Denmark. Evidence of strong Celtic cultural influence dates from this period in Denmark and much of North-West Europe and is among other things reflected in the finding of the Gundestrup cauldron; the tribal Danes came from the east Danish islands and Scania and spoke an early form of North Germanic.
Historians believe that before their arrival, most of Jutland and the nearest islands were settled by tribal J