Notable events of 1941 in comics. See List of years in comics. Stan Lee becomes editor-in-chief at Timely Comics. Adventures of Captain Marvel, a twelve-chapter film serial adapted from the popular Captain Marvel comic book character for Republic Pictures, debuts, it was the first film adaptation of a comic book superhero. January 9: In the The Adventures of Tintin story The Crab With the Golden Claws, prepublished in the juvenile supplement of Le Soir and Captain Haddock first meet. January 10: The first issue of the Turkish children's magazine Cemal Nadir ve Arkadaş is launched, by Cemal Nadir Güler, it only lasts 17 weeks. Action Comics #32 - National Periodical Publications Adventure Comics #58 - National Periodical Publications All-American Comics #22 - National Periodical Publications Crack Comics #9 - Quality Comics Detective Comics #47 - National Periodical Publications Flash Comics #13 - National Periodical Publications Hit Comics #7 - Quality Comics Human Torch Comics #3 – Timely Comics Marvel Mystery Comics #15 - Timely Comics Master Comics #10 - Fawcett Comics More Fun Comics #63 - National Periodical Publications Mystery Men Comics #18 - Fox Feature Syndicate Smash Comics #18 - Quality Comics Whiz Comics #12 - Fawcett Comics Action Comics #33 - National Allied Publications Adventure Comics #59 - National Allied Publications All-American Comics #23 - National Allied Publications Crack Comics #10 - Quality Comics Detective Comics #48 - National Allied Publications Flash Comics #14 - National Allied Publications Hit Comics #8 - Quality Comics Marvel Mystery Comics #16 - Timely Comics Master Comics #11 - Fawcett Comics More Fun Comics #64 - National Allied Publications Mystery Men Comics #19 - Fox Feature Syndicate Smash Comics #19 - Quality Comics Superman #8 - National Allied Publications Whiz Comics #13 - Fawcett Comics March 16: Marten Toonder's Tom Poes makes its debut.
Action Comics #34 - National Allied Publications Adventure Comics #60 - National Allied Publications All-American Comics #24 - National Allied Publications Better Comics #1. In the first issue Vernon Miller's Iron Man makes the first Canadian superhero. Captain America Comics #1 - Timely Comics Crack Comics #11 - Quality Comics Detective Comics #49 - National Allied Publications Flash Comics #15 - National Allied Publications Hit Comics #9 - Quality Comics Marvel Mystery Comics #17 - Timely Comics Master Comics #12 - Fawcett Comics More Fun Comics #65 - National Allied Publications Mystery Men Comics #20 - Fox Feature Syndicate Mystic Comics #5 - Timely Comics Smash Comics #20 - Quality Comics Whiz Comics #14 - Fawcett Comics Whiz Comics #15 - Fawcett Comics Action Comics #35 - National Allied Publications Adventure Comics #61 - National Allied Publications. In this issue Gardner Fox and Jack Burnley's Starman debuts. All-American Comics #25 - National Allied Publications All-Star Comics #4 - National Allied Publications Batman #5 - National Allied Publications Blue Beetle #6 - Fox Feature Syndicate Captain America Comics #2 - Timely Comics Captain Marvel Adventures #1 - Fawcett Comics Crack Comics #12 - Quality Comics Daring Mystery Comics #7 - Timely Comics Detective Comics #50 - National Allied Publications Flash Comics #16 - National Allied Publications Hit Comics #10 - Quality Comics Human Torch Comics #4 - Timely Comics Marvel Mystery Comics #18 - Timely Comics Master Comics #13 - Fawcett Comics More Fun Comics #66 - National Allied Publications Mystery Men Comics #21 - Fox Feature Syndicate Smash Comics #21 - Quality Comics Sub-Mariner Comics #1 - Timely Comics Superman #9 - National Allied Publications Whiz Comics #16 - Fawcett Comics World's Best Comics #1 - National Allied Publications Action Comics #36 - National Allied Publications Adventure Comics #62 - National Allied Publications All-American Comics #26 - National Allied Publications Big 3 #3 - Fox Feature Syndicate Captain America Comics #3 - Timely Comics Detective Comics #51 - National Allied Publications Flash Comics #17 - National Allied Publications Hit Comics #11 - Quality Comics Marvel Mystery Comics #19 - Timely Comics Master Comics #14 - Fawcett Comics More Fun Comics #67 - National Allied Publications Mystery Men Comics #22 - Fox Feature Syndicate Smash Comics #22 - Quality Comics Whiz Comics #17 - Fawcett Comics Action Comics #37 - National Allied Publications Adventure Comics #63 - National Allied Publications All-American Comics #27 - National Allied Publications All-Winners Comics #1 - Timely Comics Blue Beetle #7 - Fox Feature Syndicate Captain America Comics #4 - Timely Comics Crack Comics #13 - Quality Comics Detective Comics #52 - National Allied Public
Parabens are a class of used preservatives in cosmetic and pharmaceutical products. Chemically, they are a series of esters of parahydroxybenzoic acid. Parabens are effective preservatives in many types of formulas; these compounds, their salts, are used for their bactericidal and fungicidal properties. They are found in shampoos, commercial moisturizers, shaving gels, personal lubricants, topical/parenteral pharmaceuticals, suntan products and toothpaste, they are used as food preservatives. No effective direct links between parabens and cancer have been established. Parabens are active against a broad spectrum of microorganisms. However, their antibacterial mode of action is not well understood, they are thought to act by disrupting membrane transport processes or by inhibiting synthesis of DNA and RNA or of some key enzymes, such as ATPases and phosphotransferases, in some bacterial species. Propylparaben is considered more active against most bacteria than methylparaben; the stronger antibacterial action of propylparaben may be due to its greater solubility in the bacterial membrane, which may allow it to reach cytoplasmic targets in greater concentrations.
However, since a majority of the studies on the mechanism of action of parabens suggest that their antibacterial action is linked to the membrane, it is possible that its greater lipid solubility disrupts the lipid bilayer, thereby interfering with bacterial membrane transport processes and causing the leakage of intracellular constituents. Parabens are esters of para-hydroxybenzoic acid. Common parabens include methylparaben, propylparaben and heptylparaben. Less common parabens include isobutylparaben, isopropylparaben and their sodium salts; the general chemical structure of a paraben is shown at the top right of this page, where R symbolizes an alkyl group such as methyl, propyl or butyl. All commercially used parabens are synthetically produced, although some are identical to those found in nature, they are produced by the esterification of para-hydroxybenzoic acid with the appropriate alcohol, such as methanol, ethanol, or n-propanol. Para-Hydroxybenzoic acid is in turn produced industrially from a modification of the Kolbe-Schmitt reaction, using potassium phenoxide and carbon dioxide.
Most of the available paraben toxicity data are from single-exposure studies, meaning one type of paraben in one type of product. According to paraben research this is safe, posing only a negligible risk to the endocrine system. However, since many types of parabens in many types of products are used further assessment of the additive and cumulative risk of multiple paraben exposure from daily use of multiple cosmetic and/or personal care products is needed. FDA states, they continue to consider certain questions and evaluate data about parabens' possible health effects. Parabens are, for the most part, non-sensitizing. Among people with contact dermatitis or eczema, less than 3% of patients were found to have a sensitivity to parabens. At least one case has been reported of an allergic reaction to parabens; the American Cancer Society mentioned a 2004 study that found parabens in the breast tissue of mastectomy patients but did not find parabens to be a cause of the cancers. Michael Thun of ACS stated that the effects of parabens would be minuscule compared to other risks "such as taking hormones after menopause and being overweight".
A 2005 review concluded "it is biologically implausible that parabens could increase the risk of any estrogen-mediated endpoint, including effects on the male reproductive tract or breast cancer" and that "worst-case daily exposure to parabens would present less risk relative to exposure to occurring endocrine active chemicals in the diet such as the phytoestrogen daidzein." Animal experiments have shown. In an in vivo study, the effect of butylparaben was determined to be about 1/100,000th that of estradiol, was only observed at a dose level around 25,000 times higher than the level used to preserve products; the study found that the in vivo estrogenic activity of parabens is reduced by about three orders of magnitude compared to in vitro activity. The estrogenic activity of parabens increases with the length of the alkyl group, it is believed that propylparaben is estrogenic to a certain degree as well, though this is expected to be less than butylparaben by virtue of its less lipophilic nature.
Since it can be concluded that the estrogenic activity of butylparaben is negligible under normal use, the same should be concluded for shorter analogs due to estrogenic activity of parabens increasing with the length of the alkyl group. A 2020 study, published by scientist at the Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research in Leipzig finds, that maternal paraben exposure may trigger childhood overweight development; the European Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety reiterated in 2013 that methylparaben and ethylparaben are safe at the maximum authorized concentrations. The SCCS concluded that the use of butylparaben and propylparaben as preservatives in finished cosmetic products is safe to the consumer, as long as the sum of their individual concentrations does not exceed 0.19%. Isopropylparaben, phenylparaben and pentylparaben were banned by Commission Regulation No 358/2014. Concerns about endocrine disruptors have led consumers
Rose Antonia Maria Valland was a French art historian, member of the French Resistance, captain in the French military, one of the most decorated women in French history. She secretly recorded details of the Nazi plundering of National French and private Jewish-owned art from France. Valland was born in the daughter of a blacksmith. Like many gifted pupils from humble backgrounds, she received a scholarship to an école normale, a teacher school, she graduated with the plan of becoming an art teacher. She studied art at the École nationale des beaux-arts de Lyon, graduating in 1922. Valland topped the competitive exam for art teacher training and underwent two years of training at the École nationale supérieure des beaux-arts in Paris, graduating in 1925. Afterward, she became a high school drawing teacher, but began to study art history at the École du Louvre and the University of Paris, she graduated in 1933 with a special diploma from the École du Louvre, engaged in graduate studies at the Collège de France.
In 1932, Valland became a volunteer assistant curator at the Jeu de Paume Museum. In 1941, during World War II, Valland was put in paid service and became the overseer of the Jeu de Paume Museum at the time of the German occupation of France. Through the "Special Staff for Pictorial Art" of the Einsatzstab Reichsleiter Rosenberg für die besetzten Gebiete, or ERR, the Germans began the systematic looting of artworks from museums and private art collections throughout France, they used the Jeu de Paume Museum as their central storage and sorting depot pending distribution to various persons and places in Germany. While the Nazi plundering was being carried out, Rose Valland began secretly recording as much as possible of the more than 20,000 pieces of art brought to the Jeu de Paume Museum. Valland kept secret from the Germans the fact. In fact, she never formally studied the language, but some trips in Germany in the 1920s and 1930s had helped her to get a good grasp of a widely used scholarly language.
Valland would converse with truck drivers employed by the Germans, she was thus able to learn about artwork being ransacked and taken directly to the railway stations. Valland informed Jacques Jaujard, the Director of the Musėes Nationaux, about the status of Nazi art looting. In addition, for four years she kept track of where and to whom in Germany the artworks were shipped and risked her life to provide information to the French Resistance about railroad shipments of art so that they would not mistakenly blow up the trains loaded with France's priceless treasures; the museum was visited by high-ranking Nazi officials, Valland was there when Reichsmarschall Hermann Göring came on 3 May 1941 to select some of the stolen paintings for his own private collection. On 1 August 1944, a few weeks before the Liberation of Paris on 25 August 1944 Valland learned that Baron Kurt von Behr, the head of the ERR in France was planning to remove to Germany as much artwork as he could including many of the modern paintings which they had hitherto neglected.
Valland learnt that the trucks which had collected the artworks were heading to the Aubervilliers train station on the outskirts of Paris. By the 2 August 1944, 148 crates of paintings containing in total 967 paintings, including works by Braque, Degas, Gauguin, Picasso, Toulouse-Lautrec and Urtillo had been loaded on five goods wagons waiting to be hooked up to another 48 goods wagons containing confiscated furniture and personal possessions of deported citizens; these other goods wagons hadn’t yet been loaded which meant the train never left the station on schedule. Valland was able to give a copy of the Nazi shipment order to Jaujard, which listed the train and goods wagon numbers, the contents of each crate and the destination of each goods wagon This information Jaujard passed on to the Resistance. By the 10 August, the train was ready to depart but by the French railway workers were on strike. However, two days the tracks were cleared and being delayed by higher priority trains carrying fleeing Germans and their personal possessions the train which had the designation 40044 departed hauling a total of 53 wagons.
The overloaded train reached Le Bourget. By the time the Germans had fixed the problem 48 hours the French Resistance had derailed two trains which blocked the tracks up ahead leaving the train stranded at Aulany-sous-Bois. Following the arrival of the Second Armored Division of the French Army in Paris a small detachment under the command of lieutenant André Rosenberg (the son of exiled art dealer Paul Rosenberg was sent on the 27 August to check out and secure the train. After ejecting some old German soldiers who were escorting the shipment they opened up some of the crates and found many paintings which Rosenberg had last seen hanging on the walls of his family’s apartment in Paris. Finding two crates pillaged and an entire collection of silvers missing it was arranged for 36 crates to be sent to the Louvre for safekeeping; however to Valland’s frustration it was another two months before the remainder of the crates were removed from the train and transferred to a secure location. Following the liberation of Paris by the Allied Forces, Valland because she had been employed at Jeu de Paume was arrested as a suspected Nazi collaborationist.
She was soon released once her conduct had been
Taiwan the Republic of China, is an island state in East Asia. The main island of Taiwan, known in English as Formosa, makes up 99% of the area controlled by the ROC, measuring 35,808 square kilometres and lying some 180 kilometres across the Taiwan Strait from the southeastern coast of mainland China; the East China Sea lies to its north, the Philippine Sea to its east, the Luzon Strait directly to its south and the South China Sea to its southwest. Smaller islands include a number in the Taiwan Strait including the Penghu archipelago, the Kinmen and Matsu Islands near the Chinese coast, some of the South China Sea Islands; the main island is a tilted fault block, characterized by the contrast between the eastern two-thirds, consisting of five rugged mountain ranges parallel to the east coast, the flat to rolling plains of the western third, where the majority of Taiwan's population reside. There are several peaks over 3,500 m, the highest being Yu Shan at 3,952 m, making Taiwan the world's fourth-highest island.
The tectonic boundary that formed these ranges is still active, the island experiences many earthquakes, a few of them destructive. There are many active submarine volcanoes in the Taiwan Straits; the climate ranges from tropical in the south to subtropical in the north, is governed by the East Asian Monsoon. The main island is struck by an average of four typhoons in each year; the eastern mountains are forested and home to a diverse range of wildlife, while land use in the western and northern lowlands is intensive. The total land area of Taiwan is 32,260 km2, making it intermediate in size between Belgium and the Netherlands, it has a coastline of 1,566.3 km. The ROC claims an exclusive economic zone of 83,231 km2 with 200 nmi and a territorial sea of 12 nmi. Taiwan proper, the main island of the archipelago, was known in the West until after World War II as Formosa, from the Portuguese Ilha Formosa, "beautiful island", it is 394 km long and 144 km wide, has an area of 35,808 km2. The northernmost point of the island is Cape Fugui in New Taipei's Shimen District.
The central point of the island is in Nantou County. The southernmost point on the island is Cape Eluanbi in Pingtung County; the island of Taiwan is separated from the southeast coast of China by the Taiwan Strait, which ranges from 220 km at its widest point to 130 km at its narrowest. Part of the continental shelf, the Strait is no more than 100 m deep, has become a land bridge during glacial periods. To the south, the island of Taiwan is separated from the Philippine island of Luzon by the 250 km -wide Luzon Strait; the South China Sea lies to the southwest, the East China Sea to the north, the Philippine Sea to the east. Smaller islands of the archipelago include the Penghu islands in the Taiwan Strait 50 km west of the main island, with an area of 127 km2, the tiny islet of Xiaoliuqiu off the southwest coast, Orchid Island and Green Island to the southeast, separated from the northernmost islands of the Philippines by the Bashi Channel; the islands of Kinmen and Matsu near the coast of Fujian across the Taiwan Strait have a total area of 180 km2.
The island of Taiwan was formed 4 to 5 million years ago at a complex convergent boundary between the Philippine Sea Plate and the Eurasian Plate. In a boundary running the length of the island and continuing southwards in the Luzon Volcanic Arc, the Eurasian Plate is sliding under the Philippine Sea Plate. Most of the island comprises a huge fault block tilted to the west; the western part of the island, much of the central range, consists of sedimentary deposits scraped from the descending edge of the Eurasian Plate. In the northeast of the island, continuing eastwards in the Ryukyu Volcanic Arc, the Philippine Sea Plate slides under the Eurasian Plate; the tectonic boundary remains active, Taiwan experiences 15,000 to 18,000 earthquakes each year, of which 800 to 1,000 are noticed by people. The most catastrophic recent earthquake was the magnitude-7.3 Chi-Chi earthquake, which occurred in the center of Taiwan on 21 September 1999, killing more than 2,400 people. On 4 March 2010 at about 01:20 UTC, a magnitude 6.4 earthquake hit southwestern Taiwan in the mountainous area of Kaohsiung County.
Another major earthquake occurred on 6 February 2016, with a magnitude of 6.4. Tainan was damaged the most, with 117 deaths, most of them caused by the collapse of a 17-story apartment building; the terrain in Taiwan is divided into two parts: the flat to rolling plains in the west, where 90% of the population lives, the rugged forest-covered mountains in the eastern two-thirds. The eastern part of the island is dominated by five mountain ranges, each running from north-northeast to south-southwest parallel to the east coast of the island; as a group, they extend 330 km from north to south and average about 80 kilometres from east to west. They include more than two hundred peaks with elevations of over 3,000 m; the Central Mountain Range extends from Su'ao in the northeast to Eluanbi at the southern tip of the island, forming a ridge of high mountains and serving as the island's principal watershed. The mountains are predominantly composed of hard rock formations resistant to weathering and erosion, although heavy rainfall has scarred the sides with gorges and sharp
Mioara Mugur-Schächter is a French physicist of Romanian origin, a specialist in quantum physics and epistemology. Born in Romania, she arrived in France in 1962 from Bucharest, her PhD thesis - of which the whole content had been elaborated beforehand in Bucharest and sent to Louis de Broglie - contains the first and elaborated invalidation of von Neumann's famous proof asserting the impossibility of hidden parameters compatible with the quantum mechanical formalism. This work was published in a volume prefaced by Louis de Broglie and published in the collection "Les grands problèmes des sciences", Gauthiers Villars, Paris, 1964. Since that time, a professor of theoretical physics in France • The mentioned invalidation has been incorporated to a Ph. D. thesis directed by Louis de Broglie and published by Gauthier Villars in 1964, in a small book prefaced by Louis de Broglie, titled Étude du caractère complet de la théorie quantique. • She has invalidated the proof of Wigner’s theorem on the impossibility of a joint probability of position and momentum compatible with the formalism of quantum mechanics.
• She has constructed an opacity functional of a statistic, with respect to the acting probability law. This functional constitutes a mathematical unification between the theory of probabilities and Shannon’s theory of communication of information. • She has explicated the specific structure of the quantum mechanical probabilities and of the logic of the quantum mechanical events. • Since 1982 she has never stopped developing a Method of Relativized Conceptualization Objectivity and Descriptional Relativities, Foundations of Science 7, pp. 73-180, 2002. According to the editor of "Automates intelligents" Jean-Paul Baquiast, this work embodies «a revolution in the way of representing the processes by which we acquire knowledge, in the way of representing “reality” ». According to the terms of Mugur-Schächter, this method is "a new discipline: a representation of the process of conceptualization rooted directly into the a-conceptual physical reality – far beneath languages – and the character of, resolutely methodological and formalizing.
The whole qualitative essence of the descriptions of microstates, wherefrom nowadays microphysics draws its remarkable powers, is incorporated in this method. Inside the framework of this method, the processes of conceptualization are represented by qualitative constructive algorithms, which exclude a priori any vagueness and illusory problems"; the method of Relativized Conceptualization leads to a unification between the MRC- logic and the MRC concept of probabilities. The method furthermore leads to an algorithm for constructing a relativized concept of a factual probability law; the general method of relativized conceptualization elucidates where and how meaning is involved inside Shannon’s theory of communication of information. And it allows yields a definition of relativized mathematical measures of complexity that preserve the involved semantic contents; the infra-quantum mechanics arXiv:0903.4976v3 offers a qualitative description of microstates constructed quite independently of the mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics, under – – the constraints imposed by: the cognitive situation in, placed a human being who wants to create knowledge concerning non-perceivable “microstates”, the general requirements of the human ways of conceptualizing.
Those who know the mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics can discern the general features of the quantum mechanical algorithms inside the qualitative descriptional structure obtained in the above-mentioned way. But they will discern features that are occulted by these algorithms though they are endowed with major semantic importance; the epistemological/operational/methodological discipline called infra-quantum mechanics offers from now on a reference structure for a face-à-face with the quantum mechanical formalism, elaborated outside this formalism and permits to dissolve