Dismemberment is the act of cutting, pulling, wrenching or otherwise removing the limbs of a living thing. It has been practised upon human beings as a form of capital punishment in connection with regicide, but can occur as a result of a traumatic accident, or in connection with murder, suicide, or cannibalism; as opposed to surgical amputation of the limbs, dismemberment is fatal to all but the simplest of creatures. In criminology, a distinction is made between offensive, where dismemberment is the primary objective of the dismemberer, defensive dismemberment, where it's done to destroy evidence. Intentional, criminal dismemberment is known as mayhem. In South-Eastern Asia, execution by trained elephants was a form of capital punishment practiced for several centuries; the techniques by which the convicted person was executed varied but did, on occasion, include the elephant dismembering the victim by means of sharp blades attached to its feet. The Muslim traveller Ibn Battuta, visiting Delhi in the 1330s, has left the following eyewitness account of this particular type of execution by elephants: Upon a certain day, when I myself was present, some men were brought out, accused of having attempted the life of the Vizier.
They were ordered, accordingly, to be thrown to the elephants, taught to cut their victims to pieces. Their hoofs were cased with sharp iron instruments, the extremities of these were like knives. On such occasions the elephant-driver rode upon them: and, when a man was thrown to them, they would wrap the trunk about him and toss him up take him with the teeth and throw him between their fore feet upon the breast, do just as the driver should bid them, according to the orders of the Emperor. If the order was to cut him to pieces, the elephant would do so with his irons, throw the pieces among the assembled multitude: but if the order was to leave him, he would be left lying before the Emperor, until the skin should be taken off, stuffed with hay, the flesh given to the dogs. In the Holy Roman Empire emperor Charles V's 1532 Constitutio Criminalis Carolina specifies how every dismemberment should ideally occur: Concerning quartering: To cut and hack apart his entire body into four pieces, thus be punished unto death, such four parts are to be hanged on stakes publicly on four common thorough-fares.
Thus, the imperially approved way to dismember the convict within the Holy Roman Empire was by means of cutting, rather than dismemberment through ripping the individual apart. In paragraph 124 of the same code, beheading prior to quartering is mentioned as allowable when extenuating circumstances are present, whereas aggravating circumstances may allow pinching/ripping the criminal with glowing pincers, prior to quartering; the fate of Wilhelm von Grumbach in 1567, a maverick knight in the Holy Roman Empire, fond of making his own private wars and was thus condemned for treason, is worthy of note. Gout-ridden, he was bound fast to a table; the executioner ripped out his heart, stuck it in von Grumbach's face with the words: "von Grumbach! Behold your false heart!" Afterwards, the executioner quartered von Grumbach's body. His principal associate was given the same treatment, an eyewitness avers that after his heart had been ripped out, Chancellor Brück screamed horribly for "quite some time".
One example of a aggravated execution is illustrated by the fate of Bastian Karnhars on 16 July 1600. Karnhars was found guilty of 52 separate acts of murder, including the rape and murder of 8 women, the murder of a child, whose heart he had eaten for rituals of black magic. To begin, Karnhars had three strips of flesh torn from his back, before being pinched 18 times with glowing pincers, having his fingers clipped off one by one, his arms and legs broken on the wheel, while still alive, quartered. In the seventeenth century, a number of travel reports speak of an exotic "Turkish" execution method, where first, the waist of a man was constricted by ropes and cords, a swift bisection of the trunk was performed. William Lithgow presents a comparatively prosaic description of the method: If a Turke should happen to kill another Turke he is brought forth to the market place, a blocke being brought hither of foure foote high. George Sandys, during the same period, tells of a method as no longer in use, in a rather more mythologized way:...they twitch the offender about the waist with a towell, enforcing him to draw up his breath by pricking him in the body, until they have drawn him within the compasse of a span.
In 1850s Persia, a particular dismemberment technique called. Travelling as an official for the East India Company Robert Binning describes it as follows: the criminal is hung up by the heels, head downwards, from a ladder or between two posts, the executioner hacks away with a sword, until the body is bisected lengthways, terminating at the hea
The Portuguese Empire known as the Portuguese Overseas or the Portuguese Colonial Empire, was one of the largest and longest-lived empires in world history. It existed for six centuries, from the capture of Ceuta in 1415, to the handover of Portuguese Macau to China in 1999; the empire began in the 15th century, from the early 16th century it stretched across the globe, with bases in North and South America and various regions of Asia and Oceania. The Portuguese Empire has been described as the first global empire in history, a description given to the Spanish Empire; the Portuguese Empire originated at the beginning of the Age of Discovery, the power and influence of the Kingdom of Portugal would expand across the globe. In the wake of the Reconquista, Portuguese sailors began exploring the coast of Africa and the Atlantic archipelagos in 1418–19, using recent developments in navigation and maritime technology such as the caravel, with the aim of finding a sea route to the source of the lucrative spice-trade.
In 1488 Bartolomeu Dias rounded the Cape of Good Hope, in 1498 Vasco da Gama reached India. In 1500, either by an accidental landfall or by the crown's secret design, Pedro Álvares Cabral discovered Brazil on the South American coast. Over the following decades, Portuguese sailors continued to explore the coasts and islands of East Asia, establishing forts and factories as they went. By 1571 a string of naval outposts connected Lisbon to Nagasaki along the coasts of Africa, the Middle East and South Asia; this commercial network and the colonial trade had a substantial positive impact on Portuguese economic growth, when it accounted for about a fifth of Portugal's per-capita income. When King Philip II of Spain inherited the Portuguese crown in 1580 there began a 60-year union between Spain and Portugal known to subsequent historiography as the Iberian Union; the realms continued to have separate administrations. As the King of Spain was King of Portugal, Portuguese colonies became the subject of attacks by three rival European powers hostile to Spain: the Dutch Republic and France.
With its smaller population, Portugal found itself unable to defend its overstretched network of trading posts, the empire began a long and gradual decline. Brazil became the most valuable colony of the second era of empire, until, as part of the wave of independence movements that swept the Americas during the early 19th century, it broke away in 1822; the third era of empire covers the final stage of Portuguese colonialism after the independence of Brazil in the 1820s. By the colonial possessions had been reduced to forts and plantations along the African coastline, Portuguese Timor, enclaves in India and China; the 1890 British Ultimatum led to the contraction of Portuguese ambitions in Africa. Under António Salazar, the Second Portuguese Republic made some ill-fated attempts to cling on to its last remaining colonies. Under the ideology of Pluricontinentalism, the regime renamed its colonies "overseas provinces" while retaining the system of forced labour, from which only a small indigenous élite was exempt.
In 1961 India annexed Goa and Dahomey annexed Fort of São João Baptista de Ajudá. The Portuguese Colonial War in Africa lasted from 1961 until the final overthrow of the Estado Novo regime in 1974; the so-called Carnation Revolution of April 1974 in Lisbon led to the hasty decolonization of Portuguese Africa and to the 1975 annexation of Portuguese Timor by Indonesia. Decolonization prompted the exodus of nearly all the Portuguese colonial settlers and of many mixed-race people from the colonies. Portugal returned Macau to China in 1999; the only overseas possessions to remain under Portuguese rule, the Azores and Madeira, both had overwhelmingly Portuguese populations, Lisbon subsequently changed their constitutional status from "overseas provinces" to "autonomous regions". The origin of the Kingdom of Portugal lay in the reconquista, the gradual reconquest of the Iberian peninsula from the Moors. After establishing itself as a separate kingdom in 1139, Portugal completed its reconquest of Moorish territory by reaching Algarve in 1249, but its independence continued to be threatened by neighbouring Castile until the signing of the Treaty of Ayllón in 1411.
Free from threats to its existence and unchallenged by the wars fought by other European states, Portuguese attention turned overseas and towards a military expedition to the Muslim lands of North Africa. There were several probable motives for their first attack, on the Marinid Sultanate, it offered the opportunity to continue the Christian crusade against Islam. In 1415 an attack was made on Ceuta, a strategically located North African Muslim enclave along the Mediterranean Sea, one of the terminal ports of the trans-Saharan gold and slave trades; the conquest was a military success, marked one of the first steps in Portuguese expansion beyond the Iberian Peninsula, but it proved costly to defend against the Muslim forces that soon besieged it. The Portuguese were unable to use it as a base for further expansion into the hinterland, the trans-Saharan caravans shifted their routes to bypass Ceuta and/or used alternative Muslim ports. Although Ceuta proved to be a disappointment for the Portuguese
Crimes against humanity
Crimes against humanity are certain acts that are deliberately committed as part of a widespread or systematic attack directed against any civilian or an identifiable part of a civilian population. The first prosecution for crimes against humanity took place at the Nuremberg trials. Crimes against humanity have since been prosecuted by other international courts as well as in domestic prosecutions; the law of crimes against humanity has developed through the evolution of customary international law. Crimes against humanity are not codified in an international convention, although there is an international effort to establish such a treaty, led by the Crimes Against Humanity Initiative. Unlike war crimes, crimes against humanity can be committed during war, they are not isolated or sporadic events, but are part either of a government policy or of a wide practice of atrocities tolerated or condoned by a government or a de facto authority. War crimes, massacres, genocide, ethnic cleansing, unethical human experimentation, extrajudicial punishments including summary executions, use of WMDs, state terrorism or state sponsoring of terrorism, death squads and forced disappearances, military use of children, unjust imprisonment, cannibalism, rape, political repression, racial discrimination, religious persecution and other human rights abuses may reach the threshold of crimes against humanity if they are part of a widespread or systematic practice.
The term "crimes against humanity" is ambiguous because of the ambiguity of the word "humanity", which can mean humankind or the value of humanness. The history of the term shows. There were several bilateral treaties in 1814 that foreshadowed the multilateral treaty of Final Act of the Congress of Vienna that used wording expressing condemnation of the slave trade using moral language. For example, the Treaty of Paris between Britain and France included the wording "principles of natural justice"; the multilateral Declaration of the Powers, on the Abolition of the Slave Trade, of 8 February 1815 included in its first sentence the concept of the "principles of humanity and universal morality" as justification for ending a trade, "odious in its continuance". The term "crimes against humanity" was used by George Washington Williams in a pamphlet published in 1890 to describe the practices of Leopold II of Belgium's administration of the Congo Free State. In treaty law, the term originated in the Second Hague Convention of 1899 preamble and was expanded in the Fourth Hague Convention of 1907 preamble and their respective regulations, which were concerned with the codification of new rules of international humanitarian law.
The preamble of the two Conventions referenced the "laws of humanity" as an expression of underlying inarticulated humanistic values. The term is part of. On May 24, 1915, the Allied Powers, Britain and Russia, jointly issued a statement explicitly charging for the first time another government of committing "a crime against humanity". An excerpt from this joint statement reads: In view of these new crimes of Ottoman Empire against humanity and civilization, the Allied Governments announce publicly to the Sublime Porte that they will hold responsible for these crimes all members of the Ottoman Government, as well as those of their agents who are implicated in such massacres. At the conclusion of the war, an international war crimes commission recommended the creation of a tribunal to try "violations of the laws of humanity". However, the US representative objected to references to "law of humanity" as being imprecise and insufficiently developed at that time and the concept was not pursued.
After the Second World War, the London Charter of the International Military Tribunal set down the laws and procedures by which the Nuremberg trials were to be conducted. The drafters of this document were faced with the problem of how to respond to the Holocaust and the grave crimes committed by the Nazi regime. A traditional understanding of war crimes gave no provision for crimes committed by a power on its own citizens. Therefore, Article 6 of the Charter was drafted to include not only traditional war crimes and crimes against peace, but crimes against humanity, defined as Murder, enslavement and other inhumane acts committed against any civilian population, before or during the war, or persecutions on political, racial or religious grounds in execution of or in connection with any crime within the jurisdiction of the Tribunal, whether or not in violation of the domestic law of the country where perpetrated. Under this definition, crimes against humanity could only be punished insofar as they could be connected somehow to war crimes or crimes against peace.
The jurisdictional limitation was explained by the American chief representative to the London Conference, Robert H. Jackson, who pointed out that it "has been a general principle from time immemorial that the internal affairs of another government are not ordinarily our business". Thus, "it is justifiable that we interfere or attempt to bring retribution to individuals or to states only because the concentration camps and the deport
Minas Gerais is a state in the north of Southeastern Brazil. It ranks as the second most populous, the third by gross domestic product, the fourth largest by area in the country; the state's capital and largest city, Belo Horizonte, is a major urban and finance center in Latin America, the sixth largest municipality in Brazil, after the cities of São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Salvador and Fortaleza, but its metropolitan area is the third largest in Brazil with just over 5,500,000 inhabitants, after those of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. Nine Brazilian presidents were born in the most of any state. With an area of 586,528 square kilometres —larger than Metropolitan France—it is the fourth most extensive state in Brazil; the main producer of coffee and milk in the country, Minas Gerais is known for its heritage of architecture and colonial art in historical cities such as São João del Rei, Ouro Preto, Diamantina and Mariana. In the south, the tourist points are the hydro mineral spas, such as Caxambu, Lambari, São Lourenço, Poços de Caldas, São Thomé das Letras, Monte Verde and the national parks of Caparaó and Canastra.
The landscape of the State is marked by mountains and large areas of fertile lands. In the Serra do Cipó, Sete Lagoas and Lagoa Santa, the caves and waterfalls are the attractions; some of Brazil's most famous caverns are located there. In recent years, the state has emerged as one of the largest economic forces of Brazil, exploring its great economic potential. Two interpretations are given for the origin of the name Minas Gerais, it comes from "Minas dos Matos Gerais", the former name of the colonial province. So a first and more common understanding affirms that the name means "General Mines", with the word Gerais serving as an adjective to the mines, which were themselves spread in several spots around a larger region. Another explanation is that this ignores the two large geographical spaces which conformed the state in its history: the region of the mines, the region of the Gerais; these corresponded to the areas of Sertão which were farther and hard to access from the mining spots. The confusion comes from the fact that the term "Gerais" is taken as an adjective to "Minas" in the first version, although according to this point of view it refers to the region called Gerais.
A further complication is that this is not a well-defined area on the map of the state, but rather a designation to these parts outside the mining spots, more related to the geography of Sertão, more isolated from the state's nucleus. Minas Gerais is in the north of the southeastern subdivision of Brazil, which contains the states of São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Espírito Santo, it borders on Bahia, Goiás, Mato Grosso do Sul, the states of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro and the state of Espírito Santo. It shares a short boundary with the Distrito Federal. Minas Gerais is situated between 14°13'58" and 22°54'00" S latitude and between 39°51'32" and 51°02'35" W longitude, it is larger in area than Metropolitan Spain. Minas Gerais features some of the longest rivers in Brazil, most notably the São Francisco, the Paraná and to a lesser extent, the Rio Doce; the state holds many hydroelectric power plants, including Furnas. Some of the highest peaks in Brazil are in the mountain ranges in the southern part of the state, such as Serra da Mantiqueira and Serra do Cervo, that mark the border between Minas and its neighbors São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro.
The most notable one is the Pico da Bandeira, the third highest mountain in Brazil at 2890 m, standing on the border with Espírito Santo state. The state has huge reserves of iron and sizeable reserves of gold and gemstones, including emerald and aquamarine mines. Emeralds found in this location are comparable to the best Colombia-origin emeralds, are most a bluish-green color; each region of the state has a distinct character, geographically and to a certain extent culturally. The central and eastern area of the state is hilly and rocky, with little vegetation on the mountains. Around Lagoa Santa and Sete Lagoas a typical Karst topography with caves and lakes is found; some of the mountains are entirely iron ore, which led to extensive mining. Recent advances in environmental policy helped to put limits to mining. About 200 kilometres to the east of Belo Horizonte is the second Metropolitan Region of the state, Vale do Aço, which has iron and steel processing companies along the course of the Rio Doce and its tributaries.
Vale do Aço's largest cities are Coronel Fabriciano and Timóteo. Now that mining is restricted large areas of forest are being removed for timber, charcoal and to clear land for cattle ranching; the original forest cover of these inland hills is much fragmented. The city of Governador Valadares is in the limit of this region with the poorer North; the south of Minas Gerais is green, with coffee and milk production. This region is notably cooler than the rest of the state, some locations are subject to temperatures just below the freezing point during the winter; the region is famed for its mineral-water resorts, including the cities of Poços de Caldas, Lambari, São Lourenço and Caxambu. Many industries are located at Pouso Alegre; the southeast of the state, called Zona da Mata was the richest region unti
Brazilian integralism was a fascist and catholic political movement in Brazil, created in October 1932. Founded and led by Plínio Salgado, a literary figure, somewhat famous for his participation in the 1922 Modern Art Week, the movement had adopted some characteristics of European mass movements of those times of Italian Fascism, but distancing itself from Nazism because Salgado himself did not support racism. Despite the movement's slogan "Union of all races and all peoples", some militants held anti-Semitic views; the name of the party created to support its doctrine was Brazilian Integralist Action. The reference to Integralism mirrored a traditionalist movement in Portugal, the Lusitanian Integralism. For its symbol, the AIB used a flag with a white disk on a royal blue background, with an uppercase sigma in its center. In its outward forms, Integralism was similar to European fascism: a green-shirted paramilitary organization with uniformed ranks regimented street demonstrations, rhetoric against Marxism and liberalism.
However, it differed markedly from it in specific ideology: a prolific writer before turning political leader, Salgado interpreted human history at large as an opposition between "materialism"—understood by him as the normal operation of natural laws guided by blind necessity—and "spiritualism": the belief in God, in the immortality of the soul, in the conditioning of individual existence to superior, eternal goals. Salgado advocated, the harnessing of individual interest to values such as pity, self-donation and concern to others. For him, human history consisted of the eternal struggle of the human spirit against the laws of nature, as expressed by the atheism of modern society in the twin forms of liberalism and socialism—capitalist competition leading to the merger of private capitals in a single state-owned economy, thus the integralists favoured nationalism as a shared spiritual identity, in the context of a heterogeneous and tolerant nation influenced by "Christian virtues"—such virtues being concretely enforced by means of an authoritarian government enforcing compulsory political activity under the guidance of an acknowledged leader.
The Integralists were something akin to the contemporary Irish Blueshirts who, like them, were revolutionary in spirit, were an offshoot of the Fenian movement and the IRB, both of which were terrorist organisations condemned by the Irish Roman Catholic bishops and excommunicated by Pope Pius IX on 12 October 1869 and 12 January 1870. In particular, they drew support from military officers in the Brazilian Navy. Integralism being a mass movement, there were marked differences in ideology among its leaders under the influence of various international fascist and quasi-fascist contemporary movements, as in the issue of anti-Semitism: Salgado was against it. Gustavo Barroso, the party's chief doctrinaire after Salgado, was known for his militant antisemitic views, becoming notorious for being the author of the first and so far only Portuguese translation of the Protocols of the Elders of Zion; this led to at least two serious ruptures in the movement: one in 1935 and the other, 1936, when Salgado renounced leadership of the movement.
One of the most important principles in an Integralist's life was the "Internal Revolution", or "Revolution of the Self", through which a man was encouraged to stop thinking only for himself, instead start to integrate into the idea of a giant integralist family—becoming one with the Homeland, while leaving behind selfish and "evil" values. In the beginning of the 1930s, Brazil went through a strong wave of political radicalism; the government led by President Getúlio Vargas had a degree of support from workers because of the labor laws he introduced, competed with the Communist Party of Brazil for working-class support. In the face of communist advances, at the same time building on his intensive crackdown against the Brazilian left, Vargas turned to the integralist movement as a single mobilized base of right-wing support. With center-left factions excluded from the Vargas' coalition and the left crushed, Vargas progressively set out to co-opt the populist movement to attain the widespread support that allowed him to proclaim his Estado Novo—a corporatist "New State".
Integralism, claiming a growing membership throughout Brazil by 1935 among the German-Brazilians and Italian-Brazilians, began filling this ideological void. In 1934, the Integralists targeted the Communist movement led by Luiz Carlos Prestes, mobilizing a conservative mass support base engaging in street brawls. In 1934, following the disintegration of Vargas' delicate alliance with labor, his new alliance with the AIB, Brazil entered one of the most agitated periods in its political history. Brazil's major cities began to resemble 1932-33 Berlin with its street battles between the Communist Party of Germany and the National-Socialist German Workers' Party. By mid-1935, Brazilian politics had been drastically destabilized; when Vargas established full dictatorial powers under the Estado Novo in 1937, he turned against the integralist movement. Although AIB favored Vargas' hard right turn, Salgado was overly ambitious, with overt presidential aspirations that threatened Vargas' grip on power.
In 1938, the Integralists made a last attempt at achieving power, by attacking the Guanabara Palace during the night, but police and army troops arrived at the last minute, the ensuing gunfight ended with
Jair Messias Bolsonaro is a Brazilian politician and retired military officer, serving as the 38th President of Brazil since 1 January 2019. He served in the country's Chamber of Deputies, representing the state of Rio de Janeiro, between 1991 and 2018, he is a member of the conservative Social Liberal Party. Bolsonaro was born in the northwest area of the state of São Paulo, he graduated from the Agulhas Negras Military Academy in 1977 and served in the Brazilian Army's field artillery and parachutist groups. He became known to the public in 1986, when he wrote an article for Veja magazine criticizing low wages for military officers, after which he was arrested and detained for fifteen days despite receiving letters of support from his peers in the army, he joined the reserve army in 1988 with the rank of Captain and ran for the Rio de Janeiro City Council in that same year, being elected while a member of the Christian Democratic Party. Bolsonaro was elected in 1990 to the lower chamber of Congress and was subsequently re-elected six times.
During his 27-year tenure as a congressman, he became known for his strong support of national conservatism. He is a vocal opponent of same-sex marriage and homosexuality, affirmative action, drug liberalization and secularism. In foreign policy, he has advocated closer relations to the United States and Israel. During the 2018 presidential campaign, he started to advocate for economic liberal and pro-market policies. A polarizing and controversial politician, his views and comments, which have been described as far-right and populist in nature, have drawn both praise and criticism in Brazil. Bolsonaro announced his pre-candidacy for president in March 2016 as a member of the Social Christian Party. However, he left the party in 2018 and joined the Social Liberal Party, which launched his presidential campaign in August 2018 with retired general Hamilton Mourão as his running mate, he portrays himself as a supporter of family values. He came in first place in the first round of the general election on 7 October 2018, with Workers' Party candidate Fernando Haddad coming in second place.
The two candidates faced a run-off on 28 October 2018, Bolsonaro was elected with 55.1% of the vote. Bolsonaro was born on 21 March 1955 in the town of Glicério, in São Paulo, in the southeast region of Brazil, to Percy Geraldo Bolsonaro and Olinda Bonturi, his family is of Italian descent, with some German ancestry. On his father's side, he is the great-grandson of Italians from Calabria. Bolsonaro's paternal grandfather's family comes from Veneto, more the city of Anguillara Veneta, in the province of Padua, his great-grandfather, Vittorio Bolzonaro, was born on 12 April 1878. Vittorio's parents immigrated to Brazil when he was ten, together with his little siblings and Tranquillo, his German ancestry came from his father's maternal grandfather, Carl "Carlos" Hintze, born in Hamburg around 1876, who immigrated to Brazil in 1883. His maternal grandparents were born in the Italian city of Lucca, in Tuscany, went to live in Brazil in the 1890s. Bolsonaro spent most of his childhood moving around São Paulo with his family, living in the cities of Ribeira, Jundiaí, Sete Barras, before settling in the town of Eldorado, in the south region of the state, in 1966, where he would grow up together with his five brothers.
In his final years in high school, Bolsonaro was admitted to the Escola Preparatória de Cadetes do Exército, where he entered in 1973. In 1974, he went to the Academia Militar das Agulhas Negras, graduating in 1977, as an Artillery officer, he served in the 9th Field Artillery Group, in Nioaque, Mato Grosso do Sul. He studied at the Army Physical Training School in Rio de Janeiro and served in the 21st Field Artillery Group and in the 8th Paratrooper Field Artillery Group, from the Paratrooper Brigade, both in the same city, his superior officers described him as "ambitious and aggressive". His first rise to publicity came in 1986, he complained about low salaries in the military and claimed that the High Command was firing officers due to budgetary cuts and not because they were displaying'deviations of conduct', as the command was telling the press. Despite being reprimanded by his superiors, Bolsonaro received praise from fellow officers and wives of military men, becoming a household name for a lot of hardliners and right-wingers who were growing disenchanted with Brazil's new civilian democratic government.
In 1987, he studied in the Officers Improvement School. Bolsonaro served in the military for fifteen years. In 1988, he entered politics by getting elected as city councillor in Rio de Janeiro by the Christian Democratic Party. In the 1990 elections, he was elected a federal deputy from the same party, he served seven consecutive terms, from 1991 to 2018. He has been affiliated with several other Brazilian political parties over the years. In 2014, he was the congressman who gained the most votes with 465,000 votes. In his 27 years of service in the Brazilian National Congress, he put forward one constitutional amendment and at least 171 bills, passing two of them into law. According to Bolsonaro, who claims to be persecuted by the left-wing parties, most congressmen do not vote according to their agenda, but "by who the author of the bill is". In January 2018, Bolsonaro abandoned the Social Christian Party and switched to the Social Liberal Party. Followin
Terrorism is, in the broadest sense, the use of intentionally indiscriminate violence as a means to create terror among masses of people. It is used in this regard to refer to violence during peacetime or in war against non-combatants; the terms "terrorist" and "terrorism" originated during the French Revolution of the late 18th century but gained mainstream popularity in the 1970s in news reports and books covering the conflicts in Northern Ireland, the Basque Country and Palestine. The increased use of suicide attacks from the 1980s onwards was typified by the September 11 attacks in New York City and Washington, D. C. in 2001. There are different definitions of terrorism. Terrorism is a charged term, it is used with the connotation of something, "morally wrong". Governments and non-state groups denounce opposing groups. Varied political organizations have been accused of using terrorism to achieve their objectives; these organizations include right-wing and left-wing political organizations, nationalist groups, religious groups and ruling governments.
Legislation declaring terrorism a crime has been adopted in many states. There is no consensus as to; the Global Terrorism Database, maintained by the University of Maryland, College Park, has recorded more than 61,000 incidents of non-state terrorism, resulting in at least 140,000 deaths between 2000 and 2014. Etmologically, the word terror is derived from the Latin verb Tersere, which becomes Terrere; the latter form appears in European languages as early as the 12th century. By 1356 the word terreur is in use. Terreur is the origin of the Middle English term terrour, which becomes the modern word "terror"; the term terroriste, meaning "terrorist", is first used in 1794 by the French philosopher François-Noël Babeuf, who denounces Maximilien Robespierre's Jacobin regime as a dictatorship. In the years leading up to the Reign of Terror, the Brunswick Manifesto threatened Paris with an "exemplary, never to be forgotten vengeance: the city would be subjected to military punishment and total destruction" if the royal family was harmed, but this only increased the Revolution's will to abolish the monarchy.
Some writers attitudes about French Revolution grew less favorable after the French monarchy was abolished in 1792. During the Reign of Terror, which began in July 1793 and lasted thirteen months, Paris was governed by the Committee of Public safety who oversaw a regime of mass executions and public purges. Prior to the French Revolution, ancient philosophers wrote about tyrannicide, as tyranny was seen as the greatest political threat to Greco-Roman civilization. Medieval philosophers were occupied with the concept of tyranny, though the analysis of some theologians like Thomas Aquinas drew a distinction between usurpers, who could be killed by anyone, legitimate rulers who abused their power – the latter, in Aquinas' view, could only be punished by a public authority. John of Salisbury was the first medieval Christian scholar. Most scholars today trace the origins of the modern tactic of terrorism to the Jewish Sicarii Zealots who attacked Romans and Jews in 1st century Palestine, they follow its development from the Persian Order of Assassins through to 19th-century anarchists.
The "Reign of Terror" is regarded as an issue of etymology. The term terrorism has been used to describe violence by non-state actors rather than government violence since the 19th-century Anarchist Movement. In December 1795, Edmund Burke used the word "Terrorists" in a description of the new French government called'Directory': At length, after a terrible struggle, the Troops prevailed over the Citizens To secure them further, they have a strong corps of irregulars, ready armed. Thousands of those Hell-hounds called Terrorists, whom they had shut up in Prison on their last Revolution, as the Satellites of Tyranny, are let loose on the people; the terms "terrorism" and "terrorist" gained renewed currency in the 1970s as a result of the Israeli–Palestinian conflict, the Northern Ireland conflict, the Basque conflict, the operations of groups such as the Red Army Faction. Leila Khaled was described as a terrorist in a 1970 number of Life magazine. A number of books on terrorism were published in the 1970s.
The topic came further to the fore after the 1983 Beirut barracks bombings and again after the 2001 September 11 attacks and the 2002 Bali bombings. There are over 109 different definitions of terrorism. American political philosopher Michael Walzer in 2002 wrote: "Terrorism is the deliberate killing of innocent people, at random, to spread fear through a whole population and force the hand of its political leaders". Bruce Hoffman, an American scholar, has noted that It is not only individual agencies within the same governmental apparatus that cannot agree on a single definition of terrorism. Experts and other long-established scholars in the field are incapable of reaching a consensus. C. A. J. Coady has written that the question of how to define terrorism is "irresolvable" because "its natural home is in polemical and propagandist contexts". French historian Sophie Wahnich distinguishes between the revolutionary terror of the French Revolution and the terrorists of the September 11 attacks: Revolutionary terror is not terrorism.
To make a moral equivalence between the Revolution's year II and September 2001 is historical and philosophical nonsense... The violence exercised on 11 September 2001 aimed neither at liberty. Nor did the preventive war announced by the president of the United States. Experts