Freetown Christiania known as Christiania, is an intentional community and commune of about 850 to 1,000 residents, covering 7.7 hectares in the borough of Christianshavn in the Danish capital city of Copenhagen. It was temporarily closed to visitors by residents by consensus in the plenum in April 2011 and a occasion, but re-opened. Christiania has been a source of controversy since its creation in a squatted military area in 1971, its cannabis trade was tolerated by authorities until 2004. Since relations between Christiania and Danish authorities have been strained. Since the beginning of the 2010s, the situation has been normalized and the common Danish law now applies to Christiania; the area of Christiania consists of the former military barracks of Bådsmandsstræde and parts of the city ramparts. The ramparts and the borough of Christianshavn were established in 1617 by King Christian IV by reclaiming the low beaches and islets between Copenhagen and Amager. After the siege of Copenhagen during the Second Northern War, the ramparts were reinforced during 1682 to 1692 under Christian V to form a complete defense ring.
The western ramparts of Copenhagen were demolished during the 19th century, but those of Christianshavn were allowed to remain. They are today considered among the finest surviving 17th century defence works in the world; the barracks of Bådsmandsstræde housed the Royal Artillery Regiment, the Army Materiel Command and ammunition laboratories and depots. Less used after World War II, the barracks were abandoned between 1967 and 1971; the adjacent area to the north, was Denmark's main naval base until the 1990s. It is an area in development, home to schools. An area further north open to the public during daytime; the outermost defence line, has been renamed Dyssen in Christiania language. It is connected to central Christiania by a bridge across the main moat or can be reached by the path beginning at Christmas Møllers Plads. Four gunpowder storehouses line the redans, they were built 1779-80 to replace a storage in central Copenhagen, at Østerport, which exploded infamously in 1770, killing 50 people.
The buildings are renamed Aircondition, Autogena and Kosmiske Blomst and have, although protected, been altered from their historical state. The last Danish execution site, active from 1946 to 1950, can still be seen on the Second Redan close to the building called Aircondition; the wooden execution shed is gone, but the concrete foundation and a drain for the blood remain just next to the path. In total, 29 World War II criminals were executed on the site; the last was Ib Birkedal, a high-level Danish Gestapo collaborator, on 20 July 1950. In 2007, the National Heritage Agency proposed protection status for some of the ancient military buildings, now in Christiania; these are: Den grå hal a riding house with a unique Bohlendach roof construction, now Christiania's largest concert venue Den grønne hal a smaller riding house Mælkebøtten The Commander's house, a half-timbered building The 17th and 18th century powder magazines on the bastions. Some of the historic buildings were altered after Christiania's takeover.
After the military moved out, the area was only guarded by a few watchmen and there was sporadic trespassing of homeless people using the empty buildings. On 4 September 1971, inhabitants of the surrounding neighborhood broke down the fence to take over parts of the unused area as a playground for their children. Although the takeover was not organized in the beginning, some claim this happened as a protest against the Danish government. At the time there was a lack of affordable housing in Copenhagen. On 26 September 1971, Christiania was declared open by Jacob Ludvigsen, a well-known provo and journalist who published a magazine called Hovedbladet, intended for and distributed to young people. In the paper, Ludvigsen wrote an article in which he and five others explored what he termed'The Forbidden City of the Military'; the article announced the proclamation of the free town, among other things he wrote the following under the headline Civilians conquered the'forbidden city' of the military: Christiania is the land of the settlers.
It is the biggest opportunity so far to build up a society from scratch - while still incorporating the remaining constructions. Own electricity plant, a bath-house, a giant athletics building, where all the seekers of peace could have their grand meditation - and yoga center. Halls where theater groups can feel at home. Buildings for the stoners who are too paranoid and weak to participate in the race... Yes for those who feel the beating of the pioneer heart there can be no doubt as to the purpose of Christiania, it is the part of the city, kept secret to us - but no more. Ludvigsen was co-author of Christiania's mission statement, dating from 1971, which offers the following: The objective of Christiania is to create a self-governing society whereby each and every individual holds themselves responsible over the wellbeing of the entire community. Our society is to be economically self-sustaining and, as such, our aspiration is to be steadfast in our conviction that psychological and physical destitution can be averted.
The spirit of Christiania developed into one of the hippie movement, the squatter
Danish Social Liberal Party
The Danish Social Liberal Party is a social-liberal political party in Denmark. The party is a member of Liberal International and the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe; the party was founded in 1905 as a split from the liberal Venstre Reform Party. The initial impetus was the expulsion of Venstre's antimilitarist wing from the party in January 1905; the expelled members held a founding conference for the new party in Odense, on 21 May 1905. In addition to the differences over military spending, the social liberals took a more positive view than Venstre towards measures that aimed to reduce social inequality; the party became the political leg of the cultural radical movement. The party was cautiously open to aspects of the welfare state, advocated reforms to improve the position of smallholders, an important early group of supporters; the party's social-liberal ideals are said to have been inspired by the political economists Henry George and John Stuart Mill. The literal translation "radical left" refers to its origin as the radical wing of its parent party Venstre In a modern context, this literal translation is somewhat misleading, as the party is in fact at the centre of the Danish political spectrum.
The use of the word for "left" in the name of the party is meant to refer to liberalism and not left-wing politics. Venstre was to the left of the conservative and aristocratic right-wing party Højre, which means "right"; the party president is Svend Thorhauge and it has eight members in the Folketing. The party's political leader is Morten Østergaard; the party performed well at the 2005 elections. It came out with 9.2 % of the popular vote and 17 seats in a gain of eight seats. In the 2007 elections, the party share of the popular vote fell to 5.1% and it lost 8 seats, leaving it a total of 9. In the subsequent 2011 elections, the party support rose to 9.5%, it regained 8 seats to resume a total of 17. Around 2005 the party was inspired by Richard Florida's book The Rise of the Creative Class; the party released their own book/political program called "Det kreative Danmark". Current issues high on the agenda for the party are: Strong opposition to the tight immigration policies of the former Liberal-Conservative government the 24 year rule.
Opposition to the educational policies of the former Liberal-Conservative government, which according to the party stresses centralisation, nationalised testing and old-fashioned educational ideas over creativeness, freedom in teaching methods and personal development of pupils. A major tax reform, which should simplify the tax system in such a way that income taxes will be reduced in favour of more environmental taxes, less tax deductions and higher taxes on real estate; the point of this is to make working more attractive and the hiring of service workers more attractive. This implies that the party is opposed to the Liberal-Conservative government's "tax freeze" which prohibits any tax increases, but changes of the taxation pattern. In 2007 some prominent members of the party criticised the strategy as being too left-leaning and depending too much on the Social Democrats. On 7 May 2007, MP Naser Khader and MEP Anders Samuelsen announced that they had left the party to found the economic liberal New Alliance renamed the Liberal Alliance, party along with Conservative MEP Gitte Seeberg.
During the following debate the party first distanced itself from the Social Democrats, but after being criticised internally for that too, returned to an oppositional role. On 6 January 2009 MP Simon Emil Ammitzbøll left the party and founded a new party called Borgerligt Centrum, again as a centre-right alternative. In June 2009 he joined Liberal Alliance. At a press release on 15 June 2007, it was announced that MP Margrethe Vestager would take over the leadership of the party after Marianne Jelved, that the party would rethink its strategy and will now consider forming a coalition government with either the left or right side of parliament. Vestager clarified during the run-up to the 2007 election that her party would only be supporting a government led by the Social Democrats. In the 2007 parliamentary elections, it received 5.1% of the vote, 9 out of 179 seats. In the 2011 parliamentary election, in which it ran as part of the "Red Bloc" with the Social Democrats, Socialist People's Party, Red-Green Alliance, it received 9.5% of the votes and went from 9 to 17 seats doubling its share of votes and of seats in the Folketing.
The party joined the new centre-left government led by incoming Prime Minister and Social Democrat leader Helle Thorning-Schmidt following the 2011 elections. The Danish Social Liberal Party has traditionally kept itself in the centre of the political scale. Since the early nineties, though, it has cooperated with the Social Democrats. Carl Theodor Zahle, Prime Minister 1909–1910 and 1913–1920, Erik Scavenius, Prime Minister 1942–1945, Hilmar Baunsgaard, Prime Minister 1968–1971, Trade Minister 1961–1964 Edvard Brandes, Finance Minister 1909–1910 and 1913–1920 Christopher Krabbe, Defence Minister 1909–1910 P. Munch, Minister of the Interior 1909–1910, Defence Minister 1913–1920, Foreign Minister 1929–1940 Poul Christensen, Agriculture Minister 1909–1910 Ove Rode, Minister of the Interior 1913
Horsens Statsfængsel called Horsens Straffeanstalt, is a former prison in Horsens, Denmark. Today it is a crime and prison museum under the name Horsens Prison Museum, a conference and business facility, a concert venue where bands such as Metallica have played. Following expansions in 2016, it is the largest prison museum in the world, it won the 2015 InAVation award as best visitors attraction and the 2016 Museums + Heritage award as best foreign museum. The prison was commissioned in 1853 and was closed in 2006 when the last remaining inmates were moved to the State Prison of East Jutland at Enner Mark, west of Horsens; when built, the prison was intended for prisoners serving long prison sentences. The prisoners spend the nights in their cells, during the day prisoners worked in the prison's "workshops" and during the evenings, they moved in the wards. Among the famous prisoners were Carl August Lorentzen who escaped in 1949 through a 20 m tunnel he dug with a spoon, politician Peter Adler Alberti who gained notoriety due to an embezzlement scandal in 1908, Jens Nielsen, executed in 1892, German Nazi Werner Best, the administrator of Denmark during the World War II occupation.
Artifacts relating to Lorentzen's escape, Alberti's and Best's imprisonments, the axe used in Nielsen's execution are among the items at the museum. Fængslet website Horsens Museum Interactive
Lolland is the fourth largest island of Denmark, with an area of 1,243 km2. Located in the Baltic Sea, it is part of Region Sjælland; as of 1 January 2013, it has 62,578 inhabitants. Lolland is known as the "pancake island" because of its flatness: the highest point of the entire island is 25 m above sea level, just outside the village of Horslunde; the island has been an important communication highway, among others for Nazi Germany during World War II. Sugar beet has been grown in Lolland. Sugar is still a major industry, visible from the large number of sugar beet fields; the largest town of Lolland is Nakskov, with 12,600 residents. Other main towns are Maribo, which hosts the seat of the Diocese of Lolland and Falster, Sakskøbing and Rødby. Since January 1, 2007, Lolland has been administered by two municipalities, Lolland covering the western two thirds, Guldborgsund uniting the eastern third with the neighbouring island Falster. Lolland has motor and railway links both to the island of Falster to the east and to Germany via ferry.
European route E47 links Copenhagen to Hamburg via Lolland. Route E47 from Copenhagen crosses the Guldborgsund strait between Lolland and Falster via a modern tunnel, but the motorway terminates at Rødbyhavn where a ferry carries vehicles and trains to Fehmarn; this ferry, in continuous service since 1963, serves 6 passenger trains per day. Freight trains and night trains do not use the ferry; the governments of Denmark and Germany plan to connect Lolland with Fehmarn by a future immersed tunnel, the Fehmarn Belt Fixed Link. Two older bridges span the strait between Lolland and Falster, the Frederick IX Bridge and Guldborgsund Bridge at the northern end of the strait. Frederick IX bridge is the railway bridge to Falster. Among the attractions of the island are Fuglsang Manor built in the second half of the 19th century, the neighbouring Fuglsang Art Museum which opened in 2008. Knuthenborg Safari Park north of Maribo is the largest safari park in Northern Europe and the holiday resort Lalandia is a giant indoor water-fun-land.
Furthermore, Middelaldercentret is an open-air museum on the most eastern part of the island just outside Nykøbing Falster. The Centre is an experimental living history museum and it contains a reconstructed part of a medieval town from around 1400, it is among the most authentic reconstructions of the medieval period in Europe, holds both the largest and the oldest trebuchets in the world. Lolland has many sandy beaches and areas with summer houses, which are visited by German tourists. List of Danish islands Nearby islands: Falster, Fejø, Femø, Askø, Vejrø. Lolland Hydrogen Community Tageo.com, "VESTSJAELLAND DENMARK Geography Population", 2007, webpage: Tageo-index. Denmark Postal codes, webpage: Postnumre-DK. Tele.dk Denmark detailed road map, webpage: Tele-DK-Danmark. Map of Lolland and Falster
Danish Freedom Council
The Danish Freedom Council was a clandestine body set up in September 1943 in response to growing political turmoil surrounding the occupation of Denmark by German forces during the Second World War. Technically, Denmark was illegally occupied by the Germans through Operation Weserübung on 9 April 1940; the Danish government as well as King Christian X made formal protests but acquiesced to a unique German arrangement whereby Denmark was given'independence' despite having German troops stationed in the country. Concerned about the safety of the population, the Danish government thought it best to accept these terms; as a result, resistance initiatives could not be formally recognized by the Allied forces. Although the Danish government in Copenhagen had accepted the situation, many Danes had not. Much of the Danish Navy had sailed to Allied ports and Danish ambassadors abroad had refused to accept their government's decision. A Danish resistance movement arose at the initiative of former Danish soldiers.
The movement was willing to pass intelligence on to the Special Operations Executive but refused to follow the SOE's calls for sabotage operations. Any sabotage that did take place was sanctioned by resistance leaders within Denmark or based in Stockholm. There was an increase in acts of sabotage in Denmark from 1943 on. Field Marshal Montgomery stated that intelligence from Danish resistance had been "second to none". Up to 1943, the occupation was quiet. However, Danish acts of sabotage caused the Germans to harden their response, arresting those involved; this led to strikes, more arrests for civil disobedience, causing more strikes. By August 1943, the situation had become so bad, that the Germans sent the Danish government an ultimatum — they were to declare a state of emergency and they were to condemn to death all captured saboteurs; the government resigned. The Germans responded by formally seizing power and Denmark became an "occupied country", adding to the legitimacy of the Danish Resistance.
Anti-Nazi sentiment sharpened further when the Germans attempted to arrest the Danish Jews in October 1943. The operation failed thanks to Danish assistance in helping over 7,000 of them to escape to Sweden. In September 1943, the'Danish Freedom Council' was created to coordinate the fight for liberation; the Council set out to unify the many different groups that made up the Danish resistance movement and consisted of representatives from the Communists, Free Denmark, Danish Unity and a resistance group called the Ring. Key members were Børge Houmann, Mogens Fog, Arne Sørensen, Frode Jakobsen, Erling Foss and Aage Schock. Directives from the British Special Operations Executive helped to unite the different groups. In December the SOE sent orders that military groups should be organised, ready to attack the Germans in case of invasion, they were first organised by the Communists and the Danish Unity Party, increasingly by members of the Ring. The resistance movement grew to over 20,000 and in the lead-up to D-Day acts of sabotage markedly increased.
Though the D-Day landings were to be in Normandy, the SOE encouraged tying up German troops elsewhere in Europe so that the fewer would be present in northern France. If acts of sabotage were increased, more German troops would be tied up in Denmark; the Danish Resistance used the country's proximity to Sweden to great effect. Stockholm became a base for the Danish Resistance. Here they were far safer than in Denmark — but they could get back to their country. BOPA Holger Danske Hæestrup, Jørgen. Secret Alliance - A Study of the Danish Resistance Movement 1940-45. Vols I, II & III. Odense University Press, 1976-77. ISBN 87-7492-168-1, ISBN 87-7492-194-0 & ISBN 87-7492-212-2. Moore, Bob. Resistance in Western Europe, Oxford: Berg, 2000, ISBN 1-85973-279-8
Gyldendalske Boghandel, Nordisk Forlag A/S referred to as Gyldendal is a Danish publishing house. Founded in 1770 by Søren Gyldendal, it is the oldest and largest publishing house in Denmark, offering a wide selection of books including fiction, non-fiction and dictionaries. Prior to 1925, it was the leading publishing house in Norway, it published all of Henrik Ibsen's works. In 1925, a Norwegian publishing house named Gyldendal Norsk Forlag was founded, having bought rights to Norwegian authors from Gyldendal. Gyldendal is a public company and its shares are traded on the Copenhagen Stock Exchange. Gyldendal stopped the print version of their encyclopedia in 2006, focusing instead on selling paid subscriptions for its online encyclopedia, Den Store Danske. By 2008 it had decided. Since February 2009 Gyldendal is publishing an subscription-free encyclopedia. Subsidiaries include: Rosinante Høst & Søn Samlerens Forlag Forlaget Forum Forlaget Fremad Hans Reitzels Forlag Munksgaard Academica Systime Exlibris Gyldendals Bogklubber Wivels Forlag Official website "'Gyldendalske Boghandel.
Nordisk Forlag'. Aktieselskab". Det Centrale Virksomhedsregister. Central Business Register. Hans Reitzel Forlag Forlaget Munksgaard Gyldendals Bogklubber
The HIPO Corps was a Danish auxiliary police corps, established by the German Gestapo on 19 September 1944, when the Danish civil police force was disbanded and most of its officers were arrested and deported to concentration camps in Germany. The majority of HIPO members were recruited from the ranks of Danish Nazi collaborators; the word HIPO is an abbreviation of the German word Hilfspolizei. The purpose of HIPO was to assist the Gestapo as an auxiliary police unit. HIPO was organized under, along quite similar lines to, the Gestapo; some men were uniformed in order to be visible. The uniformed men wore a black uniform with Danish police insignia. HIPO, like the Gestapo, had their own informers; the major difference was that most of the Gestapo were Germans working in an occupied country, while the HIPO Corps consisted of Danes working for the German occupiers. During the last winter of the war a number of HIPO members killed. In retaliation and as a warning, the corps terrorized the civil population and blew up houses and the Tivoli Gardens.
The Lorenzen Group known as section 9c, was an armed paramilitary group of Danes subordinate to the HIPO Corps. After the war, service in the HIPO corps was one of the crimes of collaborationism that retroactively became capital offenses; some two to three hundred HIPO members were prosecuted under these laws. About a dozen were executed between 1946 and 1950. A somewhat larger number received death sentences that were reduced to long prison terms or parole. Deportation of the Danish police Occupation of Denmark Haaest, Erik. Hipofolk. Documentas. Webpage with details about HIPO Corps