Administrative law is the body of law that governs the activities of administrative agencies of government. Government agency action can include rulemaking, adjudication, or the enforcement of a regulatory agenda. Administrative law is considered a branch of public law, civil law countries often have specialized courts, administrative courts, that review these decisions. In Brazil, unlike most Civil-law jurisdictions, there is no specialized court or section to deal with administrative cases, in 1998, a constitutional reform, led by the government of the President Fernando Henrique Cardoso, introduced regulatory agencies as a part of the executive branch. The President of the Republic exercises the function, in collaboration with several Ministries or other authorities with ministerial rank. Each Ministry has one or more under-secretary that performs through public services the actual satisfaction of public needs, there is not a single specialized court to deal with actions against the Administrative entities, but instead there are several specialized courts and procedures of review.
Administrative law in the Peoples Republic of China was virtually non-existent before the reform era initiated by Deng Xiaoping. In 1990, the Administrative Supervision Regulations and the Administrative Reconsideration Regulations were passed, the three regulations have been amended and upgraded into laws. In 1994, the State Compensation Law was passed, followed by the Administrative Penalties Law in 1996, Administrative Compulsory Law was enforced in 2012. Adiministrative Litigation Law was amended in 2014. The General Administrative Procedure Law is under way, the main administrative courts are the tribunaux administratifs and appeal courts are the cours administratives dappel. Special administrative courts include the National Court of Asylum Right as well as military, the French body of administrative law is called droit administratif. It is a part of the law, which deals with the organization, the tasks. Administrative law in Germany follows three basic principles, principle of the legality of the authority, which means that there is no acting against the law and no acting without a law.
The general administration law is ruled in the Administrative Procedures Law. Other legal sources are the Rules of the Administrative Courts, the security code. The Verwaltungsverfahrensgesetz, which was enacted in 1977, regulates the main administrative procedures of the federal government and it serves the purpose to ensure a treatment in accordance with the rule of law by the public authority. Furthermore, it contains the regulations for mass processes and expands the legal protection against the authorities, the VwVfG basically applies for the entire public administrative activities of federal agencies as well as federal state authorities, in case of making federal law. One of the clause is §35 VwVfG
Garrett County, Maryland
Garrett County is the westernmost county of the U. S. state of Maryland. As of the 2010 census, the population was 30,097, the county was named for John Work Garrett, president of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. Created from Allegany County, Maryland in 1872, it was the last Maryland county to be formed, Garrett County has long been part of the media market of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. It is considered to be a part of Western Maryland, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania is to the north. The Maryland–Pennsylvania boundary was surveyed and marked between April 1765 and October 1767 by astronomer Charles Mason and surveyor Jeremiah Dixon and this boundary is commonly known as the Mason–Dixon line. The eastern border with Allegany County was defined by the Bauer Report, submitted to Governor Lloyd Lowndes, the Potomac River and State of West Virginia lie to the south and west. Garrett County lies in the Allegheny Mountains, which form the western flank of the Appalachian Mountain Range. Hoye-Crest, a summit along Backbone Mountain, is the highest point in Maryland, the Eastern Continental Divide runs along portions of Backbone Mountain.
The western part of the county, drained by the Youghiogheny River, is the part of Maryland within the Mississippi River drainage basin. All other parts of the county are in the Chesapeake Bay basin, Garrett County contains over 76,000 acres of parks and publicly accessible forestland. Garrett County is part of Marylands 6th congressional district, the extreme south of the county lies within the United States National Radio Quiet Zone. In the early 20th century, the railroad and tourism started to decline, coal mining and timber production continued at a much slower pace. Today, tourism has made a rebound in the county with logging and farming making up the greatest part of the economic base. Due to a climate and lack of any large city. The County is governed by an elected Board of County Commissioners, the Board is the traditional form of county government in Maryland and may exercise only such powers as are conferred by the General Assembly of Maryland. The County is administered under a line organizational method, with the County Administrator responsible for the administration of County Government.
The county is part of Marylands 6th congressional district and is the most Republican in the state, the Republican candidate for President has won in each of the last thirteen elections. In 2008, John McCain carried Garrett County by a 40. 2% margin over Barack Obama, on December 15,1977, the seal of Garrett County went into effect by virtue of Resolution #7
Reuters /ˈrɔɪtərz/ is an international news agency headquartered in London, England. It is a division of Thomson Reuters, until 2008, the Reuters news agency formed part of an independent company, Reuters Group plc, which was a provider of financial market data. Since the acquisition of Reuters Group by the Thomson Corporation in 2008, Reuters transmits news in English, Arabic, German, Portuguese, Japanese, Korean and Chinese. The Reuter agency was established in 1851 by Paul Julius Reuter in Britain at the London Royal Exchange, Paul Reuter worked at a book-publishing firm in Berlin and was involved in distributing radical pamphlets at the beginning of the Revolutions in 1848. Upon moving to England, he founded Reuters Telegram Company in 1851, headquartered in London, the company initially covered commercial news, serving banks, brokerage houses, and business firms. The first newspaper client to subscribe was the London Morning Advertiser in 1858, Reuters agency built a reputation in Europe and the rest of the world as the first to report news scoops from abroad.
Reuters was the first to report Abraham Lincolns assassination in Europe, for instance, in 1872, Reuters expanded into the far east, followed by South America in 1874. Both expansions were made possible by advances in overland telegraphs and undersea cables, in 1883, Reuters began transmitting messages electrically to London newspapers. In 1923, Reuters began using radio to transmit news internationally, in 1925, The Press Association of Great Britain acquired a majority interest in Reuters, and full owners some years later. During the world wars, The Guardian reported that Reuters came under pressure from the British government to national interests. In 1941 Reuters deflected the pressure by restructuring itself as a private company, the new owners formed the Reuters Trust. In 1941, the PA sold half of Reuters to the Newspaper Proprieters Association, the Reuters Trust Principles were put in place to maintain the companys independence. At that point, Reuters had become one of the major news agencies.
In 1961, Reuters scooped news of the erection of the Berlin Wall, in 1981, Reuters began making electronic transactions on its computer network, and afterwards developed a number of electronic brokerage and trading services. Reuters was floated as a company in 1984, when Reuters Trust was listed on the stock exchanges such as the London Stock Exchange. Reuters published the first story of the Berlin Wall being breached in 1989, share price grew during the dotcom boom, fell after the banking troubles in 2001. In 2002, Brittanica wrote that most news throughout the world came from three major agencies, the Associated Press and Agence France-Presse, Reuters merged with Thomson Corporation in Canada in 2008, forming Thomson Reuters. In 2009, Thomson Reuters withdrew from the LSE and the NASDAQ, instead listing its shares on the Toronto Stock Exchange, the last surviving member of the Reuters family founders, Baroness de Reuter, died at age 96 on 25 January 2009
Sodium thiopental, known as Sodium Pentothal, thiopentone, or Trapanal, is a rapid-onset short-acting barbiturate general anesthetic that is an analogue of thiobarbital. Sodium thiopental was a medicine in the World Health Organizations Essential Drugs List, which is a list of minimum medical needs for a basic healthcare system. Sodium thiopental is an ultra-short-acting barbiturate and has been used commonly in the phase of general anesthesia. Its use has largely replaced with that of propofol, but retains popularity as an induction agent for rapid sequence intubation. Following intravenous injection, the drug reaches the brain and causes unconsciousness within 30–45 seconds. At one minute, the drug attains a peak concentration of about 60% of the dose in the brain. Thereafter, the drug distributes to the rest of the body, a normal dose of sodium thiopental given to a pregnant woman for operative delivery rapidly makes her unconscious, but the baby in her uterus remains conscious. However, larger or repeated doses can depress the baby, anesthesia is usually maintained with an inhaled anesthetic agent.
Inhaled anesthetics are eliminated quickly, so that stopping the inhaled anesthetic will allow rapid return of consciousness. Sodium thiopental would have to be given in large amounts to maintain an anesthetic plane, in veterinary medicine, sodium thiopental is used to induce anesthesia in animals. Since it is redistributed to fat, certain breeds of dogs such as sight hounds will have prolonged recoveries from sodium thiopental due to their lack of body fat. Conversely, obese animals will have rapid recoveries, but it will be some time before it is removed from their bodies. Sodium thiopental is always administered intravenously, as it can be irritating, severe tissue necrosis. Sodium thiopental decreases the stroke volume, which results in a decrease in cardiac output. The decrease in cardiac output occurs in conjunction with a decrease in vascular resistance. However, in comparison with propofol, the reflex tachycardia seen during states of hypotension is relatively spared, in addition to anesthesia induction, sodium thiopental was historically used to induce medical comas.
It has now superseded by drugs such as propofol because their effects wear off more quickly than thiopental. Patients with brain swelling, causing elevation of pressure, either secondary to trauma or following surgery
St. Mary's County, Maryland
Saint Marys County, established in 1637, is a county located in the U. S. state of Maryland. As of the 2010 census, the population was 105,151, the name is in honor of the Catholic saint Mary, the mother of Jesus as told in the Bible. St. Marys County comprises the California-Lexington Park, MD Metropolitan Statistical Area and it is part of the Southern Maryland region. The county was the home to the first Maryland Colony, settled by English Catholics, it is considered to be the birthplace of religious freedom in North America, at a time when the British colonies were settled primarily by Protestants. It is home to the Patuxent River Naval Air Station, St. Marys County has been traditionally known for its unique and historic culture of Chesapeake Bay tidewater farming and crabbing communities. The settlement of Lord Baltimores Maryland began with the arrival of passengers from England at St. Clements Island in the Potomac River in what is now southwestern St. Marys County on March 25,1634. The passengers arrived in two vessels, the Ark and the Dove, which had set sail from the Isle of Wight on November 22,1633, the county is home to the first Catholic Mass celebrated in one of the original thirteen colonies -after theyd become English colonies.
Due to the size of the Island, and its lack of resources. Instead it was used as a base for the settlers while scouting for a suitable site. This was how a bluff overlooking the nearby St. Marys River was chosen for numerous reasons and it would soon be named St. Marys City. St. Marys City, Maryland is the site of the first Maryland Capitol and remained so for over 50 years until 1695, today Historic St. Marys City is a major attraction in Maryland with four museums, a reconstructed colonial village and the reconstructed Maryland Dove settlers ship. It is now one of the top archeological research sites in North America, St. Marys County was the first county established in Maryland, in 1637, probably by an order of the Governor. There is a statue in St. Marys City commemorating this event, along with museums, a reconstructed Colonial town, living history actors. St. Marys County is where Francis Scott Key, the author of a poem which became The Star Spangled Banner, St. Marys County was the birthplace of Dashiell Hammett, and Orlando Tubby Smith, head basketball coach at Texas Tech.
The largest employer is Patuxent River Naval Air Station and its related aerospace contract firms, there are both Amish and Mennonite communities who follow traditional ways. Tobacco, once dominant crop, has declined in recent years, the Maryland International Raceway attracts many auto racing enthusiasts. St. Marys County has some of the oldest still-standing buildings in English North America, many of these of properties are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. These buildings range through many periods, starting from the 1600s and running through the 1700s, 1800s
The Internet Archive launched the Wayback Machine in October 2001. It was set up by Brewster Kahle and Bruce Gilliat, and is maintained with content from Alexa Internet, the service enables users to see archived versions of web pages across time, which the archive calls a three dimensional index. Since 1996, the Wayback Machine has been archiving cached pages of websites onto its large cluster of Linux nodes and it revisits sites every few weeks or months and archives a new version. Sites can be captured on the fly by visitors who enter the sites URL into a search box, the intent is to capture and archive content that otherwise would be lost whenever a site is changed or closed down. The overall vision of the machines creators is to archive the entire Internet, the name Wayback Machine was chosen as a reference to the WABAC machine, a time-traveling device used by the characters Mr. Peabody and Sherman in The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show, an animated cartoon. These crawlers respect the robots exclusion standard for websites whose owners opt for them not to appear in search results or be cached, to overcome inconsistencies in partially cached websites, Archive-It.
Information had been kept on digital tape for five years, with Kahle occasionally allowing researchers, when the archive reached its fifth anniversary, it was unveiled and opened to the public in a ceremony at the University of California, Berkeley. Snapshots usually become more than six months after they are archived or, in some cases, even later. The frequency of snapshots is variable, so not all tracked website updates are recorded, Sometimes there are intervals of several weeks or years between snapshots. After August 2008 sites had to be listed on the Open Directory in order to be included. As of 2009, the Wayback Machine contained approximately three petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of 100 terabytes each month, the growth rate reported in 2003 was 12 terabytes/month, the data is stored on PetaBox rack systems manufactured by Capricorn Technologies. In 2009, the Internet Archive migrated its customized storage architecture to Sun Open Storage, in 2011 a new, improved version of the Wayback Machine, with an updated interface and fresher index of archived content, was made available for public testing.
The index driving the classic Wayback Machine only has a bit of material past 2008. In January 2013, the company announced a ground-breaking milestone of 240 billion URLs, in October 2013, the company announced the Save a Page feature which allows any Internet user to archive the contents of a URL. This became a threat of abuse by the service for hosting malicious binaries, as of December 2014, the Wayback Machine contained almost nine petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of about 20 terabytes each week. Between October 2013 and March 2015 the websites global Alexa rank changed from 162 to 208, in a 2009 case, Netbula, LLC v. Chordiant Software Inc. defendant Chordiant filed a motion to compel Netbula to disable the robots. Netbula objected to the motion on the ground that defendants were asking to alter Netbulas website, in an October 2004 case, Telewizja Polska USA, Inc. v. Echostar Satellite, No.02 C3293,65 Fed. 673, a litigant attempted to use the Wayback Machine archives as a source of admissible evidence, Telewizja Polska is the provider of TVP Polonia and EchoStar operates the Dish Network
Piracy is an act of robbery or criminal violence by ship- or boat-borne attackers upon another ship or a coastal area, typically with the goal of stealing cargo and other valuable items or properties. Those who engage in acts of piracy are called pirates, the earliest documented instances of piracy were in the 14th century BC, when the Sea Peoples, a group of ocean raiders, attacked the ships of the Aegean and Mediterranean civilizations. Narrow channels which funnel shipping into predictable routes have long created opportunities for piracy, as well as for privateering and commerce raiding. Historic examples include the waters of Gibraltar, the Strait of Malacca, the Gulf of Aden, a land-based parallel is the ambushing of travelers by bandits and brigands in highways and mountain passes. While the term can include acts committed in the air, on land, or in major bodies of water or on a shore. It does not normally include crimes committed against people traveling on the vessel as the perpetrator.
Piracy or pirating is the name of a crime under customary international law. They use larger vessels, known as ships, to supply the smaller motorboats. The international community is facing challenges in bringing modern pirates to justice. In the 2000s, a number of nations have used their naval forces to protect ships from pirate attacks. The English pirate is derived from the Latin term pirata and that from Greek πειρατής, brigand, in turn from πειράομαι, I attempt, from πεῖρα, the meaning of the Greek word peiratēs literally is one who attacks. The word is cognate to peril. The term is first attested to c, spelling was not standardised until the eighteenth century, and spellings such as pirrot and pyrat were used until this period. It may be reasonable to assume that piracy has existed for as long as the oceans were plied for commerce, the earliest documented instances of piracy are the exploits of the Sea Peoples who threatened the ships sailing in the Aegean and Mediterranean waters in the 14th century BC.
In classical antiquity, the Phoenicians and Tyrrhenians were known as pirates, the ancient Greeks condoned piracy as a viable profession, it apparently was widespread and regarded as an entirely honourable way of making a living. References are made to its perfectly normal occurrence many texts including in Homers Iliad and Odyssey, by the era of Classical Greece, piracy was looked upon as a disgrace to have as a profession. In the 3rd century BC, pirate attacks on Olympos brought impoverishment, among some of the most famous ancient pirateering peoples were the Illyrians, a people populating the western Balkan peninsula. Constantly raiding the Adriatic Sea, the Illyrians caused many conflicts with the Roman Republic and it was not until 229 BC when the Romans finally decisively beat the Illyrian fleets that their threat was ended
Metropolitan Transition Center
Now known as the MTC, the prison still houses Marylands now decommissioned death chamber. When it was established in 1811, the Maryland Penitentiary was much smaller than it is today, before its opening, convicted criminals were put in county jails or a workhouse where they were employed in public projects such as road building. Inmates were involved in labor for the majority of their time, there were three floors consisting of nine cells holding around 10 people each. Women, were housed separately and were forbidden, at all times, compared with other prisons, convicts were treated reasonably well and were kept in hygienic conditions with an ample supply of food. The money they earned from their work was back to the prison to compensate for their stay. Additional wings anticipated to be constructed with a design for the complex were never completed. Part of this construction included new cells for solitary confinement at night. The board created a library and a new education program for inmates, in particular a night school for those who could not read.
Following these reforms, a new warden was appointed, John F. Weyler and he was sworn in on the May 31,1888 after which he maintained control for 24 years, longer than anyone before him or after him. He initiated many changes for the Penitentiary including re-building the majority of the prison, new cells were larger, lit with electric lights, better ventilated, had sliding steel doors and, for the first time ever, flushable enamel toilets. This followed the resignation of a guard who had cited poor conditions. He was appalled at the methods of punishment including “chaining, ” which involved hand cuffing inmates and this marked the start of a three-man commission to explore every aspect of the prison. During their time in the prison, they made many startling discoveries, the conditions they encountered were appalling. Despite new cells, some men and all of the women remained in “dungeon” like cells. Mattresses were bloodstained from bed bug bites and cobwebs were everywhere and these poor conditions were apparent in the kitchens with omnipresent cockroaches and flies.
Inmates complained about the food, further investigation found meat to be unrefrigerated, wyler use contract labor and paid them little or nothing. He was found guilty of stealing up to three pounds of bread crumbs a week to feed the animals on his farm. Eventually Weyler retired to avoid the outcome of the commission and thus he left no legal charges
Maryland Court of Appeals
The Court of Appeals of Maryland is the supreme court of the U. S. state of Maryland. The court, which is composed of one judge and six associate judges, meets in the Robert C. Murphy Courts of Appeal Building in the state capital. The term of the Court begins the second Monday of September, the Court is unique among American courts in that the judges wear red robes. The Maryland Court of Appeals joins the New York Court of Appeals in being the two state Supreme Courts to bear the name Court of Appeals rather than Supreme Court. As Marylands highest court, the Court of Appeals reviews cases of major and minor importance. Throughout the year, the Court of Appeals holds hearings on the adoption or amendment of rules of practice and it supervises the Attorney Grievance Commission and State Board of Law Examiners in attorney disciplinary and admission matters. The Chief Judge of the Court of Appeals, designated by the Governor, is the administrative head of the Maryland judicial system. Cases typically come before the Court of Appeals on a petition for a writ of certiorari to the Court of Special Appeals, the court can decline the petition, and refuse to hear the case, or it can grant the cert, and hear the appeal.
The judges sometimes decide to hear an appeal before the appellate court has heard the case. This is known as the Court granting certiorari on its own motion, in this instance, the writ of certiorari is issued to the trial court, rather than to the Court of Special Appeals. In practice, almost all cases are heard by seven judges, additionally, it has exclusive jurisdiction in death penalty appeals. As the states supreme court, the Court of Appeals likewise retains original jurisdiction to all attorneys admitted to the practice of law in Maryland. They can impose penalties ranging from reprimands to the punishment, disbarrment. The seven judges of the Court of Appeals are appointed by the Governor of Maryland with Senate consent, note that the ballot for re-election says only for continuance in office. The Judges of the court are required to be citizens of, prior to their appointment, they must have resided in Maryland for at least five years, and must have resided for at least six months in the appellate judicial circuit from which they are appointed.
They must be at least thirty years of age at the time of appointment, appointees should be most distinguished for integrity and sound legal knowledge. If the voters reject the retention in office of a judge, or the vote is tied, the incumbent judge is retained in office for a ten-year term. This requirement of approval is similar to provisions in the Missouri Plan