Cardinal Secretary of State
The Secretary of State of His Holiness The Pope known as the Cardinal Secretary of State, presides over the Holy See Secretariat of State, the oldest and most important dicastery of the Roman Curia. The Secretariat of State performs all the political and diplomatic functions of the Holy See and the Vatican City; the Secretary of State is sometimes described as the prime minister of the Holy See though the nominal head of government of Vatican City is the President of the Pontifical Commission for Vatican City State. The Secretary of State is Cardinal Pietro Parolin; the Cardinal Secretary is appointed by the Pope, serves as one of his principal advisors. As one of the senior offices in the Roman Catholic Church, the Secretary is required to be a cardinal. If the office is vacant, a non-cardinal may serve as Pro-tem Secretary of State, exercising the powers of the Secretary of State until a suitable replacement is found or the Pro-Secretary is made a cardinal in a subsequent consistory; the Cardinal Secretary's term ends when the Pope who appointed him leaves office.
During the sede vacante period, the former Secretary acts as a member of a commission with the Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church and the former President of the Pontifical Commission for Vatican City State, which exercises some of the functions of the head of state of the Vatican City until a new Pope is elected. Once the new Pope is chosen, the former Secretary's role in the commission expires, though he can be re-appointed as Secretary of State; the office traces its origins to that of secretary intimus, created by Pope Leo X in the early 16th century to handle correspondence with the diplomatic missions of the Holy See, which were just beginning to become permanent postings instead of missions sent on particular occasions. At this stage the secretary was a minor functionary, the Vatican administration being led by the Cardinal Nephew, the Pope's confidant taken from his family; the imprudence of Pope Julius III in entrusting the office of Cardinal Nephew to his alleged lover Innocenzo Ciocchi Del Monte, a teenaged illiterate street urchin whom his brother had adopted a few years earlier, led to an upgrading of the Secretary's job, as the incumbent had to take over the duties the Cardinal Nephew was unfit for.
By the time of Pope Innocent X the Secretary of State was always himself a Cardinal, Pope Innocent XII abolished the office of Cardinal Nephew in 1692. From onwards the Secretary of State has been the most important of the officials of the Holy See. In 1968, Pope Paul VI's apostolic constitution Regimini Ecclesiae Universae further enhanced the powers of the Secretary, placing him over all the other departments of the Roman Curia. In 1973 Paul further broadened the Secretaryship by abolishing the ancient office of Chancellor of the Holy Roman Church and merging its functions into those of the Secretary. Girolamo Dandini Carlo Borromeo Tolomeo Gallio Girolamo Rusticucci Tolomeo Gallio Decio Azzolini Alessandro Peretti di Montalto Paolo Emilio Sfondrati Giovanni Antonio Facchinetti de Nuce Pierbenedetto Peretti Pietro Aldobrandini and Cinzio Passeri Aldobrandini Roberto Ubaldini Erminio Valenti Lanfranco Margotti Porifrio Feliciani Giovanni Battista Agucchi Lorenzo Magalotti Lorenzo Azzolini Pietro Benessa Francesco Adriano Ceva Giovanni Battista Spada Giovanni Giacomo Panciroli Fabio Chigi.
History of the papacy
The history of the papacy, the office held by the pope as head of the Roman Catholic Church, according to Catholic doctrine, spans from the time of Peter to the present day. During the Early Church, the bishops of Rome enjoyed no temporal power until the time of Constantine. After the fall of Rome, the papacy was influenced by the temporal rulers of the surrounding Italian Peninsula. Over time, the papacy consolidated its territorial claims to a portion of the peninsula known as the Papal States. Thereafter, the role of neighboring sovereigns was replaced by powerful Roman families during the saeculum obscurum, the Crescentii era, the Tusculan Papacy. From 1048 to 1257, the papacy experienced increasing conflict with the leaders and churches of the Holy Roman Empire and the Byzantine Empire; the latter culminated in the East–West Schism, dividing the Western Church and Eastern Church. From 1257–1377, the pope, though the bishop of Rome, resided in Viterbo and Perugia, Avignon; the return of the popes to Rome after the Avignon Papacy was followed by the Western Schism: the division of the western church between two and, for a time, three competing papal claimants.
The Renaissance Papacy is known for its artistic and architectural patronage, forays into European power politics, theological challenges to papal authority. After the start of the Protestant Reformation, the Reformation Papacy and Baroque Papacy led the Catholic Church through the Counter-Reformation; the popes during the Age of Revolution witnessed the largest expropriation of wealth in the church's history, during the French Revolution and those that followed throughout Europe. The Roman Question, arising from Italian unification, resulted in the loss of the Papal States and the creation of Vatican City. Catholics and the Orthodox recognize the pope as the successor to Saint Peter, recognize him as the first bishop of Rome. Official declarations of the Church speak of the popes as holding within the college of the bishops a position analogous to that held by Peter within the "college" of the Apostles, namely Prince of the Apostles, of which the college of the Bishops, a distinct entity, is viewed by some to be the successor.
Many deny that Peter and those claimed to be his immediate successors had universally-recognized supreme authority over all the early churches, citing instead that the Bishop of Rome was, is, "first among equals" as stated by the Patriarch of the Orthodox Church in the 2nd century A. D. and again in the 21st century. However, what that form should take is a matter of debate and contention, to this day, between the Catholic and Orthodox Churches, which were one Church for at least the first seven ecumenical councils and until the formal split over Papal primacy in 1054 AD. Many of the bishops of Rome in the first three centuries of the Christian era are obscure figures. Most of Peter's successors in the first three centuries following his life suffered martyrdom along with members of their flock in periods of persecution; the legend surrounding the victory of Constantine I in the Battle of the Milvian Bridge relates his vision of the Chi Rho and the text in hoc signo vinces in the sky, reproducing this symbol on the shields of his troops.
The following year and Licinius proclaimed the toleration of Catholicism with the Edict of Milan, in 325, Constantine convened and presided over the First Council of Nicaea, the first ecumenical council. None of this, has much to do with the pope, who did not attend the Council. Moreover, between 324 and 330, Constantine moved the capital of the Roman empire from Rome to Byzantium, a former Greek city on the Bosporus; the power of Rome was transferred to Byzantium which in 330 became Constantinople and today is Istanbul. The "Donation of Constantine", an 8th-century forgery used to enhance the prestige and authority of popes, places the pope more centrally in the narrative of Constantinian Christianity; the legend of the Donation claims that Constantine offered his crown to Sylvester I, that Sylvester baptized Constantine. In reality, Constantine was baptized by Eusebius of an Arian bishop. Although the "Donation" never occurred, Constantine did hand over the Lateran Palace to the bishop of Rome, around 310 AD began the construction of Basilica of Constantine in Germany, called Aula Palatina.
Emperor Constantine erected the Old St. Peter's Basilica, or Constantinian Basilica, the current location of the current, Renaissance era, St. Peter's Basilica within the Vatican, on the place of St. Peter's burial, as held by the Catholic community of Rome, after his conversion to Catholicism; the Ostrogothic Papacy period ran from 493 to 537. The papal election of March 483 was the first to take place without the existence of a Western Roman emperor; the papacy was influenced by the Ostrogothic Kingdom, if the pope was not outright appointed by the Ostrogothic King. The selection and administration of popes during this period was influenced by Theodoric the Great and his successors Athalaric and Theodahad; this period terminated with Justinian I's conquest of Rome during the Gothic War, inaugurating the Byzantine Papacy. The role of the Ostrogoths became clear in the first schism, when, on November 22, 498, two men were elected pope; the subsequent triumph of Pope Symmachus over Antipope Laurentius is the first recorded example of simony in papal history.
Symmachus instituted the practice of popes naming their own successors
Vatican Radio is the official broadcasting service of the Vatican. Set up in 1931 by Guglielmo Marconi, today its programs are offered in 47 languages, are sent out on short wave, medium wave, FM, satellite and the Internet. Since its inception, Vatican Radio has been maintained by the Jesuit Order. Vatican Radio preserved its independence during the rise of Nazi Germany. Following the outbreak of World War II, a week after Pope Pius XII ordered the programming, Vatican Radio broadcast the news that Poles and Jews were being rounded up and forced into ghettos. Today, programming is produced by over two hundred journalists located in 61 different countries. Vatican Radio produces more than 42,000 hours of simultaneous broadcasting covering international news, religious celebrations, in-depth programs, music; the current general director is Father Federico Lombardi, S. J. On 27 June 2015, Pope Francis, in a motu proprio apostolic letter, established the Secretariat for Communications in the Roman Curia, which absorbed Vatican Radio effective 1 January 2017, ending the organization's 85 years of independent operation.
Vatican Radio began broadcasting with the callsign HVJ on two shortwave frequencies using 10 kilowatts of power on 12 February 1931, with the pontificial message "Omni creaturae" of Pope Pius XI. In attendance was Guglielmo Marconi and Cardinal Eugenio Pacelli, who would become Pope Pius XII Its first director was physicist Giuseppe Gianfranceschi, the president of the Accademia dei Nuovi Lincei. In 1933, a permanent microwave link was established between the Vatican Palace and the summer residence of the papacy, Castel Gandolfo. In 1936, the International Telecommunication Union recognized Vatican Radio as a "special case" and authorized its broadcasting without any geographical limits. On 25 December 1937 two directional antennas were added. Vatican Radio broadcast over 10 frequencies. Following a December 1939 report from Cardinal August Hlond of Poznań detailing the oppression of the Catholic Church in Poland, Pope Pius XII decided, among other measures, to use Vatican Radio to provide "information regarding the condition of the church in Poland."
The German broadcast on 21 January 1940 compared German activities to "what the Communists imposed on Spain in 1936". During World War II, Vatican Radio's news broadcasts were banned in Germany. During the war, the radio service operated in four languages. While some critics have said Pope Pius XII was too quiet regarding the Holocaust, Jacques Adler examined the transcripts of wartime broadcasts over the Vatican Radio. Adler argues that it opposed collaboration with Nazism, it appealed to Catholics to remain true to their faith's injunctions: to defend the sanctity of life and the unity of humankind. In so doing the Pope pursued a policy of spiritual resistance to Nazi racism. In 1948, services expanded to 18 languages; because of space purposes, the Holy See acquired a 400-hectare area located 18 kilometres north of Rome at Santa Maria di Galeria. The Italian Republic granted the site extraterritorial status in 1952. In 1957, a new broadcasting center was placed into operation, with a Philips 100 kW shortwave transmitter, two 10 kW shortwave transmitters, one 120 kW mediumwave transmitter, with 21 directional and one omnidirectional antenna.
The next phase involved two 100 kW transmitters aimed at Africa and Oceania, a 250 kW mediumwave transmitter for Europe, a 500 kW transmitter for the Far East and Latin America. Radio Vaticana was one of 23 founding broadcasting organisations of the European Broadcasting Union in 1950. In the 21st century, Vatican Radio has experimented with digital transmission technologies and has used electronic newsletters and other new technologies to distribute its programming. Vatican Radio and CTV began their own YouTube channel in 2010, operating in four languages, operates six Twitter accounts. In May 2009 it was announced that Vatican Radio would begin broadcasting commercial advertisements for the first time in July; the decision was made so as namely 21.4 m euros a year. All advertisements would have to meet "high moral standards". Vatican Radio stopped transmitting short- and medium-wave broadcasts to North America, South America, Europe on Sunday 1 July 2012; the Vatican Press Office closed Vatican Information Service in August 2012.
In 2014 Michael Gannon, from Ireland, became the first person with Down Syndrome to work at any Vatican office, which he did as an intern at Vatican Radio. As of 2016, Vatican Radio had a staff of 355 people who produce more than 66 hours of daily programming in 45 languages on air, 38 languages on the website. Programs are broadcast via medium wave, FM and satellite. Vatican Radio has been losing between € € 30 million annually. With its absorption into the Curia's Secretariat for Communications on 1 January 2017 Vatican Radio director Msgr. Dario Viganò has indicated that he plans to pare down short-wave radio operations and institute cost control measures in the service's other broadcast operations. On 24 March 2017, Vatican Radio made its final English-language shortwave transmission to Asia after 59 years of service. Vatican Radio's English Service for Asia has continued online. During the 1930s, the station made experimental television broadcasts. However, apart from a brief experimental revival in the 1950s, it was not until the 1990s that a regular'satellite' television servic
Pontifical Swiss Guard
The Pontifical Swiss Guard is a small force maintained by the Holy See, responsible for the safety of the Pope, including the security of the Apostolic Palace. The Swiss Guard serves as the de facto military of Vatican City. Established in 1506 under Pope Julius II, the Pontifical Swiss Guard is among the oldest military units in continuous operation; the dress uniform is of blue, red and yellow with a distinctly Renaissance appearance. The modern guard has the role of bodyguard of the Pope; the Swiss Guard is equipped with traditional weapons, such as the halberd, as well as with modern firearms. Since the assassination attempt on Pope John Paul II in 1981, a much stronger emphasis has been placed on the guard's non-ceremonial roles, has seen enhanced training in unarmed combat and small arms. Recruits to the guards must be unmarried Swiss Catholic males between 19 and 30 years of age who have completed basic training with the Swiss Armed Forces; the Pontifical Swiss Guard has its origins in the 15th century.
Pope Sixtus IV had made an alliance with the Swiss Confederacy and built barracks in Via Pellegrino after foreseeing the possibility of recruiting Swiss mercenaries. The pact was renewed by Innocent VIII. Alexander VI actually used the Swiss mercenaries during their alliance with the King of France. During the time of the Borgias, the Italian Wars began in which the Swiss mercenaries were a fixture in the front lines among the warring factions, sometimes for France and sometimes for the Holy See or the Holy Roman Empire; the mercenaries enlisted. Among the participants in the war against Naples was Cardinal Giuliano della Rovere, the future Pope Julius II, well acquainted with the Swiss, having been Bishop of Lausanne years earlier; the expedition failed, in part thanks to new alliances made by Alexander VI against the French. When Cardinal della Rovere became Pope Julius II in 1503, he asked the Swiss Diet to provide him with a constant corps of 200 Swiss mercenaries; this was made possible through the financing of the German merchants from Augsburg, Bavaria and Jacob Fugger, who had invested in the Pope and saw it fit to protect their investment.
In September 1505, the first contingent of 150 soldiers started their march towards Rome, under the command of Kaspar von Silenen, entered the city on 22 January 1506, today given as the official date of the Guard's foundation."The Swiss see the sad situation of the Church of God, Mother of Christianity, realize how grave and dangerous it is that any tyrant, avid for wealth, can assault with impunity, the common Mother of Christianity," declared Huldrych Zwingli, a Swiss Catholic who became a Protestant reformer. Pope Julius II granted them the title "Defenders of the Church's freedom"; the force has varied in size over the years and has been disbanded. Its most significant hostile engagement was on 6 May 1527, when 147 of the 189 Guards, including their commander, died fighting the troops of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V in the stand of the Swiss Guard during the Sack of Rome in order to allow Clement VII to escape through the Passetto di Borgo, escorted by the other 42 guards; the last stand battlefield is located on the left side of St Peter's Basilica, close to the Campo Santo Teutonico.
Clement VII was forced to replace the Swiss Guard by a contingent of 200 German mercenaries. Ten years under Pope Paul III, the Swiss Guard was reinstated, under commander Jost von Meggen. After the end of the Italian Wars, the Swiss Guard ceased to be used as a military combat unit in the service of the pope and its role became that of the protection of the person of the pope and of a ceremonial guard. However, twelve members of the Pontifical Swiss Guard of Pius V served as part of the Swiss Guard of admiral Marcantonio Colonna in the Battle of Lepanto in 1571; the office of commander of the Papal Guard came to be a special honour in the Catholic part of the Swiss Confederacy. It became associated with the leading family of Lucerne, Pfyffer von Altishofen. Between 1652 and 1847, nine out a total of ten commanders were members of this family. In 1798, commander Franz Alois Pfyffer von Altishofen went into exile with the deposed Pius VI. After the death of the pope on 29 August 1799, the Swiss Guard was disbanded and only reinstated by Pius VII in 1801.
In 1808, Rome was again captured by the French and the guard was disbanded again. Pius VII was exiled to Fontainebleau; the guard was reinstated under the same commander, Karl Leodegar Pfyffer von Altishofen, when the pope returned from exile in 1814. The guard was disbanded yet again in 1848, when Pius IX fled to Gaeta, but was reinstated when the pope returned to Rome in the following year. In the 19th century, the Swiss Guard declined into a purely ceremonial body with low standards. Guards in the Vatican were "Swiss" only in name born in Rome to parents of Swiss descent and speaking the Roman Trastevere dialect; the guards were trained for ceremonial parade, kept only a few obsolete rifles in store and wore civilian dress when drilling or in barracks. Administration, accommodation and organization were neglected and the unit numbered only about 90 men out of an authorized establishment of 133; the modern Swiss Guard is the product of the reforms pursued by Jules Repond, command
Vatican Historical Museum
The Vatican Historical Museum is one of the sections of the Vatican Museums. It was founded in 1973 at the behest of Pope Paul VI, was hosted in environments under the Square Garden. In 1987 it was moved to the main floor of the Apostolic Palace of the Lateran and opened in March 1991; the Vatican Historical Museum has a unique collection of portraits of the Popes from the sixteenth century to date, the memorable items of the Papal Military Corps of the 16–17th centuries and old religious paraphernalia related to rituals of the papacy. On display on the lower floor are the papamobili; the Lateran Palace, next to the Basilica of Saint John Lateran to its left within the courtyard of the church with a common entry gate, is a large apartment complex of the Pope. Domenico Fontana was the architect of this palace, built to his design in 1586. Right at the entrance the staircase is a massive and impressive structure with the ceiling decorated with frescoes, it had been refurbished by Pope Paul IV into ten halls.
The hall known as the Conciliation, was provided with allegories related to the papacy of Sixtus V. The other halls were named Constantine, Hall of Apostles, Popes Room and so forth; the fresco decorations were on themes of the History of Rome, episodes of the Bible related to Daniel, Solomon and others, related to the Gospel. Several colourful tapestries and Goblins added to the aesthetic elegance of the halls. Before the History Museum decided to relocate here to a more luxurious locale, none of the rooms had been allowed to be used for any general public purpose. Since 1991, these rooms have been used as exhibition or display rooms for the exhibits moved from the Vatican Museums; the museum has been arranged into two wings. The principal wing is the museum of all artistic and historic importance starting with the paintings of the history of the Papal States, portraits of Popes till date, memorabilia of the Papal Military Corps including the navy, documents related to ceremonial orders of Popes, the Papal household items, various ceremonial regalia and religious vessels and insignia not in use.
The second wing is an annex wing on the ground floor. Index of Vatican City-related articles Media related to Vatican Historical Museum at Wikimedia Commons
Fundamental Law of Vatican City State
The Fundamental Law of Vatican City State, promulgated by Pope John Paul II on 26 November 2000, is the main governing document of the Vatican's civil entities. It obtained the force of law of 22 February 2001, Feast of the Chair of St. Peter and replaced in its entirety law N. I. All the norms in force in Vatican City State which were not in agreement with the new Law were abrogated and the original of the Fundamental Law, bearing the Seal of Vatican City State, was deposited in the Archive of the Laws of Vatican City State and the corresponding text was published in the Supplement to the Acta Apostolicae Sedis; the law consists of 20 Articles. Having taken into account the need to give a systematic and organic form to the changes introduced in successive phases in the juridical structure of Vatican City State and wishing to make it correspond always better to the institutional purposes of the State, which exists as an appropriate guarantee of the freedom of the Apostolic See and as a means of assuring the real and visible independence of the Roman Pontiff in the exercise of his mission in the world, We, on our own initiative and with certain knowledge, with the fullness of Our sovereign authority, have established and hereby establish the following, to be observed as the Law of the State: Art.
1 §1 declares that “The Supreme Pontiff, Sovereign of Vatican City State, has the fullness of legislative and judicial powers.” Art. 1 §2 says that during an Interregnum, the same Powers stated in §1 belong to the College of Cardinals but that this College can only issue legislative dispositions in cases of urgency and with efficacy limited to the time of interregnum, unless confirmed by the Pope elected according to the norm of Canon Law. Art. 2 states that the representation of Vatican City State in relations with foreign nations and other subjects of international law, for the purpose of diplomatic relations and the conclusion of treaties, is reserved to the Supreme Pontiff himself, who exercises this right by means of the Secretariat of State. Art. 3 §1 decrees that “legislative power, except for those cases which the Supreme Pontiff intends to reserve to himself or to other subjects, is exercised by a Commission”, composed of a Cardinal President and other Cardinals, all of which are named by the Supreme Pontiff for a term of five years.
Art. 3 §2 provides for the case of absence or impedance of the President, decrees that the Commission would be presided over by the first of the Cardinal Members. Art. 3 §3 describes who convokes and presides over the meetings of the Commission and says that “the Secretary General and the Vice Secretary General participate in them with a consultative vote.” Art. 4 §1 demands that the Commission exercise its power within the limits of the law concerning the sources of law, according to the indications to be given in future Articles and its proper Regulations. §2 prescribes that the Commission, in the drawing up of draft laws, makes use of the collaboration of the Councillors of Vatican City State, of other experts and of the Organizations of the Holy See and of the State which could be affected by them. §3 says “The draft laws are submitted in advance, through the Secretariat of State, for the consideration of the Supreme Pontiff.” Art. 5 §1 gives executive power to the President of the Commission, in conformity with the Fundamental Law and with the other normative dispositions in force at Vatican City State.
§2 gives the President the assistance of the Secretary General and the Vice Secretary General in the exercise of Executive power. §3 says that “Questions of greater importance are submitted by the President to the Commission for its study.” Art. 6 declares that “Matters of greater importance are dealt with together with the Secretariat of State.” Art. 7 §1 gives the President of the Commission the power to issue Ordinances, putting into effect legislative and regulatory norms. §2 gives the power to the President to issue in cases of urgent necessity, dispositions having the force of law, which however lose their force if they are not confirmed by the Commission within ninety days. §3 reserves the power to issue general Regulations to the Commission. Art. 8 §1 declares that, without prejudice to the primacy of the Supreme Pontiff, what is established in Art. 2 regarding the Secretariat of State, the President of the Commission represents the State. §2 provides for the President to delegate legal representation to the General Secretary for ordinary administrative activity.
Art. 9 §1 states the responsibilities of the Secretary General: 1. He assists the President of the Commission in his functions. 2. According to the modalities indicated in the Laws of Vatican City State and under the directives of the President of the Commission, he: a) oversees the application of the Laws and of the other normative dispositions and the putting into effect of the decisions and directives of the President of the Commission. §2 gives the Secretary General the right to take the place of the President of the Commission when the President is absent or impeded, except for what is determined in Art. 7, §2. Art. 10 §1 outlines the powers to the Vice Secretary General: In accord with the Secretary General, he oversees the preparation and drafting of the various proceedings and of the correspondence and carries out the other activities attributed to him. §2 gives the Vice Secretary General the right to take the place of the Secretary General when the Secretary General is absent or impeded.
Art. 11 §1 explai
Vatican City in World War II
Vatican City pursued a policy of neutrality during World War II, under the leadership of Pope Pius XII. Although the city of Rome was occupied by Germany from 1943 and the Allies from 1944, Vatican City itself was not occupied; the Vatican organised extensive humanitarian aid throughout the duration of the conflict. The Lateran Treaty of 1929 with Italy recognized the sovereignty of Vatican City, it declared Vatican City a neutral country in international relations, required the Pope to abstain from mediation unless requested by all parties. In 1939, the city state was recognized by thirty-eight nations, with a diplomatic corps of thirteen full ambassadors and twenty-five ministers; as early as April 1939, Pius XII announced a plan for peace, hoping to mediate a negotiation between the major European powers on the brink of war. The first leader contacted was Benito Mussolini, via Pius XII's usual go-between, Jesuit Father Tacchi Venturi. With Mussolini's approval, the next day Cardinal Secretary of State Luigi Maglione contacted the nuncios in Paris and Berlin and the Apostolic Delegate in London.
The proposed Vatican meeting accomplished little of substance: if there was any coherent position espoused by the Vatican among its various communications, it was that of appeasement. In particular, the Pope attempted to get Poland to accept the secession of the Free City of Danzig to Nazi Germany, a position Polish ambassador Kazimierz Papée and the Polish government could not accept. In his 24 August 1939 Radio Message, just a week before war, Pius warned: "The danger is imminent, but there is still time. Nothing is lost with peace. With Poland overrun, but France and the Low Countries yet to be attacked, Pius continued to hope for a negotiated peace to prevent the spread of the conflict; the minded US President Franklin D. Roosevelt re-established American diplomatic relations with the Vatican after a seventy-year hiatus and dispatched Myron C. Taylor as his personal representative. Despite the early collapse of peace hopes, the Taylor mission continued at the Vatican. Despite intense behind the scenes actions, Pius XII was resolved not to issue any public pronouncement that took sides in the conflict.
Early on, Pius XII believed that the "rapid destruction of Poland meant the end of the war". Summi Pontificatus, issued 20 October 1939, was the first papal encyclical issued by Pope Pius XII, established some of the themes of his papacy. According to Chadwick, Summi Pontificatus exemplified both "the hesitancy and the care" of the pontiff. During the drafting of the letter, the Second World War commenced with the Nazi/Soviet invasion of Catholic Poland. Though couched in diplomatic language, Pius endorses Catholic resistance, states his disapproval of the war, anti-semitism, the Nazi/Soviet invasion of Poland and the persecutions of the Church. With Italy not yet an ally of Himmler in the war, Italians were called upon to remain faithful to the Church. Pius avoided naming the belligerent allies Hitler and Stalin as the evildoers, establishing the "impartial" public tone, to be a hallmark of his pontificate: "A full statement of the doctrinal stand to be taken in face of the errors of today, if necessary, can be put off to another time unless there is disturbance by calamitous external events.
The Pope wrote of "anti-Christian movements" bringing forth a crop "poignant disasters" and called for love and compassion against the "deluge of discord". Following themes addressed in Non abbiamo bisogno, he wrote of "Christians more in name than in fact" having shown "cowardice" in the face of persecution by these creeds, he endorsed resistance: Who among "the Soldiers of Christ" – ecclesiastic or layman – does not feel himself incited and spurred on to a greater vigilance, to a more determined resistance, by the sight of the ever-increasing host of Christ's enemies. Pius wrote of a persecuted Church and a time requiring "charity" for victims who had a "right" to compassion. Against the invasion of Poland and killing of civilians he wrote: The blood of countless human beings noncombatants, raises a piteous dirge over a nation such as Our dear Poland, for its fidelity to the Church, for its services in the defense of Christian civilization, written in indelible charact