Capitulation of Erfurt
The Prussian soldiers were demoralized by their shattering defeat at the Battle of Jena–Auerstedt on 14 October and unwilling to put up much resistance. The event occurred during the War of the Fourth Coalition, part of the Napoleonic Wars, Erfurt is located on the Gera River about 40 kilometers west of Jena. Only eight days before, Emperor Napoleon I of France invaded the Electorate of Saxony with a large army and this was followed by the catastrophe of 14 October. In the aftermath of the battle, the organization of the Prussian army disintegrated, large numbers of Prussian fugitives from the battle entered Erfurt and could not be induced to leave. When Murats French cavalry arrived before the city, it was surrendered without any fighting, in the center, Brunswick concentrated at Erfurt, Hohenlohe defended Rudolstadt in the east, and Rüchel held Gotha and Eisenach in the west. General Karl August, Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenachs division of Rüchels right wing felt south toward the French line of communications, General Eugene Frederick Henry, Duke of Württembergs Reserve lay far to the north at Magdeburg.
On 8 October, Napoleons 180,000 troops began crossing the Saxon border through the Franconian Forest and his troops formed in a batallion carré made up of three columns of two army corps each, plus the Cavalry Reserve, Imperial Guard, and some Bavarian allies. On 9 October, the French won the minor Battle of Schleiz, the next day, Marshal Jean Lannes V Corps crushed the division of Prince Louis Ferdinand of Prussia at the Battle of Saalfeld, killing the young prince. On 12 October, Napoleon ordered his army to make a wheel to the west. The Prussian generals decided to retreat, using the Saale River to protect their flank, Brunswick marched the main army north from Weimar, while Hohenlohe stood on the defensive near Jena as a flank guard. Rüchels orders were to stay at Weimar until Saxe-Weimar returned with his division, the double Battle of Jena-Auerstedt occurred on 14 October as Napoleon attacked Hohenlohe while Brunswick ran into Marshal Louis Davouts III Corps. The troops of Brunswick, and Rüchel were driven in rout from the two battlefields, brunswicks army lost 13,000 men and its commander was mortally wounded.
Hohenlohe and Rüchel suffered as many as 25,000 casualties, at 5,00 AM on 15 October, Napoleon began issuing orders to exploit his tremendous victory at Jena. He heard about Marshal Louis Davouts triumph at Auerstedt four hours later, Murats Cavalry Reserve was split, with half directed to advance west to Erfurt and half northwest to Buttelstedt. Napoleon sent Marshal Michel Neys VI Corps toward Erfurt to back up Murats horsemen, after the battles on the 14th, a large number of refugees appeared at Erfurt. At first they were refused entrance, but the gates were opened, attempts were made by some officers to return the troops to their regiments, but the men refused to cooperate. By noon on the 15th, Murat was near Erfurt with the elements of his cavalry. General-Major von Jung-Larisch stood in line in front of the city
Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany as well as one of its constituent 16 states. With a population of approximately 3.5 million, Berlin is the second most populous city proper, due to its location in the European Plain, Berlin is influenced by a temperate seasonal climate. Around one-third of the area is composed of forests, gardens, rivers. Berlin in the 1920s was the third largest municipality in the world, following German reunification in 1990, Berlin once again became the capital of all-Germany. Berlin is a city of culture, media. Its economy is based on high-tech firms and the sector, encompassing a diverse range of creative industries, research facilities, media corporations. Berlin serves as a hub for air and rail traffic and has a highly complex public transportation network. The metropolis is a popular tourist destination, significant industries include IT, biomedical engineering, clean tech, biotechnology and electronics. Modern Berlin is home to world renowned universities, orchestras and its urban setting has made it a sought-after location for international film productions.
The city is known for its festivals, diverse architecture, contemporary arts. Since 2000 Berlin has seen the emergence of a cosmopolitan entrepreneurial scene, the name Berlin has its roots in the language of West Slavic inhabitants of the area of todays Berlin, and may be related to the Old Polabian stem berl-/birl-. All German place names ending on -ow, -itz and -in, since the Ber- at the beginning sounds like the German word Bär, a bear appears in the coat of arms of the city. It is therefore a canting arm, the first written records of towns in the area of present-day Berlin date from the late 12th century. Spandau is first mentioned in 1197 and Köpenick in 1209, although these areas did not join Berlin until 1920, the central part of Berlin can be traced back to two towns. Cölln on the Fischerinsel is first mentioned in a 1237 document,1237 is considered the founding date of the city. The two towns over time formed close economic and social ties, and profited from the right on the two important trade routes Via Imperii and from Bruges to Novgorod.
In 1307, they formed an alliance with a common external policy, in 1415 Frederick I became the elector of the Margraviate of Brandenburg, which he ruled until 1440. In 1443 Frederick II Irontooth started the construction of a new palace in the twin city Berlin-Cölln
Siege of Hamelin
In the Siege of Hameln or Siege of Hamelin, First French Empire forces captured the fortress of Hamelin from its garrison composed of troops from the Kingdom of Prussia. The siege was begun by the VIII Corps under French Marshal Édouard Adolphe Casimir Joseph Mortier, the marshal initially left General of Division Jean-Baptiste Dumonceau in charge of operations. General of Division Anne Jean Marie René Savary soon arrived to conduct negotiations with the Prussian commander General Karl Ludwig von Lecoq, the operation from the War of the Fourth Coalition was a blockade because a formal siege never took place. Hamelin is located 36 kilometers southwest of Hanover, after Emperor Napoleon I smashed the main Prussian armies at the Battle of Jena-Auerstedt on 14 October, his victorious Grande Armée chased his enemies across the Elbe River. This left the Prussian force defending the former Electorate of Hanover strategically isolated west of the river, while Napoleons Grande Armée hunted down Prussian forces between the Elbe and the Oder River, subsidiary forces invaded Hanover and Hesse-Kassel.
The defenders withdrew into the fortresses of Hamelin and Nienburg where they were blockaded and captured, in September 1806, when King Frederick William III mobilized the Prussian armies, a substantial force assembled in or near the former Electorate of Hanover. Lieutenant General Gebhard von Blücher concentrated 16 battalions of infantry and 17 squadrons of cavalry to the west at Paderborn, Osnabrück, Leer, in Hanover proper were 20 battalions and 28 squadrons at Celle and Braunschweig. This body became the westernmost field army and its 30,000 troops were placed under the command of General of Infantry Ernst von Rüchel and Blücher. The Prussian high command understood that Napoleons major thrust must come from the south, General-Major Christian Alexander von Hagken and General-Major Karl Friedrich von Brüsewitz were left behind to defend against a French offensive from the Kingdom of Holland and the lower Rhine. Taken together with the garrisons of Hamelin and Nienburg, the entire Prussian strength in the area numbered about 12,000 soldiers, the small mobile forces were assembled near Münster and placed under the command of General Karl Ludwig von Lecoq.
Opposing the Prussians were King Louis Bonaparte in Holland and Marshal Édouard Adolphe Casimir Joseph Mortier at Mainz, Louis deployed a 5,000 to 6, 000-man division near Wesel and another similar-sized division at Utrecht, while Wesel itself was well-defended. Napoleon planned to hold Louis and Mortier in place until he defeated the Prussian main army, at time they would seize Hesse-Kassel. On 9 October and Hagken began advancing west in separate columns, the march was slow and on 19 October, the Prussians received news of the catastrophe of Jena-Auerstedt. Lecoq and Hagken immediately fell back on Hamelin, arriving on 23 October, from there, Lecoq set out the next day for the Elbe. Hearing a report that French forces already blocked his path, he halted his march on the 27th and returned to Hamelin where he began acquiring food and supplies to sustain a siege. He sent Oberst Christian Friedrich von der Osten with one regiment and one infantry battalion across the Elbe. After hearing of Jena-Auerstedt, General-Major Karl Anton Ernst von Bila left Hanover on 20 October with one battalion, the treasure, and he managed to get safely across the Elbe but his small force was caught in the French sweep that followed the Capitulation of Stettin.
On 17 October, Napoleon dispatched orders to Louis and Mortier, the King of Holland was supposed to capture Paderborn and Münster, while the marshal was to seize Fulda and come into contact with General of Division Henri Jacques Guillaume Clarke at Erfurt
First French Empire
The First French Empire, Note 1 was the empire of Napoleon Bonaparte of France and the dominant power in much of continental Europe at the beginning of the 19th century. Its name was a misnomer, as France already had colonies overseas and was short lived compared to the Colonial Empire, a series of wars, known collectively as the Napoleonic Wars, extended French influence over much of Western Europe and into Poland. The plot included Bonapartes brother Lucien, serving as speaker of the Council of Five Hundred, Roger Ducos, another Director, on 9 November 1799 and the following day, troops led by Bonaparte seized control. They dispersed the legislative councils, leaving a rump legislature to name Bonaparte, Sieyès, although Sieyès expected to dominate the new regime, the Consulate, he was outmaneuvered by Bonaparte, who drafted the Constitution of the Year VIII and secured his own election as First Consul. He thus became the most powerful person in France, a power that was increased by the Constitution of the Year X, the Battle of Marengo inaugurated the political idea that was to continue its development until Napoleons Moscow campaign.
Napoleon planned only to keep the Duchy of Milan for France, setting aside Austria, the Peace of Amiens, which cost him control of Egypt, was a temporary truce. He gradually extended his authority in Italy by annexing the Piedmont and by acquiring Genoa, Parma and Naples, he laid siege to the Roman state and initiated the Concordat of 1801 to control the material claims of the pope. Napoleon would have ruling elites from a fusion of the new bourgeoisie, on 12 May 1802, the French Tribunat voted unanimously, with exception of Carnot, in favour of the Life Consulship for the leader of France. This action was confirmed by the Corps Législatif, a general plebiscite followed thereafter resulting in 3,653,600 votes aye and 8,272 votes nay. On 2 August 1802, Napoleon Bonaparte was proclaimed Consul for life, pro-revolutionary sentiment swept through Germany aided by the Recess of 1803, which brought Bavaria, Württemberg and Baden to Frances side. The memories of imperial Rome were for a time, after Julius Caesar and Charlemagne.
The Treaty of Pressburg, signed on 26 December 1805, did little other than create a more unified Germany to threaten France. On the other hand, Napoleons creation of the Kingdom of Italy, the occupation of Ancona, to create satellite states, Napoleon installed his relatives as rulers of many European states. The Bonapartes began to marry into old European monarchies, gaining sovereignty over many nations, in addition to the vassal titles, Napoleons closest relatives were granted the title of French Prince and formed the Imperial House of France. Met with opposition, Napoleon would not tolerate any neutral power, Prussia had been offered the territory of Hanover to stay out of the Third Coalition. With the diplomatic situation changing, Napoleon offered Great Britain the province as part of a peace proposal and this, combined with growing tensions in Germany over French hegemony, Prussia responded by forming an alliance with Russia and sending troops into Bavaria on 1 October 1806. In this War of the Fourth Coalition, Napoleon destroyed the armies of Frederick William at Jena-Auerstedt, the Eylau and the Friedland against the Russians finally ruined Frederick the Greats formerly mighty kingdom, obliging Russia and Prussia to make peace with France at Tilsit.
The Treaties of Tilsit ended the war between Russia and the French Empire and began an alliance between the two empires that held power of much of the rest of Europe, the two empires secretly agreed to aid each other in disputes
Siege of Stralsund (1807)
On the first try, Marshal Édouard Adolphe Casimir Joseph Mortier blockaded the city for two months before he was called elsewhere. In his absence, the Swedes drove back the inferior blockading force, after Mortier returned and pushed Essens troops back in turn, the two sides quickly concluded an armistice. The truce was repudiated by King Gustav IV Adolf of Sweden, whereupon Marshal Guillaume Marie Anne Brune led 40,000 French, Spanish and Dutch soldiers against the fortress. Fearfully outnumbered, the Swedes abandoned the Baltic Sea port of Stralsund to the Franco-Allies in this action during the War of the Fourth Coalition, as a consequence, Sweden lost the nearby island of Rügen. Sweden was established in Stralsund since the Battle of Stralsund, by the Peace of Westphalia and the Treaty of Stettin, the duchy was partitioned into a Swedish part, including Stralsund, and a Brandenburg-Prussian part. After minor losses in the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Swedish Pomerania was reduced to the north of the Peene river with Greifswald, Stralsund.
When Napoleon Bonaparte started to expand eastwards in the Napoleonic Wars, in 1805, Gustav IV Adolf of Sweden entered the War of the Third Coalition on the anti-French side, primarily to strip Napoleons ally Denmark of Norway. His Norwegian ambitions were thwarted by several military and diplomatic setbacks, Stralsund, a port in Swedish Pomerania, was defended by the Swedish governor Hans von Essen. On 28 January, French forces commanded by Marshal Mortier crossed the Peene River in an attempt to impose a blockade on Stralsund, to the east, General of Division Charles Louis Dieudonné Grandjeans division crossed the Peene at Anklam, driving back the Swedish outposts. To the west, General of Division Pierre Louis Dupas division crossed the stream unopposed near Demmin, on the 29th, Mortiers two divisions appeared before the port and on 30 January began the blockade. For the next two months, the two fought a number of skirmishes as the French strengthened their lines of investment. Without control of the island of Rügen, the French were unable to interrupt Stralsunds sea communications and were harassed by Swedish gunboats.
During the blockade, one French cavalry and three regiments were taken from Mortier to fight against the Russians in Poland and replaced by troops from the Kingdom of Holland. On 29 March, Mortier received orders to leave Grandjeans division to maintain the blockade, after Mortier left, Essen drove Grandjeans outnumbered troops from their lines. Grandjean fell back to Anklam where he was attacked again on 3 April and forced to retreat southeast to the fortress of Stettin on the Oder, arriving there on the 7th. Mortier retraced his steps and by 13 April had assembled 12,000 to 13,000 men at Stettin, in very wet weather, Mortier began pressing Essen back to Anklam. On 16 April, Mortier defeated the Swedes in the Battle of Belling, the next day, Essen retreated to the north bank of the Peene. Beginning on 18 April, the French and Swedish forces arranged the truce of Schlatkow, anxious to employ Mortiers men against the Russians and Prussians, Napoleon had authorized the marshal to make a truce with the Swedes
The Elbe is one of the major rivers of Central Europe. It rises in the Krkonoše Mountains of the northern Czech Republic before traversing much of Bohemia and its total length is 1,094 kilometres. The Elbes major tributaries include the rivers Vltava, Havel, Schwarze Elster, the Elbe river basin, comprising the Elbe and its tributaries, has a catchment area of 148,268 square kilometres, the fourth largest in Europe. The basin spans four countries, with its largest parts in Germany, much smaller parts lie in Austria and Poland. The basin is inhabited by 24.5 million people, the Elbe rises at an elevation of about 1,400 metres in the Krkonoše on the northwest borders of the Czech Republic near Labská bouda. Of the numerous small streams whose waters compose the infant river, here the Elbe enters the vast vale named Polabí, and continues on southwards through Hradec Králové and to Pardubice, where it turns sharply to the west. At Kolín some 43 kilometres further on, it bends gradually towards the north-west, at the village of Káraný, a little above Brandýs nad Labem, it picks up the Jizera.
At Mělník its stream is more than doubled in volume by the Vltava, or Moldau, upstream from the confluence the Vltava is in fact much longer, and has a greater discharge and a larger drainage basin. Some distance lower down, at Litoměřice, the waters of the Elbe are tinted by the reddish Ohře, in its northern section both banks of the Elbe are characterised by flat, very fertile marshlands, former flood plains of the Elbe now diked. At Magdeburg there is a viaduct, the Magdeburg Water Bridge, from the sluice of Geesthacht on downstream the Elbe is subject to the tides, the tidal Elbe section is called the Low Elbe. Within the city-state the Unterelbe has a number of streams, such as Dove Elbe, Gose Elbe, Köhlbrand, Northern Elbe, Reiherstieg. Some of which have been disconnected for vessels from the stream by dikes. In 1390 the Gose Elbe was separated from the stream by a dike connecting the two then-islands of Kirchwerder and Neuengamme. The Dove Elbe was diked off in 1437/38 at Gammer Ort and these hydraulic engineering works were carried out to protect marshlands from inundation, and to improve the water supply of the Port of Hamburg.
The Northern Elbe passes the Elbe Philharmonic Hall and is crossed under by the old Elbe Tunnel, a bit more downstream the Low Elbes two main anabranches Northern Elbe and the Köhlbrand reunite south of Altona-Altstadt, a locality of Hamburg. Right after both anabranches reunited the Low Elbe is passed under by the New Elbe Tunnel, the last structural road link crossing the river before the North Sea. At the bay Mühlenberger Loch in Hamburg at kilometre 634, the Northern Elbe and the Southern Elbe used to reunite, leaving the city-state the Lower Elbe passes between Holstein and the Elbe-Weser Triangle with Stade until it flows into the North Sea at Cuxhaven. Near its mouth it passes the entrance to the Kiel Canal at Brunsbüttel before it debouches into the North Sea, the Elbe has been navigable by commercial vessels since 1842, and provides important trade links as far inland as Prague
Generalfeldmarschall was a rank in the armies of several German states and the Holy Roman Empire, in the Habsburg Monarchy, the Austrian Empire and Austria-Hungary, the rank Feldmarschall was used. The rank was the equivalent to Großadmiral in the Kaiserliche Marine and Kriegsmarine, the title of Kaiserlich-Königlicher Feldmarschall is used in statutes of the Holy Roman Empire to describe senior military officials. The rank existed in the Austrian Empire as Kaiserlicher Feldmarschall and in the Austro-Hungarian Empire as Kaiserlicher und königlicher Feldmarschall, both were based on usage in the Holy Roman Empire. The monarch held the ex officio, other officers were promoted as required. Between 1914 and 1918, ten men attained this rank, of four were members of the reigning Habsburg dynasty. The equivalent of colonel-general in the German Navy was the rank of Generaladmiral, in 1870 Prince Friedrich Karl of Prussia and Crown Prince Friedrich Wilhelm—who had commanded armies during the Franco-Prussian War—became the first Prussian princes appointed as field marshals.
Not even such well-known German commanders as Erich Ludendorff and Erich von Falkenhayn received marshals batons, the equivalent of a Generalfeldmarschall in the navy was Großadmiral. Unlike Kaiser Wilhelm II, Adolf Hitler distributed the rank more widely, promoting 26 Heer and Luftwaffe officers in total and two Kriegsmarine Grand Admirals. Four weeks after the Heer and Luftwaffe had won the Battle of France, in the promotion Hitler noted that no German or Prussian field marshal at that point in history had ever been captured alive. Paulus surrendered the day anyway, claiming Ich habe nicht die Absicht. A disappointed Hitler commented, Thats the last field marshal I make in this war, Generalfeldmarschall was the highest regular general officer rank in the German Wehrmacht, comparable to NATO rank codes OF10, and to the five-star rank in anglophone armed forces. It was equivalent to Großadmiral of the German Kriegsmarine and he bestowed generous presents on his highest officers, with Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb receiving RM250,000 for his 65th birthday from Hitler.
Promotion to the rank did not guarantee Hitlers ongoing favor, however, as the tide of the war turned, Hitler took out his frustrations on his top commanders, relieving most of the Generalfeldmarschalls of duty before the wars conclusion. Von Bock, Von Brauchitsch, Von Leeb, and List were all relieved of their posts in 1942 for perceived failures during Operation Barbarossa, paul Ludwig Ewald von Kleist, Von Manstein and Sperrle were similarly retired in 1944 and Von Rundstedt and Maximilian von Weichs in March 1945. Grand Admiral Erich Raeder was retired in January 1943 following an argument with Hitler over the future of the German surface fleet. Walther Model, one of Hitlers most successful commanders, had nevertheless lost the Fuhrers confidence by wars end and committed suicide to avoid capture, ferdinand Schörner ignominiously abandoned his command to save himself in the wars last days. Von Kluge, Von Witzleben and Rommel were either executed or forced to suicide for their real or imagined roles in assassination plots against Hitler.
By wars end, only Keitel, Robert Ritter von Greim, the Nationale Volksarmee of the Deutsche Demokratische Republik or DDR created the rank of Marschall der DDR on 25 March 1982
Battle of Prenzlau
In this action from the War of the Fourth Coalition, Hohenlohe surrendered his entire force to Murat after some fighting and a parley. Prenzlau is located about 90 kilometers north of Berlin in Brandenburg, Germany at the intersection of routes B109 and B198. After their catastrophic defeat at the Battle of Jena-Auerstedt on 14 October, the Prussians crossed the Elbe near Magdeburg and marched northeast, trying to reach safety behind the Oder River. Part of Napoleons army thrust east to seize Berlin, while the rest followed the retreating Prussians, from Berlin, Murat moved north with his cavalry, trying to head off Hohenlohe. After several clashes on 26 and 27 October, Murat arrived at Prenzlau on the heels of Hohenlohes corps, fighting occurred in which several Prussian units were captured or cut to pieces. Murat bluffed the demoralized Hohenlohe into surrendering his entire corps by claiming that the Prussians were surrounded by overwhelming forces, in fact, apart from a brigade of infantry, only Murats cavalry were in the vicinity.
In the days afterward, the French cowed several more Prussian forces and fortresses into surrendering, finding its way to the northeast blocked, a second corps of retreating Prussians under Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher veered northwest toward Lübeck. On 8 October 1806, Napoleons 180, 000-strong army invaded the Electorate of Saxony through the Franconian Forest. His troops were massed in a batallion carré made up of three columns of two corps each, plus the Imperial Guard, the Cavalry Reserve, and a Bavarian contingent. Brunswick held a position at Erfurt in the center, Hohenlohe took station near Rudolstadt in the east, with General-Major Bogislav Friedrich Emanuel von Tauentzien at Hof. Eugene Frederick Henry, Duke of Württembergs Reserve lay far to the north at Magdeburg, Marshal Jean-Baptiste Bernadottes I Corps and Murats cavalry defeated Tauentziens division at the Battle of Schleiz. The next day, Marshal Jean Lannes V Corps mauled the 8, 300-man division of Prince Louis Ferdinand of Prussia at the Battle of Saalfeld, on 12 October, Napoleon wheeled his batallion carré to the left to engage his enemies in combat.
In the face of this menace, Brunswick elected to march the army north from Weimar to Merseburg. Rüchel was at Weimar, waiting for Saxe-Weimar to return with his division, the Prussian armies were beaten and driven from both battlefields. Brunswicks army lost 13,000 casualties and 115 artillery pieces, while the casualties of Hohenlohe, in Capitulation of Erfurt on 16 October, over 10,000 Prussians laid down their arms in the first of a series of shameful surrenders. The 12, 000-man corps of Saxe-Weimar and Winning missed Jena-Auerstedt and remained intact, shot through both eyes at Auerstadt, Brunswick died on 10 November at Altona near Hamburg. Dangerously wounded at Jena, Rüchel escaped to Poland and recovered and these columns were energetically pursued by Marshal Nicolas Soults IV Corps with General of Division Louis Michel Antoine Sahucs dragoons attached. On 17 October, Bernadotte inflicted heavy losses on Eugene of Württembergs Reserve at the Battle of Halle, by 20 October and the survivors of the Reserve reached Magdeburg
Siege of Kolberg (1807)
The Siege of Kolberg (} took place from March to 2 July 1807 during the War of the Fourth Coalition, part of the Napoleonic Wars. The siege was not successful and was lifted upon the announcement of the peace of Tilsit, after Prussia lost the Battle of Jena-Auerstedt in late 1806, French troops marched north into Prussian Pomerania. Fortified Stettin surrendered without battle, and the province occupied by the French forces. During these months, the commander of Kolberg, Lucadou. The French forces commanded by Teuliè, composed primarily of troops from Italy, Napoleon put the siege force under the command of Loison, Frederick William III entrusted Gneisenau with the defense. Other reinforcements came from states of the Confederation of the Rhine, the Kingdom of Holland, with the western surroundings of Kolberg flooded by the defenders, fighting concentrated on the eastern forefield of the fortress, where Wolfsberg sconce had been constructed on Lucadous behalf. Aiding the defense from the nearby Baltic Sea were a British, by late June, Napoleon massively reinforced the siege forces to bring about a decision.
The siege force also concentrated on taking the north of the town. On 2 July, fighting ceased when Prussia had agreed on a peace after her ally Russia suffered a decisive defeat at Friedland. Of the twenty Prussian fortresses, Kolberg was one of the few remaining in Prussian hands until the wars end, the battle became a myth in Prussia and was used by Nazi propaganda efforts. While prior to World War II the city commemorated the defendants, it started to honor the commander of the Polish troops after 1945, within two weeks after the Battle of Jena-Auerstedt, Napoleons Grande Armée had pursued the defeated Royal Prussian Army to Pasewalk in Prussian Pomerania. Pierre Thouvenout was appointed French governor of Pomerania and sent his envoy Mestram to accept Kolbergs expected capitulation, on 8 November 1806, Mestram met with the Prussian commander of Kolberg Louis Maurice de Lucadou before its walls. Lucadou ordered the Persante river west of Kolberg to be dammed up to flood the area around the fortress, coordination of these measures with Joachim Nettelbeck, representative of the Kolberg citizens, was however impaired by the latters personal grievances against Lucadou.
Time for preparation was needed since Kolberg lacked sufficient defensive structures, manpower, by early December 1806, the Kolberg garrison numbered 1,576 men, but increased steadily during the next months due to the arrival of Prussian troops and new recruits from nearby areas. Armament shortages were in part relieved by Charles XIII of Sweden, as of late October 1806, a total of 72 guns were mounted on Kolbergs walls,58 metal/iron cannons, six iron howitzers and eight iron mortars, in addition, there were four mobile 3-pounder cannons. Six guns captured by Schills freikorps were sent to Kolberg, with Victor-Perrin captured, the attack on Kolberg was to be led by Pietro Teuliés Italian division, who in February began the march on the fortress from Stettin. Schills freikorps further delayed the French advance by provoking several skirmishes and battles, teulié reached the Kolberg area by early March, and by the mid of the month had cleared the surrounding villages of Schills forces and encircled the fortress.
The suburbs, most notably Geldernerviertel, were burned down as it was customary, the French siege army was reinforced by troops from Württemberg and Saxon states as well as a Polish regiment
Battle of Mohrungen
The French pushed back the main Russian force, but a cavalry raid on the French supply train caused Bernadotte to call off his attacks. After driving off the cavalry, Bernadotte withdrew and the town was occupied by the army of General Levin August, the fighting took place in and around Morąg in northern Poland, which in 1807 was the East Prussian town of Mohrungen. The action was part of the War of the Fourth Coalition in the Napoleonic Wars, after demolishing the army of the Kingdom of Prussia in a whirlwind campaign in October and November 1806, Napoleons Grande Armée seized Warsaw. After two bitterly fought actions against the Russian army, the French emperor decided to place his troops into winter quarters, however, in wintry weather, the Russian commander moved north into East Prussia and struck west at Napoleons left flank. As one of Bennigsens columns advanced west it encountered forces under Bernadotte, the Russian advance was nearly at an end as Napoleon gathered strength for a powerful counterstroke.
After the Battle of Czarnowo on 23 December 1806 and the battles of Pułtusk and Gołymin on 26 December. Emperor Napoleon wanted time to reorganize the Grande Armées logistical arrangements after their autumn campaign. In addition, his veteran French troops had expressed displeasure at having to fight in Poland during the winter weather. In late 1806, Field Marshal Mikhail Kamenskys Russian army in Poland constituted two major wings under Generals Bennigsen and Friedrich Wilhelm von Buxhoeveden. The initial strength of Bennigsens force, before the December battles, was 49,000 infantry,11,000 regular cavalry,4,000 cossacks,2,700 artillerymen,900 pioneers, and 276 guns. Of these, from 55,000 to 60,000 were able to take the field, Buxhöwdens four divisions fought at the Battle of Austerlitz on 2 December 1805 and had not made up all the losses suffered at that engagement. Consequently, his troops numbered only 29,000 infantry,7,000 cavalry,1,200 gunners, not counting garrisons, the Prussians could put only 6,000 men into the field in that month.
In 1806, the Russian field army consisted of 18 divisions, since the foot batteries contained 14 guns apiece and the horse batteries 12 guns, each Russian division nominally controlled as many as 82 field pieces. Typically, the batteries were made up of eight 12-pound cannons, four heavy howitzers. The light batteries had the establishment except that they substituted 6- for 12-pound cannons. Horse batteries were entirely formed from 6-pound cannons and worn out in body and mind, the 75-year-old Marshal Kamensky exhibited clear signs that he was no longer fit to command. Around the time Pułtusk was fought, Kamensky left the front, the next day, he appeared in the streets of Grodno without his shirt on and called for a surgeon. Pointing out his wounds, he demanded that the doctor give him a written statement that he was no longer able to serve