Carnaval de Oruro
The Carnival of Oruro is a religious festival dating back more than 200 years that takes place in Oruro, Bolivia. It is one of UNESCO's Masterpieces of the Intangible Heritage of Humanity. An indigenous festival, the celebration was transformed to incorporate a Christian ritual around the Virgin of Candelaria; the traditional Llama llama or Diablada became the leading traditional dance of the festival. Throughout the festival, more than 48 groups of folk dancers specializing in 18 different folk dances perform a pilgrimage to the Shrine of the Tunnel every Saturday of the carnival in a traditional parade; the native Itu ceremonies were banned by the Spanish in the 17th century, during their rule over Upper Peru. However, the Uru continued to observe the festival in the form of a Catholic ritual on Candlemas, in the first week of each February. Christian icons were used to conceal portrayals of Andean gods, the Christian saints stood in for other minor Andean divinities; the ceremony began forty days before Easter.
Legend has it that in 1756, a mural of the Virgin Mary miraculously appeared in a mineshaft of the richest silver mine in Oruro. Since, the Carnival has been observed in honour of the Virgen de la Candelaria or Virgen del Socavon; the most important elements of the Carnival now occur around the Sanctuaria del Socavon. Called Jururu in ancient times, the area, now Oruro was a religious pilgrimage center of the Andean world. Pilgrims would trek to the "Sacred mountain of the Urus", where they could call protective deities: wak'as, achachilas and apus; these deities included Jamp'atu Qullu, Argentillo Arankani, the condor and Wakallusta, among others. After the Incan Empire took over the region, the Incans tried to introduce their religion by adding an evil demigod, WariDesam, a sacred demigod, Apus waka. Spanish colonization brought about a unique religious syncretism of Wari religion; the Virgin and the Devil from Catholic teachings were absorbed into local ideas of Pachamama and Tio Supay, a blending of religious symbolism that can still be seen during the Carnival.
The modern festival demonstrates the ongoing pagan-Catholic blend of religious practice in the region. The carnival starts with a ceremony dedicated to the Virgen del Socavon. Marching bands compete in the grotto of Pie de Gallo on Sunday, the greeting to the Virgin; the highlight of the festival is the three-day-and-three-night parade of 48 groups of folk dancers over a four kilometer route to the sanctuary of the tunnel. Three days prior to this Saturday pilgrimage, people visit the symbolic pagan condor. A week after the pilgrimage, they visit the snake south of the city, the toad to the north and the ants to the east; the pilgrimage culminates in the enactment of two medieval-style didactic or mystery plays. The first is about the Spanish conquest and the other revolves around the classical battle between good and evil, with the Archangel Michael triumphing over the Devil and the Seven Deadly Sins; the latter play was introduced by Catholic clergy in 1818. In all, there are over 28,000 dancers, about 10,000 musicians in 150 bands, 400,000 visitors stretching over four miles.
The bands themselves have a national festival on the Monday before Carnival weekend, aired on Bolivian television and its attended by the President of Bolivia and government authorities. An international jury of public figures chaired by writer Juan Goitisilo and convened by UNESCO proclaimed the Carnival one of the Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity on May 18, 2001; the proclamation was broadcast from France. Other members of the jury included the President of the Republic of Mali, Alpha Oumar Konare, the Kabaka of Uganda, His Majesty Ronald Muwenda Mutebi il, Princess Basma Bint Talal of Jordan, the Bolivian singer Zulma Yugar and Mexican writer Carlos Fuentes. Oruro's historical importance, as well as its cultural and religious influence, make its carnival a natural setting for demonstrating the multiculturalism of Bolivia and its variety of folk dances; the dance groups participating represent various indigenous dance styles, are accompanied by several bands. Areas represented by the dancers include: The Andean region of the Bolivian Altiplano and the Yungas valleys: Groups include the negritos, Afro-Bolivian saya and the caporales.
This area is densely populated, including part of La Paz. This area is rich in folklore, with dances including the tinku, kullawada, the siklla and kantu. Valleys area: Cochabamba and Chuquisaca, including the putulu and pukllay dances; the plains and forests: departments of Santa Cruz, Pando and Chuquisaca featuring multi-ethnic war dances. All the dances share Oruro origin like the dance of the devils or diablada, antawara, suri sikuri, intillaqta and sampoñaris. Diablada of Oruro Diablada El Tío Carnaval de Oruro Information about Carnival de Oruro in Bolivia and travelguide. Carnaval de Oruro - Dancing with the Diablada in Bolivia's Carnival A detailed description of the Carnival by photos and external links Site Web UNESCO
The tarka is an indigenous flute of the Andes. Made of wood, it has 6 finger holes, fipple on mouth end and free hole on distant end; the tarka is a blockflute, like a recorder, but is comparatively shorter and quite angular in shape, requires greater breath, has a darker, more penetrating sound. The tarka has three variants: big and small. All three kinds of tarka are used together in a big ensemble, all playing the same melody on three voices at fixed intervals and accompanied by percussion instruments; this traditional genre is called tarqueada. The tarka is a unique flute of the Andes made by artisans from the western region of Bolivia and Peru Sierra region. Artisans create a delightful sounding instrument, a beautifully intricate piece of art rich in detail and color. Versions are marketed from Bolivia and other South American regions; the flute features a whistle-type mouthpiece with a small air hole. The tarka sound and scale are different from any other Andean flute, it sounds primitive and mellow with a rasp in the low range.
Artisans still build this instrument that their ancestors used in tribal ceremonies to mimic bird sounds. Quena
Silpancho is a typical, popular Bolivian food from the city of Cochabamba. When prepared properly, this tends to be a large and filling meal fat, it consists of a base layer of rice white, followed by a layer of boiled and sliced potatoes. Next, a thin layer of schnitzel-style meat is laid followed by a layer of chopped tomato. In addition, onion and parsley are mixed together and topped with either one or two fried eggs. Variants including dicing and cooking the meat over the rice cooked instead of remaining in steak form. Another variant is to place pico de gallo on top of the eggs instead of parsley and beets. Another variant marinates the meat using ingredients including soy sauce. Silpancho can be found in a type of sandwich called containing all the ingredients. "What is Silpancho?". Retrieved 3 March 2013. "How to Make Bolivian Silpancho". Retrieved 3 March 2013
The erke is a large labrophone instrument native to the Gran Chaco of Bolivia, northern Chile, Argentine Northwest. The erke is composed of two or more lengths of cane joined at the ends to form a single tube; the internal nodes of the canes are removed and the exterior is wrapped with gut or wool. The end has an amplifier made of cow horn or brass; the instrument is blown through at the other end, may be three to seven metres in length. Although in the latter half of the 20th century Andean folkloric musical groups have used the erke for secular music, among the indigenous and criollo peoples of the Andes the erke is used for ritual purposes. Traditionally but not only adult men play the erke, it is considered profane to play the erke outside of a ritual context; the erke is played during winter, as it is believed that playing it in spring or summer can bring snow. Among the Mapuche people, there exists a similar instrument called the trutruca
A salteña is a type of baked empanada from Bolivia. Salteñas are savory pastries filled with beef, pork or chicken mixed in a sweet spicy sauce containing olives and potatoes. Vegetarian salteñas are sometimes available at certain restaurants. Salteñas can be found in any town or city throughout the country, but each area has its variations. In La Paz, it is a tradition to enjoy salteñas as a mid-morning snack, although vendors start selling salteñas early in the morning; the pastries are sold anywhere from 7am to noon. Historian Antonio Paredes Candia states that during the early 19th century, Juana Manuela Gorriti was the first person to create the current version of this product; this lady married Presidente Manuel Isidoro Belzu. Gorriti was born in Salta and was exiled to Potosí, Bolivia during the Juan Manuel de Rosas dictatorship; the Gorriti family endured extreme poverty, they came up with the recipe in the early 19th century in order to make a living. A variation of these pastries was known at the time throughout most of Europe.
The product, nicknamed "salteña", became popular. Candia states that it was common to say to kids: "Ve y recoge una empanada de la salteña". In time most forgot the name Manuela Gorriti, but not the nickname; the salteñas left the Potosí and became a Bolivian tradition. Salteñas are juicy, like a stew in a pastry; the juiciness is achieved by making a stew out of all the ingredients and adding gelatin, so that the stew hardens in the refrigerator, slowly melts when they are baked. This ensures that the dough does not get soggy while providing a juicy filling, they are more football-shaped than flat like empanadas. The trick to eating them is to hold them upright, nibble the top corner and work your way down without spilling any of the hot juices. Llajua complements it well. Cuisine of Bolivia
History of Bolivia
After the fall of Tiwanaku empire, the many Aymara Lake Titicaca were conquered by the Inca empire. Prior to the Spanish conquest, the Andean province of Qullasuyu was a part of the Inca empire, while the northern and eastern lowlands were inhabited by independent nomadic tribes. Spanish conquistadors, arriving from Cuzco and Asunción took control of the region in the 16th century. During most of the Spanish colonial rule, Bolivia was known as Upper Peru and administered by the Royal Audiencia of Charcas. After the 1st call for independence in 1809, 16 years of war followed before the establishment of the Bolivian Republic, named for the Liberator Simón Bolívar, on August 6, 1825. Since Bolivia has endured regular periods of political and economic instability, including the loss of various provinces to its neighbors, such as Acre, parts of the Gran Chaco and its Pacific coast, making it a land-locked country. Cultures of indigenous peoples in Bolivia developed in the high altitude settings of altiplano with low oxygen levels, poor soils and extreme weather patterns.
The better suited lowlands were sparsely inhabited by hunter-gatherer societies while much of the pre-Columbian population was concentrated in altiplano valleys of Cochabamba and Chuquisaca. Potato was domesticated near Lake Titicaca between 8000 and 5000 BC, quinoa some 3000–4000 years ago and production of copper began in 2000 BC. Llama and vicuña were domesticated and used for transport and clothing. Aymara people arrived in the region some 2000 years ago settling in Western Bolivia, Southern Peru and Northern Chile. Present-day Aymaras associate themselves with the advanced culture of Tiwanaku, which after 600 became an important regional power. According to early estimates, at its maximum extent, the city covered 6.5 square kilometers, had between 15,000 - 30,000 inhabitants. However, satellite imaging was used to map the extent of "flooded-raised fields" across the three primary valleys of Tiwanaku, arriving at population-carrying capacity estimates of anywhere between 285,000 and 1,482,000 people.
William H. Isbell states that "Tiahuanaco underwent a dramatic transformation between AD 600 and 700 that established new monumental standards for civic architecture and increased the resident population." Tiwanaku gained its power through the trade it implemented between all of the cities within its empire. After 950 a dramatic shift in climate occurred and there was a significant drop in precipitation for the Titicaca Basin. Tiwanaku disappeared around AD 1150 because food production collapses and could no longer sustain the large population; the land was not inhabited for many years after that. Between 1438 and 1527 the Inca empire embarked on a mass expansion, acquiring much of what is now western Bolivia under their 9th emperor, Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui, whose reign lasted from 1438 to 1471. Pachacuti Yupanqui was succeeded by his son, Topa Inca Yupanqui whose reign increased the Incan territory and lasted from 1471 to 1493. During the 15th century the Incas conquered the region of Lake Titicaca and western Bolivia became a part of the Inca territory as province of Qullasuyu.
Francisco Pizarro, Diego de Almagro, Hernando de Luque led the Spanish discovery and conquest of the Inca empire. They first sailed south in 1524 along the Pacific coast from Panama to confirm the existence of a legendary land of gold called "Biru"; because the expanding Inca Empire was internally weak, the conquest was remarkably easy. After the Inca Emperor Huayna Capac died in 1527, his sons Huascar and Atahualpa fought over the succession. Although Atahualpa defeated his brother, he had not yet consolidated his power when the conquistadors arrived. Atahualpa did not attempt to defeat Pizarro when he arrived on the coast in 1532 because the Incan ruler was convinced that those who commanded the mountains controlled the coast. Atahualpa’s refusal to accept the permanent Spanish presence and to convert to Christianity led to the bloody Battle of Cajamarca on November 16, 1532. Pizarro killed Atahualpa's 12-man honor guard and took the Inca captive at the so-called ransom room. One year the Inca capital of Cuzco fell and was refounded as a new Spanish settlement.
Despite Pizarro's quick victory, Inca rebellions soon began and continued periodically throughout the colonial period. In 1537 Manco Inca, whom the Spanish had established as a puppet emperor, rebelled against the new rulers and restored a "neo-Inca" state; this state continued to challenge Spanish authority after the Spanish suppressed the revolt and beheaded Túpac Amaru in the public square of Cuzco in 1572. Revolts in the Bolivian highlands were organized by the elders of the community and remained local in nature, except for the great rebellion of Túpac Amaru II. During the first two decades of Spanish rule, the settlement of the Bolivian highlands — now known as Upper Peru or Real Audiencia of Charcas — was delayed by a civil war between the forces of Pizarro and Diego de Almagro; the two conquistadors had divided the Incan territory, with the north under the control of Pizarro and the south under that of Almagro. Fighting broke out in 1537. Pizarro defeated and executed Almagro in 1538, but was himself assassinated three years by former supporters of Almagro.
Pizarro's brother Gonzalo assumed control of Upper Peru but soon became embroiled in a rebellion against the Spanish crown. Only with the execution of Gonzalo Pizarro in 1548 did Spanish crown succeed in reasserting its authority; the conquest and colonial rule were traumatic exper
The siku is a traditional Andean panpipe. This instrument is the main instrument used in a musical genre known as sikuri, it is traditionally found all across the Andes but is more associated with music from the Kollasuyo, or Aymara speaking regions around Lake Titicaca. Because of the complicated mountain geography of the region, due to other factors, in some regions each community would develop its own type of siku, with its own special tuning and size. Additionally each community developed its own style of playing. Today the siku has been standardized to fit in with modern western forms of music and has been transported from its traditional roots; the siku is from the Aymaras of Perú and Bolivia, where a woman would play her siku as she came down from the mountains. Since the largest siku has every note, was too big for the woman, they got two sikus that would be played together with someone else, so they could play them continuously after each other and thus the scales could be played. Once the women partnered, they became musically bonded with each other, as part of their religion, neither could play the pipes with any other for the rest of their life.
Women would assemble into groups as they came down the mountains, each group would play different tunes, as they got together, they would blend all the melodies together to create one complete melody. The woman played the siku to attract wild goat that they would harvest. Sikus are made from bamboo shoots, but have been made from condor feathers and many other materials. Additionally, different types of bamboo are employed to change the quality of the sound. Songo, or shallow-walled bamboo, gives a louder, more resonant sound than regular deep-walled bamboo, but is less common due to its fragility; the antara are traditionally made from a type of cane known as chuki or chajlla that grows in the ceja de la selva "the eyebrow of the forest". The pipes are held together by two strips of cane to form a trapezoidal plane. Antaras are of different sizes and they produce diverse sounds. Siku is split across two rows of pipes. One must alternate rows with every note. Traditionally, two musicians were required to play the siku, each one taking one row of the instrument.
One part of the instrument is called another arka. It is considered that spiritually ira corresponds to male arka to female; when many musicians divide in two parts, first playing ira and second playing arka, this gives Andean music a distinctive stereophonic sound. Hear example. Now it is more common to see one musician playing both rows of the instrument together, but rustic ensembles retain traditional playing; the most widespread variety of siku, siku ch'alla, contains 13 pipes, but less common varieties may have more and fewer pipes. Some of them employ extra open-ended reeds attached to the front of the instrument to change the sound quality; the tabla siku has all of the pipes cut to the same length, so the instrument is rectangular in shape but has stoppers inside the tubes to adjust the actual resonant length of the chambers. The siku uses a diatonic scale. Siku ch'alla is tuned in E minor / G major, arca: D-F#-A-C-E-G-B and ira:E-G-B-D-F#-A. There are a contemporary varieties of siku with chromatic scale having 3 rows, with pitch distribution similar to chromatic button accordion.
There are multiple different sizes of siku tuned an octave apart. The smallest of the family is called ika or chulli; the next larger size, the most common, is called malta. An octave lower than the malta is the zanka; the largest of the family is the jach ` a. The longest pipe of the toyo is around 4 feet. Andean music