Emerald is a town in the Central Highlands Region, Australia. At the 2016 Census, Emerald had an urban population of 13,500; the town is the business centre for the Central Highlands Regional Council. Emerald lies on a tributary of the Fitzroy River; the town lies 300 kilometres from the coast and 270 kilometres west of the city of Rockhampton on the junction of the Capricorn and Gregory highways. The Tropic of Capricorn intersects the Gregory Highway just north of Emerald; the original inhabitants include the Gayiri Aborigninal group who occupied the area for tens of thousands of years before European colonisation began in the nineteenth century. The first European to explore the area was Ludwig Leichhardt between 1843 and 1845; the British Colony of Queensland was established in 1859. Emerald was established in 1879 as a base for the Central line from Rockhampton. Emerald Post Office opened on 5 June 1879; the new Emerald Library building opened in 1994. Some of the recorded floods to have occurred in the region include 1863, 1864, 1868, 1870, 1871, 1872, 1875, 1876, 1878, 1882, 1887, 1890, 1894, 1896, 1898, 1906, 1912, 1918, 1920s, 1950, 1956 was the wettest year on record with 1032.29 mm rainfall.
The 1970s had similar rainfall to the 1860s and 1870s. Prior to the 1990s, flood damage to residential properties was non-existent; the biggest impact of flooding of the Nogoa River in Emerald itself was that one side of Emerald was cut off from the other and caravans at the Carinya Caravan Park would be towed to higher ground each time the Nogoa River rose, to prevent the caravans from being submerged. This caravan park is now the site of the Centro Property where Coles Supermarket and other businesses operate. A former swamp area is now part of Kidd Street, an old river course; the watercourse that extended along the back of the hospital, past the rear of Woolworths and past the Information Centre has been converted into a channel with a concrete section on one side near the information centre, reducing the channel in size by two-thirds. This area has been allowed to be developed in the vicinity of Creek Street. Fairbairn Dam overflowed for the first time in 17 years on 19 January 2008. Major flooding in Emerald occurred a few days as the Nogoa River broke its banks.
The floods resulted in more than 2,500 people being evacuated. The 2008 floods did not reach the heights of flooding in previous years. Emerald has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Clermont Street: Emerald railway station According to the 2016 census of Population, there were 13,532 people in Emerald. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people made up 3.6% of the population. 73.8% of people were born in Australia. The next most common countries of birth were New Zealand 4.3%, Philippines 1.6%, South Africa 1.1% and England 1.1%. 81.4% of people spoke only English at home. Other languages spoken at home included Afrikaans at 0.8%. The most common responses for religion were Catholic 26.3%, No Religion 21.1% and Anglican 15.4%. Emerald is a service town for a large number of industries in the area. Extensive coal mining operations are carried out in the district. Cotton is grown in the area, is processed at the Yamala Cotton Gin, while other agricultural activities include grape and grain growing.
The citrus industry was affected by a citrus canker outbreak that started in 2004 and was declared over in early 2009. More than half a million citrus trees located around Emerald had to be destroyed. Emerald Solar Park is west of the town and generates up to 65MW of electricity since October 2018. Emerald has a humid subtropical climate with mild, dry winters. Maximum temperatures range from 34 °C in January to 22 °C in July, while minimums range from 22 °C to 7 °C; the average annual rainfall is 641.2 mm. The wettest year on record was 1407.2 mm in 1956. Extremes of temperature have ranged from 48.6 °C to −5.6 °C, while the wettest 24 hours on record was 182.0 mm on 25 February 1975. To the west of the town is an area known as The Gemfields, with small towns such as Sapphire and Rubyvale indicating the type of gems found there; the sapphire fields located here are the largest in the southern hemisphere. The Fairbairn Dam, a short drive to the south of the town, was opened in 1972, holds back the waters of Lake Maraboon.
The lake covers an area of up to 150 km², making it one of the largest artificial lakes in the country. When full, it holds more water than Sydney Harbour; this extensive water supply has allowed the cotton industry to flourish in the area, the lake is a boon for local water sports. Emerald has ten schools: six primary schools, three secondary schools, a distance education school. There are three public primary schools, Denison State School, Emerald North State School, Emerald State School. Emerald North State School opened on 1 October 1879 and Emerald North State School was opened on 29 January 1980. Marist College Emerald, St Patrick's, St Brigid's and Emerald Christian College are private schools; the only public high school in Emerald is Emerald State High School. Capricornia School of Distance Education shares a campus with Denison State School; the small community of Gindie exists 23 kilometres south of Emerald on the Gregory Highway. It is home to a primary school established in 1897, Gindie State School.
The school closed in 1949 and subsequently reopened. Central Queensland University has a campus in Emerald. Central Highlands Regional Council operates Emerald Library at Emerald; the Emerald branch of the Queensland Co
Springsure is a town and a locality in the Central Highlands Region, Australia. It is 66 kilometres south of Emerald on the Gregory Highway, it is the northern terminus of the Dawson Highway. It is 765 kilometres northwest of Brisbane. At the 2016 census, Springsure had a population of 1103; the town takes its name from a pastoral run name used from 1861, so named because of a permanent spring on the run. The area was occupied by Aboriginal people, for thousands of years. Ludwig Leichhardt was the first European to explore the area between 1843 and 1845, his favourable reports encouraged settlers to move in and settle the land whose domains were those of Aboriginal groups. In 1861 squatter Horatio Wills and a party of Victorian settlers arrived near modern-day Springsure in 1861. Two weeks 19 men women and children, including Wills, were killed by Aboriginal Australian people, the Kairi or Gayiri, in the Cullin-La-Ringo massacre, the largest massacre of European settlers by Aborigines in Australian history.
At least 15 Aboriginal men and children were killed by the Queensland Native Police and militias of local European colonists and their employees, in a series of reprisals over the months that followed. However, the massacre of the 19 European family members was itself a retaliatory response to an earlier shooting of fugitive murderer, Gayiri tribesman by Jesse Gregson with Second Lieutenant Alfred March Patrick and Native Police Troops in his command. Prior to the massacre of the 19 colonists, Second Lieutenant Patrick had complained, in early 1861, to Charles Dutton that other officers in the Queensland Native Police "...had been able to bag their first Aborigine after only a few weeks in the Force. The Old Rainworth Fort was built in 1862 by the colonists of Springsure in order to defend themselves from future raids by Aboriginals. Horatio's son, star cricketer and Australian rules football pioneer Tom Wills, survived the massacre, remained on site until 1864; the town was surveyed by Charles Frederick Gregory in August 1863.
On 6 December 1919, the Springsure State School Memorial Fountain was dedicated by Mrs Annie Wheeler, a former pupil at the school. The memorial is a marble fountain and commemorates students of the school who served in World War I. On 16 November 1943 a Douglas C-47A Skytrain broke up in mid-air during a violent storm in the area, crashed on Rewan Station, just south of Spingsure. All 19 people on board the aircraft perished in the crash. Today, Springsure is a pastoral settlement serving cattle farms, sunflower, sorghum and chickpea plantations. Springsure State School opened on 14 March 1870. Springsure has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: 13 Woodbine Street: Springsure Hospital Museum Wealwandangie Road, Cairdbeign: Old Rainworth Stone Store A cliff face in the hills surrounding Springsure is known to the area as Virgin Rock, named because it once looked like the Virgin Mary cradling the baby Jesus, although years of erosion have blurred the original resemblance. Facilities at Springsure include an airport, caravan park, motocross track, police station, service station and showground.
The Central Highlands Regional Council operate a public library in Springsure at 27 Eclipse Street. The Springsure branch of the Queensland Country Women's Association has its rooms at 27 Eclipse Street. Springsure State School has 17 teachers, their school motto is'Success by Effort'. Springsure is the hub for several coal mines such as the Rolleston Mine. Significant exploration is ongoing in the district, it is a staging point for expeditions to the Carnarvon National Park. John Denis Fryer after whom the Fryer Library at the University of Queensland is named John Humphreys, Olympic fencer Roy Moore, U. S. judge and Senate candidate, worked on the Telemon cattle station outside town in 1984. Keith Slater, Anglican priest in Springsure Bishop of Grafton Theophilus Wilson, cricketer Queensland portal Media related to Springsure at Wikimedia Commons University of Queensland: Queensland Places: Springsure Town map of Springsure, 1989
Limestone is a carbonate sedimentary rock, composed of the skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral and molluscs. Its major materials are the minerals calcite and aragonite, which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate. A related rock is dolostone, which contains a high percentage of the mineral dolomite, CaMg2. In fact, in old USGS publications, dolostone was referred to as magnesian limestone, a term now reserved for magnesium-deficient dolostones or magnesium-rich limestones. About 10% of sedimentary rocks are limestones; the solubility of limestone in water and weak acid solutions leads to karst landscapes, in which water erodes the limestone over thousands to millions of years. Most cave systems are through limestone bedrock. Limestone has numerous uses: as a building material, an essential component of concrete, as aggregate for the base of roads, as white pigment or filler in products such as toothpaste or paints, as a chemical feedstock for the production of lime, as a soil conditioner, or as a popular decorative addition to rock gardens.
Like most other sedimentary rocks, most limestone is composed of grains. Most grains in limestone are skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as foraminifera; these organisms secrete shells made of aragonite or calcite, leave these shells behind when they die. Other carbonate grains composing limestones are ooids, peloids and extraclasts. Limestone contains variable amounts of silica in the form of chert or siliceous skeletal fragment, varying amounts of clay and sand carried in by rivers; some limestones do not consist of grains, are formed by the chemical precipitation of calcite or aragonite, i.e. travertine. Secondary calcite may be deposited by supersaturated meteoric waters; this produces speleothems, such as stalactites. Another form taken by calcite is oolitic limestone, which can be recognized by its granular appearance; the primary source of the calcite in limestone is most marine organisms. Some of these organisms can construct mounds of rock building upon past generations. Below about 3,000 meters, water pressure and temperature conditions cause the dissolution of calcite to increase nonlinearly, so limestone does not form in deeper waters.
Limestones may form in lacustrine and evaporite depositional environments. Calcite can be dissolved or precipitated by groundwater, depending on several factors, including the water temperature, pH, dissolved ion concentrations. Calcite exhibits an unusual characteristic called retrograde solubility, in which it becomes less soluble in water as the temperature increases. Impurities will cause limestones to exhibit different colors with weathered surfaces. Limestone may be crystalline, granular, or massive, depending on the method of formation. Crystals of calcite, dolomite or barite may line small cavities in the rock; when conditions are right for precipitation, calcite forms mineral coatings that cement the existing rock grains together, or it can fill fractures. Travertine is a banded, compact variety of limestone formed along streams where there are waterfalls and around hot or cold springs. Calcium carbonate is deposited where evaporation of the water leaves a solution supersaturated with the chemical constituents of calcite.
Tufa, a porous or cellular variety of travertine, is found near waterfalls. Coquina is a poorly consolidated limestone composed of pieces of coral or shells. During regional metamorphism that occurs during the mountain building process, limestone recrystallizes into marble. Limestone is a parent material of Mollisol soil group. Two major classification schemes, the Folk and the Dunham, are used for identifying the types of carbonate rocks collectively known as limestone. Robert L. Folk developed a classification system that places primary emphasis on the detailed composition of grains and interstitial material in carbonate rocks. Based on composition, there are three main components: allochems and cement; the Folk system uses two-part names. It is helpful to have a petrographic microscope when using the Folk scheme, because it is easier to determine the components present in each sample; the Dunham scheme focuses on depositional textures. Each name is based upon the texture of the grains. Robert J. Dunham published his system for limestone in 1962.
Dunham divides the rocks into four main groups based on relative proportions of coarser clastic particles. Dunham names are for rock families, his efforts deal with the question of whether or not the grains were in mutual contact, therefore self-supporting, or whether the rock is characterized by the presence of frame builders and algal mats. Unlike the Folk scheme, Dunham deals with the original porosity of the rock; the Dunham scheme is more useful for hand samples because it is based on texture, not the grains in the sample. A revised classification was proposed by Wright, it adds some diagenetic patterns and can be summarized as follows: See: Carbonate platform About 10% of all sedimentary rocks are limestones. Limestone is soluble in acid, therefore forms many erosional landforms; these include limestone pavements, pot holes, cenotes and gorges. Such erosion landscapes are known
Rockhampton is a city in the Rockhampton Shire of Queensland’s Central Coast Queensland, Australia. The estimated urban population of Rockhampton in June 2015 was 80,665, making it the fourth-largest city in the state outside of the cities of South East Queensland. and the 22nd-largest city in Australia. Rockhampton is one of the oldest cities in Northern Australia. In 1853, Charles and William Archer discovered the Fitzroy River, which they named in honour of Sir Charles FitzRoy; the Archer brothers took up a run near Gracemere in 1855, more settlers arrived soon after, enticed by the fertile valleys. The town of Rockhampton was proclaimed in 1858, surveyed by Arthur F Wood and Francis Clarke, the chosen street design resembled the Hoddle Grid in Melbourne and consisted of a grid of wide boulevards and laneways, uncommon in Queensland. Within the year, gold was found at Canoona, led to the first North Australian gold rush; this led to an influx of migrants who transformed Rockhampton into the second-largest port in the state.
Subsequent gold rushes at Mount Morgan Mine, at the time one of the most productive gold mines in the world, laid the foundations for much of the city's Victorian architecture. Today, Rockhampton is an industrial and agricultural centre of the north, is the regional centre of Central Queensland. Rockhampton is a large tourist destination known for its history and culture supporting such institutions as the Rockhampton Art Gallery, one of the most extensive regional galleries in Australia, the Central Queensland University with campuses across five states, the Rockhampton Heritage Village, Dreamtime Cultural Centre, it is famous as the hometown of Rod Laver - one of the best tennis players in history. The city is served by the Rockhampton Airport and acts as a gateway to local tourist locations such as the Capricorn Caves and Mount Archer National Park, as well as regional tourist areas like Yeppoon and the Capricorn Coast alongside the island chains offshore that include Great Keppel Island.
A giant waterslide was built in Rockhampton for an attraction. The Capricorn district is the traditional home of the Darumbal Aboriginal people; the European history of the area began in 1853, when the area that would become Rockhampton was visited by the Archer brothers Charles and William, who were seeking grazing lands. They were acting on information from earlier expeditions by Ludwig Leichhardt and Thomas Mitchell, who had explored the area in 1844 and 1846 and noted suitable land for grazing then. In January 1854, the New South Wales Government proclaimed two new districts: Port Curtis and Leichhardt, the Archer brothers returned in August 1855 to set up their pastoral run at Gracemere; the Fitzroy River provided a convenient waterway for shipping of supplies and produce, the Archer brothers constructed a wool shed just downstream of a bar of rocks which prevented further upstream navigation from the coast. These rocks were incorporated with the traditional English term for a village, the name "Rockhampton" was first coined by Charles Archer and the local Commissioner from Crown Lands, William Wiseman.
In 1856, the Elliott brothers arrived at Gracemere and soon after, took up landholdings at Canoona, north of present-day Yaamba. There, Philip Elliott and his party came under attack from the Darumbals of the Taroomball tribe. Elliott was wounded by a spear and one of his men was killed. However, Elliott had brought with his party a contingent of Native Police who turned near-certain loss into victory, it was the first of many battles. Permanent British settlement at the Rockhampton township began in July 1856, when Richard Palmer travelled from Gladstone with an escort of Native Police under sub-Lieutenant Walter Powell to set up a store. Powell constructed the Native Police barracks; this was the first habitable British building established at Rockhampton and it was located on the south bank of the Fitzroy River at the end of Albert Street. With abundant grazing lands and waters from the Fitzroy River and its many tributaries and lagoons, the region continued to expand rapidly. In 1858, the town of Rockhampton was proclaimed.
The town was surveyed at this time and the first sales of building allotments were held that year. In 1859, gold was discovered at Canoona. Miners rushed to the new field, using the site of Rockhampton on the Fitzroy River as the nearest navigable port; the Canoona field proved to be disappointing and thousands of would-be gold seekers were left stranded at Rockhampton. Although many returned south, others stayed. By 1861, the town boasted a regular newspaper, court house and School of Arts. Direct shipments of imported goods and migrants from the United Kingdom began to be received during the 1860s. During the 1860s and 1870s Rockhampton developed as the main port for the developing Central Queensland hinterland. In the 1880s and 1890s, sea ports were established on the coast, adjacent to the mouth of the Fitzroy River. Broadmount was on Port Alma on the south. Railways were subsequently constructed to carry goods to the wharves at these locations, the railway to Broadmount opening on 1 January 1898 and the line to Port Alma opened on 16 October 1911.
Maintenance on the Broadmount line ceased in August 1929. The following month, the wharf caught fire and the line was closed in July 1930; the line to Port Alma closed on 15 October 1986. The significant gold deposit at Mount Morgan to the southwest was discovered in the 1880s, a
The microbats constitute the suborder Microchiroptera within the order Chiroptera. Bats have long been differentiated into Megachiroptera and Microchiroptera, based on their size, the use of echolocation by the Microchiroptera and other features. Microbats are 4 to 16 cm long. Most microbats feed on insects, but some of the larger species hunt birds, frogs, smaller bats or fish. Only three species of microbat feed on the blood of large birds; the term "leaf-nose" does not indicate the diet preferred by particular species and is applied to a wide variety of microbats. Most leaf-nosed microbat species are nectar-eating. However, three species follow the bloom of columnar cacti in northwest Mexico and the Southwest United States northward in the northern spring and the blooming agaves southward in the northern fall. Other leaf-nosed bats, such as Vampyrum spectrum of South America, hunt a variety of prey such as lizards and birds; the horseshoe bats of Europe, as well as California leaf-nosed bats, have an intricate leaf-nose for echolocation, feed on insects.
Microbats use echolocation. Microbats lack the claw at the second finger of the forelimb; this finger appears thinner and bonded by tissue with the third finger for extra support during flight. Megabats lack tails, with the exception of a few genera such as Nyctimene, whereas this trait only occurs in certain species of microbats; the ears of microbats possess a tragus and are larger than megabat ears, whereas megabat ears are comparatively small and lack a tragus. Megabat eyes are quite large; the form and function of microbat teeth differ as a result of the various diets. Teeth are designed to break down food. In comparison to megabats which feed only on fruit and nectar, microbats illustrate a range of diets and have been classified as insectivores, sanguinivores and nectarivores. Differences seen between the size and function of the canines and molars among microbats in these groups vary as a result of this; the diverse diets of microbats reflect having dentition, or cheek teeth, that display a morphology derived from dilambdodont teeth, which are characterized by a W-shaped ectoloph, or stylar shelf.
A W-shaped dilambdodont upper molar includes a metacone and paracone, which are located at the bottom of the “W”. Microbats display differences between the size and shape of their canines and molars, in addition to having distinctive variations among their skull features that contribute to their ability to feed effectively. Frugivorous microbats have small stylar shelf areas, short molariform rows, wide palates and faces. In addition to having wide faces, frugivorous microbats have short skulls, which place the teeth closer to the fulcrum of the jaw lever, allowing an increase in jaw strength. Frugivorous microbats possess a different pattern on their molars compared to carnivorous, insectivorous and sanguinivorous microbats. In contrast, insectivorous microbats are characterized by having larger, but fewer teeth, long canines, shortened third upper molars. Microbats that are insectivores and frugivores have large teeth and small palates. Though differences exist between the palate and teeth sizes of microbats, the proportion of the sizes of these two structures are maintained among microbats of various sizes.
Echolocation is the process where an animal produces a sound of certain wavelength, listens to and compares the reflected echoes to the original sound emitted. Bats use echolocation to form images of their surrounding environment and the organisms that inhabit it by eliciting ultrasonic waves via their larynx; the difference between the ultrasonic waves produced by the bat and what the bat hears provides the bat with information about its environment. Echolocation aids the bat in not only detecting prey, but in orientation during flight. Most microbats emit the sound through their nose or mouth. Sound productions are generated from the vocal folds in mammals due to the elastic membranes that compose these folds. Vocalization requires these elastic membranes because they act as a source to transform airflow into acoustic pressure waves. Energy is supplied to the elastic membranes from the lungs, results in the production of sound; the larynx houses the vocal cords and forms the passageway for the expiratory air that will produce sound.
Microbat calls range in frequency from 14,000 to over 100,000 hertz, well beyond the range of the human ear. The emitted vocalizations form a broad beam of sound used to probe the environment, as well as communicate with other bats. Laryngeal echolocation is the dominant form of echolocation in microbats, however, it is not the only way in which microbats can produce ultrasonic waves. Excluding non-echol
Queensland is the second-largest and third-most populous state in the Commonwealth of Australia. Situated in the north-east of the country, it is bordered by the Northern Territory, South Australia and New South Wales to the west, south-west and south respectively. To the east, Queensland is bordered by the Coral Pacific Ocean. To its north is the Torres Strait, with Papua New Guinea located less than 200 km across it from the mainland; the state is the world's sixth-largest sub-national entity, with an area of 1,852,642 square kilometres. As of 15 May 2018, Queensland has a population of 5,000,000, concentrated along the coast and in the state's South East; the capital and largest city in the state is Australia's third-largest city. Referred to as the "Sunshine State", Queensland is home to 10 of Australia's 30 largest cities and is the nation's third-largest economy. Tourism in the state, fuelled by its warm tropical climate, is a major industry. Queensland was first inhabited by Torres Strait Islanders.
The first European to land in Queensland was Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon in 1606, who explored the west coast of the Cape York Peninsula near present-day Weipa. In 1770, Lieutenant James Cook claimed the east coast of Australia for the Kingdom of Great Britain; the colony of New South Wales was founded in 1788 by Governor Arthur Phillip at Sydney. Queensland was explored in subsequent decades until the establishment of a penal colony at Brisbane in 1824 by John Oxley. Penal transportation ceased in 1839 and free settlement was allowed from 1842; the state was named in honour of Queen Victoria, who on 6 June 1859 signed Letters Patent separating the colony from New South Wales. Queensland Day is celebrated annually statewide on 6 June. Queensland was one of the six colonies which became the founding states of Australia with federation on 1 January 1901; the history of Queensland spans thousands of years, encompassing both a lengthy indigenous presence, as well as the eventful times of post-European settlement.
The north-eastern Australian region was explored by Dutch and French navigators before being encountered by Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. The state has witnessed frontier warfare between European settlers and Indigenous inhabitants, as well as the exploitation of cheap Kanaka labour sourced from the South Pacific through a form of forced recruitment known at the time as "blackbirding"; the Australian Labor Party has its origin as a formal organisation in Queensland and the town of Barcaldine is the symbolic birthplace of the party. June 2009 marked the 150th anniversary of its creation as a separate colony from New South Wales. A rare record of early settler life in north Queensland can be seen in a set of ten photographic glass plates taken in the 1860s by Richard Daintree, in the collection of the National Museum of Australia; the Aboriginal occupation of Queensland is thought to predate 50,000 BC via boat or land bridge across Torres Strait, became divided into over 90 different language groups.
During the last ice age Queensland's landscape became more arid and desolate, making food and other supplies scarce. This led to the world's first seed-grinding technology. Warming again made the land hospitable, which brought high rainfall along the eastern coast, stimulating the growth of the state's tropical rainforests. In February 1606, Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon landed near the site of what is now Weipa, on the western shore of Cape York; this was the first recorded landing of a European in Australia, it marked the first reported contact between European and Aboriginal Australian people. The region was explored by French and Spanish explorers prior to the arrival of Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. Cook claimed the east coast under instruction from King George III of the United Kingdom on 22 August 1770 at Possession Island, naming Eastern Australia, including Queensland,'New South Wales'; the Aboriginal population declined after a smallpox epidemic during the late 18th century. In 1823, John Oxley, a British explorer, sailed north from what is now Sydney to scout possible penal colony sites in Gladstone and Moreton Bay.
At Moreton Bay, he found the Brisbane River. He established a settlement at what is now Redcliffe; the settlement known as Edenglassie, was transferred to the current location of the Brisbane city centre. Edmund Lockyer discovered outcrops of coal along the banks of the upper Brisbane River in 1825. In 1839 transportation of convicts was ceased, culminating in the closure of the Brisbane penal settlement. In 1842 free settlement was permitted. In 1847, the Port of Maryborough was opened as a wool port; the first free immigrant ship to arrive in Moreton Bay was the Artemisia, in 1848. In 1857, Queensland's first lighthouse was built at Cape Moreton. A war, sometimes called a "war of extermination", erupted between Aborigines and settlers in colonial Queensland; the Frontier War was notable for being the most bloody in Australia due to Queensland's larger pre-contact indigenous population when compared to the other Australian colonies. About 1,500 European settlers and their alli
Carmila is a coastal town and locality in the Isaac Region, Australia. At the 2011 census and the surrounding area had a population of 398. Carmila is situated 65 kilometres south of the town of Sarina; the North Coast railway line passes through the town, served by the Carmila railway station. The Bruce Highway passes through the town as well. A large portion of the north west of Carmila belongs to the West Hill State Forest. Along the coast, the West Hill National Park was established in 1971; the major land uses are sugar cane farming and cattle grazing. Professional fishing occurs off the coast. Carmila State School opened on 9 July 1923. Carmila Post Office opened by March 1924. Carmila West State School opened on 18 August 1924 and closed on 31 December 1965. Carmila Police Station opened in 1933; the Carmila Library opened in 1978. Carmila has a number including the Carmila Cane Lift at 49 Hindles Road; the Isaac Regional Council operates a public library at 16 Music Street. Camila State School is a government co-education primary school.
In 2014, it had 32 students enrolled with 2 teachers. The nearest secondary school is in Sarina. Carmila State School, Golden jubilee celebration, 1923-1973, Carmila State School: souvenir booklet, Carmila State School, ISBN 978-0-9598337-0-6 "Carmila". Isaac Regional Council. Retrieved 23 March 2009