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Capsid

A capsid is the protein shell of a virus. It consists of several oligomeric structural subunits made of protein called protomers; the observable 3-dimensional morphological subunits, which may or may not correspond to individual proteins, are called capsomeres. The capsid encloses the genetic material of the virus. Capsids are broadly classified according to their structure; the majority of viruses have capsids with either icosahedral structure. Some viruses, such as bacteriophages, have developed more complicated structures due to constraints of elasticity and electrostatics; the icosahedral shape, which has 20 equilateral triangular faces, approximates a sphere, while the helical shape resembles the shape of a spring, taking the space of a cylinder but not being a cylinder itself. The capsid faces may consist of one or more proteins. For example, the foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid has faces consisting of three proteins named VP1–3; some viruses are enveloped, meaning that the capsid is coated with a lipid membrane known as the viral envelope.

The envelope is acquired by the capsid from an intracellular membrane in the virus' host. Once the virus has infected a cell and begins replicating itself, new capsid subunits are synthesized using the protein biosynthesis mechanism of the cell. In some viruses, including those with helical capsids and those with RNA genomes, the capsid proteins co-assemble with their genomes. In other viruses more complex viruses with double-stranded DNA genomes, the capsid proteins assemble into empty precursor procapsids that includes a specialized portal structure at one vertex. Through this portal, viral DNA is translocated into the capsid. Structural analyses of major capsid protein architectures have been used to categorise viruses into lineages. For example, the bacteriophage PRD1, the algal virus Paramecium bursaria Chlorella virus and the mammalian adenovirus have been placed in the same lineage, whereas tailed, double-stranded DNA bacteriophages and herpesvirus belong to a second lineage; the icosahedral structure is common among viruses.

The icosahedron consists of 20 triangular faces delimited by 12 fivefold vertexes and consists of 60 asymmetric units. Thus, an icosahedral virus is made of 60N protein subunits; the number and arrangement of capsomeres in an icosahedral capsid can be classified using the "quasi-equivalence principle" proposed by Donald Caspar and Aaron Klug. Like the Goldberg polyhedra, an icosahedral structure can be regarded as being constructed from pentamers and hexamers; the structures can be indexed by two integers h and k, with h ≥ 1 and k ≥ 0. The triangulation number T for the capsid is defined as: T = h 2 + h ⋅ k + k 2 In this scheme, icosahedral capsids contain 12 pentamers plus 10 hexamers; the T-number is representative of the complexity of the capsids. Geometric examples for many values of h, k, T can be found at List of geodesic polyhedra and Goldberg polyhedra. Many exceptions to this rule exist: For example, the polyomaviruses and papillomaviruses have pentamers instead of hexamers in hexavalent positions on a quasi-T=7 lattice.

Members of the double-stranded RNA virus lineage, including reovirus and bacteriophage φ6 have capsids built of 120 copies of capsid protein, corresponding to a "T=2" capsid, or arguably a T=1 capsid with a dimer in the asymmetric unit. Many small viruses have a pseudo-T=3 capsid, organized according to a T=3 lattice, but with distinct polypeptides occupying the three quasi-equivalent positions T-numbers can be represented in different ways, for example T = 1 can only be represented as an icosahedron or a dodecahedron and, depending on the type of quasi-symmetry, T = 3 can be presented as a truncated dodecahedron, an icosidodecahedron, or a truncated icosahedron and their respective duals a triakis icosahedron, a rhombic triacontahedron, or a pentakis dodecahedron. An elongated icosahedron is a common shape for the heads of bacteriophages; such a structure is composed of a cylinder with a cap at either end. The cylinder is composed of 10 elongated triangular faces; the Q number, which can be any positive integer, specifies the number of triangles, composed of asymmetric subunits, that make up the 10 triangles of the cylinder.

The caps are classified by the T number. Many rod-shaped and filamentous plant viruses have capsids with helical symmetry; the helical structure can be described as a set of n 1-D molecular helices related by an n-fold axial symmetry. The helical transformation are classified into two categories: one-dimensional and two-dimensional helical systems. Creating an entire helical structure relies on a set of translational and rotational matrices which are coded in the protein data bank. Helical symmetry is given by the formula P = μ x ρ, where μ is the number of structural units per turn of the helix, ρ is the axial rise per unit and P is the pitch of the helix; the structure is said to be open due to the characteristic that any volume can be enclosed by varying the length of the helix. The most understood helical virus is the tobacco mosaic virus; the virus is a single molecule of strand RNA. Each coat protein on the interior of the helix bind three nucleotides of the RNA genome. Influenza A

Aechmea orlandiana

Aechmea orlandiana is species in the genus Aechmea endemic to Brazil. The plant was collected by the family of Mulford B. Foster in 1939 in Espírito Santo and described by in 1941 L. B. Smith, he named it for the city of Orlando, based upon it being the Foster’s adopted home town, the orange bracts and white flowers being the city colors of Orlando. The following subspecies are recognized: Aechmea orlandiana subsp. Belloi E. Pereira & Leme Aechmea orlandiana subsp. Orlandiana Cultivars include: Aechmea'Belizia' Aechmea'Bert' Aechmea'Big Beauty' Aechmea'Big Ben' Aechmea'Bittersweet' Aechmea'Black Bands' Aechmea'Black Beauty' Aechmea'By Golly' Aechmea'Charlie' Aechmea'Cloudburst' Aechmea'Ensign' Aechmea'First Joy' Aechmea'Foster's Freckles' Aechmea'Gold Tone' Aechmea'Haiku' Aechmea'Hayward' Aechmea'Inky' Aechmea'Jean Merkel' Aechmea'Little Bert' Aechmea'Medio Picta' Aechmea'Muelleri' Aechmea'Rainbow' Aechmea'Tiger' Aechmea'White Knight' Aechmea orlandiana photo

2nd Venice International Film Festival

The 2nd annual Venice International Film Festival was held between 1 and 20 August 1934. This was the first year the festival had a competition with the Coppa Mussolini being awarded for Best Foreign Film and Best Italian Film. Amok by Fyodor Otsep Broken Dreams by Robert G. Vignola Ekstase by Gustav Machatý It Happened One Night by Frank Capra La signora di tutti by Max Ophüls Le Grand Jeu by Jacques Feyder Little Women by George Cukor Man of Aran by Robert J. Flaherty Queen Christina by Rouben Mamoulian The Private Life of Don Juan by Alexander Korda Teresa Confalonieri by Guido Brignone Viva Villa! by Jack Conway Best Foreign Film: Man of Aran by Robert J. Flaherty Best Italian Film: Teresa Confalonieri by Guido Brignone Golden Medal: Stadio by Carlo Campogalliani Best Director: Gustav Machatý for Ecstasy Best Actor: Wallace Beery for Viva Villa! Best Actress: Katharine Hepburn for Little Women Best Animation: Walt Disney for Funny Little Bunnies Special Recommendation: Death Takes a Holiday by Mitchell Leisen The Invisible Man by James Whale The World Moves On by John Ford Viva Villa! by Jack Conway Best Short Film: Voulez-vous être un assassin? by Marcel De Hubsch Best Cinematography: Dood water by Andor von Barsy Special Prize: Seconda B by Goffredo Alessandrini Honorary Diploma: En stilla flirt by Gustaf Molander Leblebici horhor aga by Muhsin Ertuğrul Nippon Nippon by Katsudo Shashin Se ha fugado un preso by Benito Perojo Savitri by C.

Pullaiah Seeta by Debaki Bose Official website Venice Film Festival 1934 Awards on IMDb

Rosel George Brown

Rosel George Brown was an American science fiction author. Born in New Orleans, she lived in the city of her birth with her husband after concluding her formal education at Sophie Newcomb College, where she majored in Greek, at the University of Minnesota where she received her M. A. in Greek. Several of her books were dedicated to her husband W. Burlie Brown, a history professor at Tulane University; the couple had two children. In addition to writing, she worked as a welfare visitor in Louisiana. In 1959, she was nominated for the Hugo Award for best new author, but her career was cut short when she died of lymphoma at the age of 41 in 1967; the fourth Nebula Award Anthology contains an obituary written by Daniel F. Galouye, Anne McCaffrey dedicated her 1970 anthology Alchemy & Academe to Brown, along with several other people. Brown and McCaffrey had met at a Milford Writer's Workshop. Brown's works were written in the late 1950s to the mid-1960s and were favorably received by critics and readers.

Her main novels are Sibyl Sue Blue a.k.a. Galactic Sibyl Sue Blue, its sequel, The Waters of Centaurus, which chronicle the life of Sybil Sue Blue, a female detective; the Waters of Centaurus was published after her death, was copyrighted by her husband in 1970. She collaborated on the novel Earthblood with Keith Laumer, her short stories appeared in The Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction, Amazing Stories, Fantastic Universe and elsewhere. A collection of Brown's short stories, entitled A Handful of Time, was published by Ballantine Books in 1963. A full list of Brown's short stories follows: "From an Unseen Censor", Sep. 1958 "Hair-Raising Adventure", Star Science Fiction #5, 1959 "Virgin Ground", Worlds of If, Feb. 1959 "Lost in Translation", Fantasy & Science Fiction, May 1959 "Car Pool", Worlds of If, Jul. 1959 "Save Your Confederate Money, Boys", Fantastic Universe, Nov. 1959 "Flower Arrangement", Dec. 1959 "Signs of the Times", Amazing Stories, Dec. 1959 "David's Daddy", Jun. 1960 "Step IV", Amazing Stories, Jun. 1960 "There's Always a Way", Jul. 1960 "A Little Human Contact", Fantasy & Science Fiction, Apr. 1960 "Just a Suggestion", Fantasy & Science Fiction, Aug. 1960 "Of All Possible Worlds", Fantasy & Science Fiction, Feb. 1961 "Visiting Professor", Feb. 1961 "The Ultimate Sin", Fantasy & Science Fiction, Oct. 1961 "And a Tooth", Aug. 1962 "Fruiting Body", Fantasy & Science Fiction, Aug. 1962 "Smith's Revenge", original in A Handful of Time "The Devaluation of the Symbol", original in A Handful of Time "The Artist", Amazing Stories, May 1964 Works by Rosel George Brown at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Rosel George Brown at Internet Archive Works by Rosel George Brown at LibriVox Rosel George Brown at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database

Georg, Prince of Schaumburg-Lippe

Georg, Prince of Schaumburg-Lippe was a ruler of the small Principality of Schaumburg-Lippe. He was born in Bückeburg to Adolf I, Prince of Schaumburg-Lippe and Princess Hermine of Waldeck and Pyrmont, he succeeded as Prince of Schaumburg-Lippe on the death of his father on the 8 May 1893 and reigned until his death on the 29 April 1911 at Bückeburg and was succeeded by his son who became Adolf II. Georg was married on the 16 April 1882 at Altenburg to Princess Marie Anne of Saxe-Altenburg, a daughter of Prince Moritz of Saxe-Altenburg, they had nine children: Prince Adolf II Prince Moritz Georg Prince Peter Prince Wolrad Prince Stephan Prince Heinrich Princess Margaretha Prince Friedrich Christian Princess Elisabeth On the occasion of their silver wedding anniversary in 1907, Emperor Wilhelm II presented to Georg and Marie Anne the family ancestral seat, Schaumburg Castle. The castle had been controlled by the Hohenzollerns since Georg's grandfather sided with the Austrians in the 1866 Austro-Prussian War.

The gift was meant to be in recognition of Georg's support in the dispute over the succession to the Lippe-Detmold throne

2014 Copa Sudamericana Finals

The 2014 Copa Sudamericana Finals were the two-legged final that decided the winner of the 2014 Copa Sudamericana, the 13th edition of the Copa Sudamericana, South America's secondary international club football tournament organized by CONMEBOL. The finals were contested in two-legged home-and-away format between Colombian team Atlético Nacional and Argentine team River Plate; the first leg was hosted by Atlético Nacional at Estadio Atanasio Girardot in Medellín on December 3, 2014, while the second leg was hosted by River Plate at Estadio Antonio Vespucio Liberti in Buenos Aires on December 10, 2014. The winner qualified for the 2015 Copa Libertadores, earned the right to play against the 2014 Copa Libertadores winners in the 2015 Recopa Sudamericana, against the 2014 J. League Cup winners in the 2015 Suruga Bank Championship; the first leg ended in a 1–1 draw. The second led ended with a 2–0 win for River Plate, they won the tournament for the first time in their history. Note: In all scores below, the score of the home team is given first.

The finals were played on a home-and-away two-legged basis, with the higher-seeded team hosting the second leg. If tied on aggregate, the away goals rule was used, 30 minutes of extra time was played. If still tied after extra time, the penalty shoot-out was used to determine the winner. 2015 Recopa Sudamericana 2015 Suruga Bank Championship Copa Total Sudamericana Copa Sudamericana, CONMEBOL.com