SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Capsule (fruit)

In botany a capsule is a type of simple, though fleshy dehiscent fruit produced by many species of angiosperms. The capsule is derived from a compound ovary. A capsule is a structure composed of two or more carpels. In, the term locule is used to refer to a chamber within the fruit. Depending on the number of locules in the ovary, fruit can be classified as uni-locular, bi-locular, tri-locular or multi-locular; the number of locules present in a gynoecium may be equal to or less than the number of carpels. The locules are separated by septa. In most cases the capsule is dehiscent, i.e. at maturity, it splits apart to release the seeds within. A few capsules are indehiscent, for example those of Adansonia digitata and Merciera. Capsules are classified into four types, depending on the type and location of dehiscence. Loculicidal capsules possess longitudinal lines of dehiscence radially aligned with the locules, i.e. not at the septa, along the midrib or dorsal suture of the locules. If septa are absent, the dehiscence lines lie between the placentae.

This type is common among many members of the Liliaceae such as Lilium. Septicidal capsules have dehiscence lines aligned with the sutures of the ovary septa or placentae, between the carpels. Both loculocidal and septicidal capsules split into distinguishable segments called valves; the valves are a part of the pericarp that has split away, without enclosing seeds. The borders of the valves may not coincide with the borders of carpels; these valves may fall off. In septicidal capsules the valves remain in place. In some capsules, the split occurs between carpels, in others each carpel splits open. Circumscissile capsules have a transverse, rather than longitudinal, dehiscence line, so that the upper part of the capsule dehisces forming a terminal lid that opens. An example is Plantago. A variant is the Septifragal capsule in which the outer walls break away from the septa and placentae as valves. Poricidal capsules dehisce through pores in the capsule, as in Papaver, the seeds escaping through these pores.

Examples of other plants that produce capsules include nigella, willow and jimson weed. Some dry dehiscent fruits form specialised capsule-like structures. A follicle is derived from a single carpel that splits along a suture, as in Magnolia, while a legume splits along two sutures, are a defining feature of the Fabaceae; some variants of legumes that have retained vestigial sutures include loments that split transversly into segments, each with a single seed, indehiscent legumes, such as Arachis hypogaea. Capsules derived from two carpels include silicles and siliques that dehisce along two suture lines but retain a partition called the replum, a septum with attached seeds. While both are characteristic of Brassicaceae, silicles is at least as broad as it is long, vice a versa. A schizocarp is derived from a compound ovary with two or more locules which separate radially as one of the above types, such as a schizocarp of follicles, as in Asclepias. A mericarp is a portion of the fruit that separates from the ovary to form a distinct locule unit which encloses the seed, usually-nut-like, as in Apiaceae in which the mericarps are joined by a stalk.

Thus a schizocarp of mericarps is a structure in which the carpels of a single ovary split to form mericarps. A schizocarp of nutlets is derived from a carpel that becomes lobed, the lobes become nutlets that split apart. Examples include Boraginaceae and most Lamiaceae, where the styles are attached between the ovary lobes. Capsules are sometimes mislabeled as nuts, as in the example of the Brazil nut or the Horse-chestnut. A capsule is not a nut because it releases its seeds and it splits apart. Nuts, on the other hand, do not release seeds as they are a compound ovary containing both a single seed and the fruit. Nuts do not split. In the Brazil nut, a lid on the capsule opens, but is too small to release the dozen or so seeds within; these germinate inside the capsule. Fruit

Martin Ivens

Martin Paul Ivens is an English journalist and former editor of The Sunday Times newspaper. Born in Hampstead in north London, Ivens is the son of Michael Ivens, former director of the Aims of Industry pressure group. Ivens was educated at Finchley Catholic High School in Finchley in north London, St Peter's College, Oxford. Ivens worked for The Sunday Telegraph under Peregrine Worsthorne moved to News International and was appointed deputy editor of The Sunday Times in 1996, his political column for the paper began in September 2007. When Sunday Times editor John Witherow was appointed editor of The Times in January 2013, Ivens was named editor of The Sunday Times; the independent directors of Times Newspapers refused to make either appointment permanent but confirmed both men in their posts on 27 September that year. Ivens stepped down as editor of The Sunday Times in January 2020 and was replaced by Emma Tucker, he will join Times Newspapers Board as Director. Announcing his departure, Rupert Murdoch, Executive Chairman, News Corp, said: "Under Martin's editorship, The Sunday Times has broken investigative stories of global impact, such as the reporting on FIFA, the paper has built on its strong record for political reporting and campaigning.

Martin's wisdom and encyclopaedic knowledge of history have long enriched The Sunday Times and its readers and I thank Martin for his great service. Ivens is married to the journalist Anne McElvoy.

Aftab Ahmed (Karachi cricketer)

Aftab Ahmed was a Pakistani cricketer who played a single match for the Karachi Education Board during the 1964–65 season. Aftab's only recorded match at any level came during that season's edition of the Ayub Trophy, contested between a combination of teams from cities, government departments, universities. In the match, played against Hyderabad in November 1964 at the National Stadium, Karachi, he opened the batting alongside Aqil Shah in each innings. Aftab scored 43 runs in the first innings and 60 runs in the second innings, thus finishing with a career batting average of 51.50. That match was to be the team's only match of the competition, indeed only match at first-class level. Aftab did not play any further matches at a major level