A thickening agent or thickener is a substance which can increase the viscosity of a liquid without changing its other properties. Edible thickeners are used to thicken sauces and puddings without altering their taste. Thickeners may improve the suspension of other ingredients or emulsions which increases the stability of the product. Thickening agents are regulated as food additives and as cosmetics and personal hygiene product ingredients; some thickening agents are gelling agents, forming a gel, dissolving in the liquid phase as a colloid mixture that forms a weakly cohesive internal structure. Others act as mechanical thixotropic additives with discrete particles adhering or interlocking to resist strain. Thickening agents can be used when a medical condition such as dysphagia causes difficulty in swallowing. Thickened liquids play a vital role in reducing risk of aspiration for dysphagia patients. Food thickeners are based on either polysaccharides, or proteins. A flavorless powdered starch used for this purpose is a fecula.
This category includes starches as arrowroot, katakuri starch, potato starch, sago and their starch derivatives. Microbial and Vegetable gums used as food thickeners include alginin, guar gum, locust bean gum, xanthan gum. Proteins used as food thickeners include collagen, egg whites, gelatin. Sugar polymers include agar, carboxymethyl cellulose and carrageenan. Other thickening agents act on the proteins present in a food. One example is sodium pyrophosphate, which acts on casein in milk during the preparation of instant pudding. Different thickeners may be more or less suitable in a given application, due to differences in taste and their responses to chemical and physical conditions. For example, for acidic foods, arrowroot is a better choice than cornstarch, which loses thickening potency in acidic mixtures. At pH levels below 4.5, guar gum has reduced aqueous solubility, thus reducing its thickening capability. If the food is to be frozen, tapioca or arrowroot are preferable over cornstarch, which becomes spongy when frozen.
Many other food ingredients are used as thickeners in the final stages of preparation of specific foods. These thickeners are not markedly stable, thus are not suitable for general use. However, they are convenient and effective, hence are used. Functional flours are produced from specific cereal variety conjugated to specific heat treatment able to increase stability and general functionalities; these functional flours are resistant to industrial stresses such as acidic pH, freeze conditions, can help food industries to formulate with natural ingredients. For the final consumer, these ingredients are more accepted because they are shown as "flour" in the ingredient list. Flour is used for thickening gravies and stews, it must be cooked in to avoid the taste of uncooked flour. Roux, a mixture of flour and fat cooked into a paste, is used for gravies and stews. Cereal grains are used to thicken soups. Yogurt is popular in Middle East for thickening soups. Soups can be thickened by adding grated starchy vegetables before cooking, though these will add their own flavour.
Tomato puree adds thickness as well as flavour. Egg yolks are a traditional sauce thickener in professional cooking. Overheating ruins such a sauce, which can make egg yolk difficult to use as a thickener for amateur cooks. Other thickeners used by cooks are glaces made of meat or fish. Many thickening agents require extra care in cooking; some starches lose their thickening quality when cooked for at too high a temperature. Higher viscosity causes foods to burn more during cooking; as an alternative to adding more thickener, recipes may call for reduction of the food's water content by lengthy simmering. When cooking, it is better to add thickener cautiously. Gelling agents are food additives used to thicken and stabilize various foods, like jellies and candies; the agents provide the foods with texture through formation of a gel. Some stabilizers and thickening agents are gelling agents. Typical gelling agents include natural gums, pectins, agar-agar and gelatin, they are based on polysaccharides or proteins.
Examples are: Alginic acid, sodium alginate, potassium alginate, ammonium alginate, calcium alginate - polysaccharides from brown algae Agar Carrageenan Locust bean gum Pectin Gelatin Commercial jellies used in East Asian cuisines include the glucomannan polysaccharide gum used to make "lychee cups" from the konjac plants, aiyu or ice jelly from the Ficus pumila climbing fig plant. Food thickening can be important for people facing medical issues w
A die is a specialized tool used in manufacturing industries to cut or shape material using a press. Like molds, dies are customized to the item they are used to create. Products made with dies range from simple paper clips to complex pieces used in advanced technology. Forming dies are made by tool and die makers and put into production after mounting into a press; the die is a metal block, used for forming materials like sheet metal and plastic. For the vacuum forming of plastic sheet only a single form is used to form transparent plastic containers for merchandise. Vacuum forming is considered a simple molding thermoforming process but uses the same principles as die forming. For the forming of sheet metal, such as automobile body parts, two parts may be used: one, called the punch, performs the stretching, and/or blanking operation, while another part, called the die block securely clamps the workpiece and provides similar stretching, and/or blanking operation; the workpiece may pass through several stages using different tools or operations to obtain the final form.
In the case of an automotive component there will be a shearing operation after the main forming is done and additional crimping or rolling operations to ensure that all sharp edges are hidden and to add rigidity to the panel. The main components for die tool sets are: Die block – This is the main part that all the other parts are attached to. Punch plate – This part holds and supports the different punches in place. Blank punch – This part along with the blank die produces the blanked part. Pierce punch – This part along with the pierce die removes parts from the blanked finished part. Stripper plate – This is used to hold the material down on the blank/pierce die and strip the material off the punches. Pilot – This will help to place the sheet for the next stage of operation. Guide, back gauge, or finger stop – These parts are all used to make sure that the material being worked on always goes in the same position, within the die, as the last one. Setting block – This part is used to control the depth that the punch goes into the die.
Blanking dies – See blanking punch Pierce die – See pierce punch. Shank – used to hold in the presses, it should be situated at the center of gravity of the plate. Blanking: A blanking die produces a flat piece of material by cutting the desired shape in one operation; the finished part is referred to as a blank. A blanking die may only cut the outside contour of a part used for parts with no internal features. Three benefits to die blanking are:Accuracy. A properly sharpened die, with the correct amount of clearance between the punch and die, will produce a part that holds close dimensional tolerances in relationship to the part's edges. Appearance. Since the part is blanked in one operation, the finish edges of the part produces a uniform appearance as opposed to varying degrees of burnishing from multiple operations. Flatness. Due to the compression of the blanking process, the end result is a flat part that may retain a specific level of flatness for additional manufacturing operations. Broaching: The process of removing material through the use of multiple cutting teeth, with each tooth cutting behind the other.
A broaching die is used to remove material from parts that are too thick for shaving. Bulging: A bulging die expands the closed end of tube through the use of two types of bulging dies. Similar to the way a chef's hat bulges out at the top from the cylindrical band around the chef's head. Bulging fluid dies: Uses oil as a vehicle to expand the part. Bulging rubber dies: Uses a rubber block under pressure to move the wall of a workpiece. Coining: is similar to forming with the main difference being that a coining die may form different features on either face of the blank, these features being transferred from the face of the punch or die respectively; the coining die and punch flow the metal by squeezing the blank within a confined area, instead of bending the blank. For example: an Olympic medal, formed from a coining die may have a flat surface on the back and a raised feature on the front. If the medal was formed, the surface on the back would be the reverse image of the front. Compound operations: Compound dies perform multiple operations on the part.
The compound operation is the act of implementing more than one operation during the press cycle. Compound die: A type of die that has the die block mounted on a punch plate with perforators in the upper die with the inner punch mounted in the lower die set. An inverted type of blanking die that punches upwards, leaving the part sitting on the lower punch instead of blanking the part through. A compound die allows the cutting of external part features on a single press stroke. Curling: The curling operation is used to roll the material into a curved shape. A door hinge is an example of a part created by a curling die. Cut off: Cut off dies are used to cut off excess material from a finished end of a part or to cut off a predetermined length of material strip for additional operations. Drawing: The drawing operation is similar to the forming operation except that the drawing operation undergoes severe plastic deformation and the material of the part extends around the sides. A metal cup with a detailed feature at the bottom is an example of the difference between formed and drawn.
The bottom of the cup was formed. Extruding: Extruding is the act of deforming blanks of metal called slugs into finished parts such as an aluminum I-beam. Extrusion dies use high pressure from the punch
A portmanteau or portmanteau word is a linguistic blend of words, in which parts of multiple words or their phones are combined into a new word, as in smog, coined by blending smoke and fog, or motel, from motor and hotel. In linguistics, a portmanteau is defined as a single morph; the definition overlaps with the grammatical term contraction, but contractions are formed from words that would otherwise appear together in sequence, such as do and not to make don't, whereas a portmanteau word is formed by combining two or more existing words that all relate to a singular concept. A portmanteau differs from a compound, which does not involve the truncation of parts of the stems of the blended words. For instance, starfish is not a portmanteau, of star and fish; the word portmanteau was first used in this sense by Lewis Carroll in the book Through the Looking-Glass, in which Humpty Dumpty explains to Alice the coinage of the unusual words in "Jabberwocky", where slithy means "slimy and lithe" and mimsy is "miserable and flimsy".
Humpty Dumpty explains to Alice the practice of combining words in various ways: You see it's like a portmanteau—there are two meanings packed up into one word. In his introduction to The Hunting of the Snark, Carroll uses portmanteau when discussing lexical selection: Humpty Dumpty's theory, of two meanings packed into one word like a portmanteau, seems to me the right explanation for all. For instance, take the two words "fuming" and "furious." Make up your mind that you will say both words, but leave it unsettled which you will say first … if you have the rarest of gifts, a balanced mind, you will say "frumious." In then-contemporary English, a portmanteau was a suitcase. The etymology of the word is the French porte-manteau, from porter, "to carry", manteau, "cloak". In modern French, a porte-manteau is a clothes valet, a coat-tree or similar article of furniture for hanging up jackets, hats and the like. An occasional synonym for "portmanteau word" is frankenword, an autological word exemplifying the phenomenon it describes, blending "Frankenstein" and "word".
Many neologisms are examples of blends. In Punch in 1896, the word brunch was introduced as a "portmanteau word." In 1964, the newly independent African republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar chose the portmanteau word Tanzania as its name. Eurasia is a portmanteau of Europe and Asia; some city names are portmanteaus of the border regions they straddle: Texarkana spreads across the Texas-Arkansas border, while Calexico and Mexicali are the American and Mexican sides of a single conurbation. A scientific example is a liger, a cross between a male lion and a female tiger. Many company or brand names are portmanteaus, including Microsoft, a portmanteau of microcomputer and software. "Jeoportmanteau!" is a recurring category on the American television quiz show Jeopardy!. The category's name is itself a portmanteau of the words "Jeopardy" and "portmanteau." Responses in the category are portmanteaus constructed by fitting two words together. Portmanteau words may be produced by joining together proper nouns with common nouns, such as "gerrymandering", which refers to the scheme of Massachusetts Governor Elbridge Gerry for politically contrived redistricting.
The term gerrymander has itself contributed to portmanteau terms playmander. Oxbridge is a common portmanteau for the UK's two oldest universities, those of Oxford and Cambridge. In 2016, Britain's planned exit from the European Union became known as "Brexit". David Beckham's English mansion Rowneybury House was nicknamed "Beckingham Palace", a portmanteau of his surname and Buckingham Palace. Many portmanteau words do not appear in all dictionaries. For example, a spork is an eating utensil, a combination of a spoon and a fork, a skort is an item of clothing, part skirt, part shorts. On the other hand, turducken, a dish made by inserting a chicken into a duck, the duck into a turkey, was added to the Oxford English Dictionary in 2010; the word refudiate was first used by Sarah Palin when she misspoke, conflating the words refute and repudiate. Though a gaffe, the word was recognized as the New Oxford American Dictionary's "Word of the Year" in 2010; the business lexicon is replete with newly coined portmanteau words like "permalance", "advertainment", "advertorial", "infotainment", "infomercial".
A company name may be portmanteau as well as a product name. Two proper names can be used in creating a portmanteau word in r
Blow molding is a specific manufacturing process by which hollow plastic parts are formed and can be joined together: It is used for forming glass bottles or other hollow shapes. In general, there are three main types of blow molding: extrusion blow molding, injection blow molding, injection stretch blow molding; the blow molding process begins with melting down the plastic and forming it into a parison or, in the case of injection and injection stretch blow molding, a preform. The parison is a tube-like piece of plastic with a hole in one end through which compressed air can pass; the parison is clamped into a mold and air is blown into it. The air pressure pushes the plastic out to match the mold. Once the plastic has cooled and hardened the mold opens up and the part is ejected; the cost of blow molded parts is higher than that of injection-molded parts but lower than rotational molded parts. The process principle comes from the idea of glassblowing. Enoch Ferngren and William Kopitke produced a blow molding machine and sold it to Hartford Empire Company in 1938.
This was the beginning of the commercial blow molding process. During the 1940s the variety and number of products was still limited and therefore blow molding did not take off until later. Once the variety and production rates went up the number of products created soon followed; the technical mechanisms needed to produce hollow bodied workpieces using the blowing technique were established early on. Because glass is breakable, after the introduction of plastic, plastic was being used to replace glass in some cases; the first mass production of plastic bottles was done in America in 1939. Germany started using this technology a little bit but is one of the leading manufacturers of blow molding machines. In the United States soft drink industry, the number of plastic containers went from zero in 1977 to ten billion pieces in 1999. Today a greater number of products are blown and it is expected to keep increasing. For amorphous metals known as bulk metallic glasses, blow molding has been demonstrated under pressures and temperatures comparable to plastic blow molding.
In extrusion blow molding, plastic is extruded into a hollow tube. This parison is captured by closing it into a cooled metal mold. Air is blown into the parison, inflating it into the shape of the hollow bottle, container, or part. After the plastic has cooled sufficiently, the mold is opened and the part is ejected. Continuous and Intermittent are two variations of Extrusion Blow Molding. In continuous extrusion blow molding the parison is extruded continuously and the individual parts are cut off by a suitable knife. In Intermittent blow molding there are two processes: straight intermittent is similar to injection molding whereby the screw turns stops and pushes the melt out. With the accumulator method, an accumulator gathers melted plastic and when the previous mold has cooled and enough plastic has accumulated, a rod pushes the melted plastic and forms the parison. In this case the screw may intermittently. With continuous extrusion the weight of the parison drags the parison and makes calibrating the wall thickness difficult.
The accumulator head or reciprocating screw methods use hydraulic systems to push the parison out reducing the effect of the weight and allowing precise control over the wall thickness by adjusting the die gap with a parison programming device. EBM processes may be either intermittent. Types of EBM equipment may be categorized as follows: Continuous extrusion equipment rotary wheel blow molding systems shuttle machineryIntermittent extrusion machinery reciprocating screw machinery accumulator head machineryExamples of parts made by the EBM process include most polyethylene hollow products, milk bottles, shampoo bottles, automotive ducting, watering cans and hollow industrial parts such as drums. Advantages of blow molding die cost. Disadvantages of blow molding include: limited to hollow parts, low strength, to increase barrier properties multilayer parisons of different materials are used thus not recyclable. To make wide neck jars spin trimming is necessary. Containers such as jars have an excess of material due to the molding process.
This is trimmed off by spinning a knife around the container. This excess plastic is recycled to create new moldings. Spin Trimmers are used on a number of materials, such as PVC, HDPE and PE+LDPE. Different types of the materials have their own physical characteristics affecting trimming. For example, moldings produced from amorphous materials are much more difficult to trim than crystalline materials. Titanium coated blades are used rather than standard steel to increase life by a factor of 30 times; the process of injection blow molding is used for the production of hollow glass and plastic objects in large quantities. In the IBM process, the polymer is injection molded onto a core pin; this is the least-used of the three blow molding processes, is used to make small medical and single serve bottles. The process is divided into three steps: injection and ejection; the injection blow molding machine is based on an extruder barrel and screw assembly which melts the polymer. The molten polymer is fed into a hot runner manifold where it is injected through nozzles into a heated cavity and core pin.
The cavity mold forms the external shape and is clamped around a core rod which forms the internal shape
Plasticizers or dispersants are additives that increase the plasticity or decrease the viscosity of a material. These are the substances; these solids. They decrease the attraction between polymer chains to make them more flexible. Over the last 60 years more than 30,000 different substances have been evaluated for their plasticizing properties. Of these, only a small number – 50 – are today in commercial use; the dominant applications are for plastics polyvinyl chloride. The properties of other materials may be modified when blended with plasticizers including concrete and related products. According to 2014 data, the total global market for plasticizers was 8.4 million metric tonnes including 1.3 million metric tonnes in Europe. Plasticizers for plastics are additives, most phthalate esters in PVC applications. 90% of plasticizers are used in PVC, giving this material improved flexibility and durability. The majority is used in cables, it was thought that plasticizers work by embedding themselves between the chains of polymers, spacing them apart, or swelling them and thus lowering the glass transition temperature for the plastic and making it softer.
For plastics such as PVC, the more plasticizer added, the lower their cold flex temperature will be. Plastic items containing plasticizers can exhibit improved durability. Plasticizers can become available for exposure due to migration and abrasion of the plastic since they are not bound to the polymer matrix; the "new car smell" is attributed to plasticizers or their degradation products. However, multiple studies on the makeup of the smell do not find phthalates in appreciable amounts due to their low volatility and vapor pressure. Plasticizers make it possible to achieve improved compound processing characteristics, while providing flexibility in the end-use product. Ester plasticizers are selected based upon cost-performance evaluation; the rubber compounder must evaluate ester plasticizers for compatibility, processibility and other performance properties. The wide variety of ester chemistries that are in production include sebacates, terephthalates, gluterates, phthalates and other specialty blends.
This broad product line provides an array of performance benefits required for the many elastomer applications such as tubing and hose products, wall-coverings and gaskets, belts and cable, print rolls. Low to high polarity esters provide utility in a wide range of elastomers including nitrile, polychloroprene, EPDM, chlorinated polyethylene, epichlorohydrin. Plasticizer-elastomer interaction is governed by many factors such as solubility parameter, molecular weight, chemical structure. Compatibility and performance attributes are key factors in developing a rubber formulation for a particular application. Plasticizers function as softeners and lubricants, play a significant role in rubber manufacturing. Antiplasticizers exhibit effects that are similar, but sometimes opposite, to those of plasticizers on polymer systems; the effect of plasticizers on elastic modulus is dependent on both temperature and plasticizer concentration. Below a certain concentration, referred to as the crossover concentration, a plasticizer can increase the modulus of a material.
The material's glass transition temperature will decrease however, at all concentrations. In addition to a crossover concentration a crossover temperature exists. Below the crossover temperature the plasticizer will increase the modulus. Antiplasticizers are any small molecule or oligomer additive which increases the modulus while decreasing the glass transition temperature. Plasticizers used in PVC and other plastics are based on esters of polycarboxylic acids with linear or branched aliphatic alcohols of moderate chain length; these compounds are selected on the basis of many critieria including low toxicity, compatibility with the host material and expense. Phthalate esters of straight-chain and branched-chain alkyl alcohols meet these specifications and are common plasticizers. Ortho-phthalate esters have traditionally been the most dominant plasticizers, but regulatory concerns have led to the move away from classified substances to non-classified which includes high molecular weight ortho-phthalates and other plasticisers in Europe.
Plasticizers or water reducers, superplasticizers or high range water reducers, are chemical admixtures that can be added to concrete mixtures to improve workability. Unless the mix is "starved" of water, the strength of concrete is inversely proportional to the amount of water added or water-cement ratio. In order to produce stronger concrete, less water is added, which makes the concrete mixture less workable and difficult to mix, necessitating the use of plasticizers, water reducers, superplasticizers, or dispersants. Plasticizers are often used when pozzolanic ash is added to concrete to improve strength; this method of mix proportioning is popular when producing high-strength concrete and fiber-reinforced concrete. Adding 1-2% plasticizer per unit weight of cement is sufficient. Adding an excessive amount of plasticizer will result in excessive segregation of concrete and is not advisable. Depending on the particular chemical used, use of too much plasticizer may result in a retarding effect.
Plasticizers are manufactured from lignosulf
Color, or colour, is the characteristic of human visual perception described through color categories, with names such as red, yellow, blue, or purple. This perception of color derives from the stimulation of cone cells in the human eye by electromagnetic radiation in the visible spectrum. Color categories and physical specifications of color are associated with objects through the wavelength of the light, reflected from them; this reflection is governed by the object's physical properties such as light absorption, emission spectra, etc. By defining a color space, colors can be identified numerically by coordinates, which in 1931 were named in global agreement with internationally agreed color names like mentioned above by the International Commission on Illumination; the RGB color space for instance is a color space corresponding to human trichromacy and to the three cone cell types that respond to three bands of light: long wavelengths, peaking near 564–580 nm. There may be more than three color dimensions in other color spaces, such as in the CMYK color model, wherein one of the dimensions relates to a color's colorfulness).
The photo-receptivity of the "eyes" of other species varies from that of humans and so results in correspondingly different color perceptions that cannot be compared to one another. Honeybees and bumblebees for instance have trichromatic color vision sensitive to ultraviolet but is insensitive to red. Papilio butterflies may have pentachromatic vision; the most complex color vision system in the animal kingdom has been found in stomatopods with up to 12 spectral receptor types thought to work as multiple dichromatic units. The science of color is sometimes called chromatics, colorimetry, or color science, it includes the study of the perception of color by the human eye and brain, the origin of color in materials, color theory in art, the physics of electromagnetic radiation in the visible range. Electromagnetic radiation is characterized by its intensity; when the wavelength is within the visible spectrum, it is known as "visible light". Most light sources emit light at many different wavelengths.
Although the spectrum of light arriving at the eye from a given direction determines the color sensation in that direction, there are many more possible spectral combinations than color sensations. In fact, one may formally define a color as a class of spectra that give rise to the same color sensation, although such classes would vary among different species, to a lesser extent among individuals within the same species. In each such class the members are called metamers of the color in question; the familiar colors of the rainbow in the spectrum—named using the Latin word for appearance or apparition by Isaac Newton in 1671—include all those colors that can be produced by visible light of a single wavelength only, the pure spectral or monochromatic colors. The table at right shows approximate wavelengths for various pure spectral colors; the wavelengths listed are as measured in vacuum. The color table should not be interpreted as a definitive list—the pure spectral colors form a continuous spectrum, how it is divided into distinct colors linguistically is a matter of culture and historical contingency.
A common list identifies six main bands: red, yellow, green and violet. Newton's conception included a seventh color, between blue and violet, it is possible that what Newton referred to as blue is nearer to what today is known as cyan, that indigo was the dark blue of the indigo dye, being imported at the time. The intensity of a spectral color, relative to the context in which it is viewed, may alter its perception considerably; the color of an object depends on both the physics of the object in its environment and the characteristics of the perceiving eye and brain. Physically, objects can be said to have the color of the light leaving their surfaces, which depends on the spectrum of the incident illumination and the reflectance properties of the surface, as well as on the angles of illumination and viewing; some objects not only reflect light, but transmit light or emit light themselves, which contributes to the color. A viewer's perception of the object's color depends not only on the spectrum of the light leaving its surface, but on a host of contextual cues, so that color differences between objects can be discerned independent of the lighting spectrum, viewing angle, etc.
This effect is known as color constancy. Some generalizations of the physics can be drawn, neglecting perceptual effects for now: Light arriving at an opaque surface is either reflected "specularly", scattered, or absorbed – or some combination of these. Opaque objects that do not reflect specularly have their color determined by which wavelengths of light they scatter strongly. If objects scatter all wavelengths with r
Starch or amylum is a polymeric carbohydrate consisting of a large number of glucose units joined by glycosidic bonds. This polysaccharide is produced by most green plants as energy storage, it is the most common carbohydrate in human diets and is contained in large amounts in staple foods like potatoes, maize and cassava. Pure starch is a white and odorless powder, insoluble in cold water or alcohol, it consists of two types of molecules: the branched amylopectin. Depending on the plant, starch contains 20 to 25% amylose and 75 to 80% amylopectin by weight. Glycogen, the glucose store of animals, is a more branched version of amylopectin. In industry, starch is converted into sugars, for example by malting, fermented to produce ethanol in the manufacture of beer and biofuel, it is processed to produce many of the sugars used in processed foods. Mixing most starches in warm water produces a paste, such as wheatpaste, which can be used as a thickening, stiffening or gluing agent; the biggest industrial non-food use of starch is as an adhesive in the papermaking process.
Starch can be applied to parts of some garments before ironing. The word "starch" is from a Germanic root with the meanings "strong, strengthen, stiffen". Modern German Stärke is related; the Greek term for starch, "amylon", is related. It provides the root amyl, used as a prefix for several 5-carbon compounds related to or derived from starch. Starch grains from the rhizomes of Typha as flour have been identified from grinding stones in Europe dating back to 30,000 years ago. Starch grains from sorghum were found on grind stones in caves in Ngalue, Mozambique dating up to 100,000 years ago. Pure extracted wheat starch paste was used in Ancient Egypt to glue papyrus; the extraction of starch is first described in the Natural History of Pliny the Elder around AD 77–79. Romans used it in cosmetic creams, to powder the hair and to thicken sauces. Persians and Indians used it to make dishes similar to gothumai wheat halva. Rice starch as surface treatment of paper has been used in paper production in China since 700 CE.
In addition to starchy plants consumed directly, by 2008 66 million tonnes of starch were being produced per year worldwide. In 2011 production was increased to 73 million ton. In the EU the starch industry produced about 8.5 million tonnes in 2008, with around 40% being used for industrial applications and 60% for food uses, most of the latter as glucose syrups. In 2017 EU production was 11 million ton of which 9,4 million ton was consumed in the EU and of which 54% were starch sweeteners. US produced about 27,5 million ton starch in 2017 of which about 8,2 million ton high fructose syrup and 6,2 million ton glucose syrups and 2,5 million ton starch products, the rest of the starch was used for producing ethanol. Most green plants use starch as their energy store; the extra glucose is changed into starch, more complex than glucose. An exception is the family Asteraceae. Inulin-like fructans are present in grasses such as wheat, in onions and garlic and asparagus. In photosynthesis, plants use light energy to produce glucose from carbon dioxide.
The glucose is used to generate the chemical energy required for general metabolism, to make organic compounds such as nucleic acids, lipids and structural polysaccharides such as cellulose, or is stored in the form of starch granules, in amyloplasts. Toward the end of the growing season, starch accumulates in twigs of trees near the buds. Fruit, seeds and tubers store starch to prepare for the next growing season. Glucose is soluble in water, binds with water and takes up much space and is osmotically active. Glucose molecules are bound in starch by the hydrolyzed alpha bonds; the same type of bond is found in the animal reserve polysaccharide glycogen. This is in contrast to many structural polysaccharides such as chitin and peptidoglycan, which are bound by beta bonds and are much more resistant to hydrolysis. Plants produce starch by first converting glucose 1-phosphate to ADP-glucose using the enzyme glucose-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase; this step requires energy in the form of ATP. The enzyme starch synthase adds the ADP-glucose via a 1,4-alpha glycosidic bond to a growing chain of glucose residues, liberating ADP and creating amylose.
The ADP-glucose is certainly added to the non-reducing end of the amylose polymer, as the UDP-glucose is added to the non-reducing end of glycogen during glycogen synthesis. Starch branching enzyme introduces 1,6-alpha glycosidic bonds between the amylose chains, creating the branched amylopectin; the starch debranching enzyme isoamylase removes some of these branches. Several isoforms of these enzymes exist, leading to a complex synthesis process. Glycogen and amylopectin have similar structure, but the former has about one branch point per ten 1,4-alpha bonds, compared to about one branch point per thirty 1,4-alpha bonds in amylopectin. Amylopectin is synthesized from ADP-glucose while mammals and fungi synthesize glycogen from UDP-glucose. In addition to starch synthesis in plants, starch can be synthesized from non-food starch mediated by an enzyme cocktail. In this cell-free biosystem, beta-1,4-glycosidic bond-linked cellulose is hydrolyzed to cello