National Football League team captains
In the National Football League, the team captain designation is a team-appointed position that designates certain players as leaders on and off the field. The captains program was implemented by the NFL Player Advisory Council established by NFL commissioner Roger Goodell in conjunction with the NFL Players Association, starting in 2007, the league began permitting teams to name up to six players as captains. Players who have named a team captain typically have a C patch on their jerseys. There is a design used by all teams participating in the captaincy program. The patches are in team colors and are worn on the front left or right breast, the number of stars filled in on the patch represents the number of consecutive years that player has been named captain by that team. If theyve been named captain for longer than four years, the C on the patch is gold, some teams do not have this patch on their jerseys but still designate captains. In the case of the Green Bay Packers, they would use weekly captains during the regular season, the New York Jets suspended designated team captains after an incident involving Santonio Holmes in a 2011 game.
In the 4th quarter of the game of the 2011 season against the Miami Dolphins. His leadership qualities and credibility as a captain have since been questioned, in 2015, under new head coach Todd Bowles, the Jets resumed appointing captains weekly. During special recognitions, the patch may be a different color, e. g. pink for breast cancer awareness, because of the nature of the game, most teams include their starting quarterbacks as an offensive captain. The starting quarterback has no responsibility or authority on field. NFL rule 18 details the guidelines for team captains, on each team, one captain is designated the speaking captain of the delegation. The visiting team or the team designated visitor by the referee shall choose heads or tails or in the case of a special ceremony coin, the winner of the coin toss have 3 options,1. Defer the choice to the half,2. Choose an end zone to defend, there is strategy in employing your election. After the winning captain makes their choice, the team captain chooses from the remaining 2 options.
Choice on Penalty Option – The offended team captain has a choice of accepting a penalty enforcement or declining, in some circumstances, a team captain may elect to decline the penalty. This typically happens in a situation in which declining the penalty may mean that the next down should occur
The captain of a cricket team, often referred to as the skipper, is the appointed leader, having several additional roles and responsibilities over and above those of the other players. Before the game the captains toss for innings, during the match the captain decides the teams batting order, who will bowl each over, and where each fielder will be positioned. While the captain has the final say, decisions are often collaborative, a captains knowledge of the complexities of cricket strategy and tactics, and shrewdness in the field, may contribute significantly to the teams success. Before the start of a match the captain tosses a coin. The captain who wins the toss is given the choice of whether to bat or bowl first, the decision usually depends on the condition of the pitch and whether it is likely to deteriorate, the weather conditions and the weather forecast. The decision depends on the strengths of the teams batting and bowling. Similarly a side with a weak opening batting pair may choose to bowl first in order to protect their batsmen, the captain decides where the fielders will stand, in consultation with the bowler and sometimes other senior players.
The fielding positions will usually be dictated by the type of bowler, the batting style. The captain decides when each bowler will bowl, if the regular bowlers are not achieving the desired results, the captain may decide to use non-regular bowlers to attempt to unsettle the batsmen. The captain may change the bowlers around to introduce variation, in the longer forms of cricket, when a new ball becomes available the captain decides whether to use it. When the team bats, the captain decides the batting order, in professional cricket the captain usually changes the established batting order only for exceptional reasons, because batsmen tend to specialise in batting at certain positions. However, in certain circumstances it may be in the teams interest to change the batting order, if quick runs are needed, a naturally attacking batsman may be promoted up the order. A player who is in form may be promoted to a higher batting position, if the nightwatchman does get out, the cost of losing a late wicket will have been minimised, because the specialist batsman is still available to bat.
In a two-innings match, if the situation arises the captain decides whether to impose the follow-on, the captain is consulted on whether an injured batsman from the opposing team may use a runner when batting. Permission is usually if the batsman has become injured during the course of the match. As well as decisions taken either immediately before or during a match, for instance, they may decide when the team is to practise, and for how long. Prior to July 2015, the captain was responsible for deciding when to take batting and bowling powerplays in limited overs matches, the captain may be assisted by a vice-captain. This is particularly useful if the captain is forced to leave the field of play during fielding, some teams allocate the vice-captain a more or less formal role in assisting with team selection, field-setting and so on
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies making it the worlds most popular sport, the game is played on a rectangular field with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by getting the ball into the opposing goal, players are not allowed to touch the ball with their hands or arms while it is in play, unless they are goalkeepers. Other players mainly use their feet to strike or pass the ball, the team that scores the most goals by the end of the match wins. If the score is level at the end of the game, the Laws of the Game were originally codified in England by The Football Association in 1863. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, the first written reference to the inflated ball used in the game was in the mid-14th century, Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe.
The Online Etymology Dictionary states that the word soccer was split off in 1863, according to Partha Mazumdar, the term soccer originated in England, first appearing in the 1880s as an Oxford -er abbreviation of the word association. Within the English-speaking world, association football is now usually called football in the United Kingdom and mainly soccer in Canada and the United States. People in Australia, South Africa and New Zealand use either or both terms, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now primarily use football for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is scientific evidence, cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net. It was remarkably similar to football, though similarities to rugby occurred. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established and episkyros were Greek ball games.
An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda and harpastum were played involving hands and violence and they all appear to have resembled rugby football and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified mob football, the antecedent of all football codes. Non-competitive games included kemari in Japan, chuk-guk in Korea and woggabaliri in Australia, Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other games played around the world FIFA have recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe. The modern rules of football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the widely varying forms of football played in the public schools of England
Captain (Australian rules football)
They are second to the coach and an onfield leader who has various roles including to inspire the players and sometimes address umpires and the media. When a coach appoints multiple captains, the following captaincy roles may be appointed, co-captain vice-captain deputy vice captain Before the start of a match, a coin toss between the captains is used to determine which end of the ground each team will kick to. The away captain calls the toss, and the winning captain makes the choice of end. The decision usually depends on the conditions and the weather forecast, particularly the direction and strength of the wind. Before the game and during the quarter and half time breaks, whereas the coach address typically discusses strategy and field positions, the captains address is usually purely motivational. The captain is the player on the ground who is allowed to address an umpire to question or discuss a decision. Any other player who does so can be penalised or reported, a captain may be reported if he becomes abusive.
The captain will take a particular role in media relations on behalf of the team. Although not always, the captain may be asked to participate on the committee to determine which players do or do not make the squad. The captain and the group represents the playing group. If a player does something to the detriment of the group, the captain will often act in the interests of the playing group. The captain of the team may request the game to be stopped for a head count and it is tradition during a grand final that the captain and coach hold up the premiership cup before it is handed to the players. The captain is required to make a speech, including thanking the opposition team, List of Australian Football League premiership captains and coaches Captain
Steven George Gerrard, MBE is an English football coach and former player who currently serves as Academy coach at Liverpool. He played as a midfielder and spent the majority of his career playing for Premier League club Liverpool. Gerrard spent 17 seasons at Anfield, making his Liverpool debut in 1998, cementing his place in the first team in 2000 and his honours include two FA Cups, three League Cups, one UEFA Champions League, one UEFA Cup, and one UEFA Super Cup. Gerrard scored Liverpools first goal and won the penalty kick for the third as Liverpool came from 3–0 down to defeat Milan in the 2005 Champions League Final and he joined Major League Soccer club LA Galaxy in July 2015, spending one-and-a-half seasons there before retiring on 24 November 2016. He was named as the permanent England captain shortly before UEFA Euro 2012, Gerrard became the sixth player to win 100 caps for England in 2012, and is currently fourth in the countrys all-time appearance list. He ended his career in July 2014, having won 114 caps.
Regarded to be one of the greatest midfielders of his generation, Gerrard came second to Kenny Dalglish in the 100 Players Who Shook The Kop, a 2008 Liverpool fan poll, and first in 2013. Zinedine Zidane and Pelé said in 2009 that they considered Gerrard to be the best footballer in the world, in 2005, Gerrard was honoured as the UEFA Club Footballer of the Year and won the Ballon dOr Bronze Award. Born in Whiston, Gerrard started out playing for hometown team Whiston Juniors and he joined the Liverpool Academy at age nine. He attended Cardinal Heenan Catholic High School, Gerrard had trials with various clubs at fourteen, but his success wasnt immediate — Gerrard never made it into the England schoolboys team. Gerrards trials included Manchester United, which he claimed in his 2006 autobiography was to pressure Liverpool into giving me a YTS contract and he signed his first professional contract with Liverpool on 5 November 1997. Gerrard made his Liverpool first-team debut on 29 November 1998 in a Premier League match against Blackburn Rovers as a substitute for Vegard Heggem.
He made thirteen appearances in his season, filling in for injured captain Jamie Redknapp in centre-midfield. He occasionally played on the wing, but he scarcely contributed in the short on-pitch time he received. Gerrard recalled in a November 2008 interview with The Guardian, I was out of position, the Liverpool hierarchy nonetheless remained convinced that he would improve. Gerrard saw himself as a player primarily, looking to make key tackles rather than push the team forward. Gerrard began to regularly partner Redknapp in central midfield for the 1999–2000 season, that season, Gerrard scored his first senior goal in a 4–1 victory over Sheffield Wednesday. He was beset by injuries that required four separate operations
Captain (association football)
The team captain is usually identified by the wearing of an armband. The only official responsibility of a captain specified by the Laws of the Game is to participate in the toss prior to kick-off. Contrary to what is said, captains have no special authority under the Laws to challenge a decision by the referee. However, referees may talk to the captain of a side about the general behaviour when necessary. At an award-giving ceremony after a fixture like a cup competition final, any trophy won by a team will be received by the captain who will be the first one to hoist it. The captain generally leads the teams out of the room at the start of the match. The captain generally provides a point for the team, if morale is low. Captains may join the manager in deciding the first team for a certain game, in youth or recreational football, the captain often takes on duties, that would, at a higher level, be delegated to the manager. A club captain is usually appointed for a season, if he is unavailable or not selected for a particular game, the club vice-captain will be appointed to perform a similar role.
The match captain is the first player to lift a trophy should the team win one, a good example of this was in the 1999 UEFA Champions League Final when match captain Peter Schmeichel lifted the trophy for Manchester United as club captain Roy Keane was suspended. In the 2012 UEFA Champions League Final, match captain Frank Lampard jointly lifted the trophy for Chelsea with club captain John Terry, a club may appoint two distinct roles, a club captain to represent the players in a public relations role, and correspondent on the pitch. After Neville retired in 2011, regular starter Nemanja Vidić was named as club captain, são Paulos Rogério Ceni is the player who has worn the captains armband the most times. A vice-captain is a player that is expected to captain the side when the captain is not included in the starting eleven, or if, during a game. Examples include Manuel Neuer succeeding Philipp Lahm at Bayern Munich, Marcelo attaining from Sergio Ramos at Real Madrid C. F, gary Cahill being the understudy of John Terry at Chelsea FC and Lionel Messi taking over from Andrés Iniesta at FC Barcelona.
Similarly, some clubs name a 3rd captain to take the role of captain when both the captain and vice-captain are unavailable, during the 2010 FIFA World Cup in South Africa, Germany had three captains. Michael Ballack had skippered the team since 2004, including the successful qualifiers for the 2010 World Cup. Lahm ended up becoming the permanent captain of Germany, as Ballack was never called up for the national team
Liverpool Football Club is a professional association football club based in Liverpool, England. They compete in the Premier League, the top tier of English football, the club has won 5 European Cups,3 UEFA Cups,3 UEFA Super Cups,18 League titles,7 FA Cups, a record 8 League Cups, and 15 FA Community Shields. The club was founded in 1892 and joined the Football League the following year, the club has played at Anfield since its formation. The club holds many long-standing rivalries, most notably the North West Derby against Manchester United, the clubs supporters have been involved in two major tragedies. The second was the Hillsborough disaster in 1989, where 96 Liverpool supporters died in a crush against perimeter fencing, the team changed from red shirts and white shorts to an all-red home strip in 1964 which has been used ever since. The clubs anthem is Youll Never Walk Alone, Liverpool F. C. was founded following a dispute between the Everton committee and John Houlding, club president and owner of the land at Anfield.
After eight years at the stadium, Everton relocated to Goodison Park in 1892, the team won the Lancashire League in its début season, and joined the Football League Second Division at the start of the 1893–94 season. After finishing in first place the club was promoted to the First Division, Liverpool reached its first FA Cup Final in 1914, losing 1–0 to Burnley. Liverpool suffered its second Cup Final defeat in 1950, playing against Arsenal, the club was relegated to the Second Division in the 1953–54 season. Soon after Liverpool lost 2–1 to non-league Worcester City in the 1958–59 FA Cup, the club was promoted back into the First Division in 1962 and won it in 1964, for the first time in 17 years. In 1965, the club won its first FA Cup, in 1966, the club won the First Division but lost to Borussia Dortmund in the European Cup Winners Cup final. Liverpool won both the League and the UEFA Cup during the 1972–73 season, and the FA Cup again a year later, Shankly retired soon afterwards and was replaced by his assistant, Bob Paisley.
In 1976, Paisleys second season as manager, the club won another League, the following season, the club retained the League title and won the European Cup for the first time, but it lost in the 1977 FA Cup Final. Liverpool retained the European Cup in 1978 and regained the First Division title in 1979, Paisley retired in 1983 and was replaced by his assistant, Joe Fagan. Liverpool won the League, League Cup and European Cup in Fagans first season, Liverpool reached the European Cup final again in 1985, against Juventus at the Heysel Stadium. Before kick-off, Liverpool fans breached a fence separated the two groups of supporters, and charged the Juventus fans. The resulting weight of people caused a wall to collapse, killing 39 fans. The incident became known as the Heysel Stadium disaster, the match was played in spite of protests by both managers, and Liverpool lost 1–0 to Juventus
Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players on a cricket field, at the centre of which is a rectangular 22-yard-long pitch with a wicket at each end. One team bats, attempting to score as many runs as possible, each phase of play is called an innings. After either ten batsmen have been dismissed or a number of overs have been completed, the innings ends. The winning team is the one that scores the most runs, including any extras gained, at the start of each game, two batsmen and eleven fielders enter the field of play. The striker takes guard on a crease drawn on the four feet in front of the wicket. His role is to prevent the ball hitting the stumps by use of his bat. The other batsman, known as the non-striker, waits at the end of the pitch near the bowler. A dismissed batsman must leave the field, and a teammate replaces him, the bowlers objectives are to prevent the scoring of runs and to dismiss the batsman. An over is a set of six deliveries bowled by the same bowler, the next over is bowled from the other end of the pitch by a different bowler.
If a fielder retrieves the ball enough to put down the wicket with a batsman not having reached the crease at that end of the pitch. Adjudication is performed on the field by two umpires, the laws of cricket are maintained by the International Cricket Council and the Marylebone Cricket Club. Traditionally cricketers play in all-white kit, but in limited overs cricket they wear club or team colours. In addition to the kit, some players wear protective gear to prevent injury caused by the ball. Although crickets origins are uncertain, it is first recorded in south-east England in the 16th century and it spread globally with the expansion of the British Empire, leading to the first international matches in the mid-19th century. ICC, the governing body, has over 100 members. The sport is followed primarily in Australasia, the Indian subcontinent, southern Africa, womens cricket, which is organised and played separately, has achieved international standard. A number of words have been suggested as sources for the term cricket, in the earliest definite reference to the sport in 1598 it is called creckett.
One possible source for the name is the Old English cricc or cryce meaning a crutch or staff, in Samuel Johnsons Dictionary, he derived cricket from cryce, Saxon, a stick
Saku Antero Koivu is a Finnish former professional ice hockey player who played in the National Hockey League. He began his NHL career with the Montreal Canadiens in 1995–96 after three seasons with TPS of the Finnish SM-liiga. Koivu served as the Canadiens captain for ten of his 14 years with the club, Koivu was the first European player to captain the Montreal Canadiens. Koivu began his ice hockey career playing for TPS in the Finnish SM-liiga. He posted ten points in his season, including five points in the playoffs. After improving to 53 points the season, he put up a league-high 73 points in 1994–95. He went on to record 17 points in 13 post-season games that year to earn the Jari Kurri trophy as playoff MVP, Koivu would return to the TPS squad during the 2004–05 NHL lockout, scoring eight goals and eight assists in 20 games. Koivu was drafted by the Montreal Canadiens in the 1993 NHL Entry Draft, following his season in the SM-liiga, as their first round selection. After two more seasons with TPS, Koivu moved to North America for the 1995–96 season to join the Canadiens, in his first season, Koivu ranked fourth in scoring amongst NHL rookies with 45 points in 82 games.
The following season, he was amongst the NHL leading scorers before suffering an injury on December 7,1996. He missed 32 games that season but returned to finish with 56 points in 50 games, the next two seasons, Koivu continued to miss time with various leg injuries. In each year, however, he managed to play in more than 60 regular season games, scoring 57 and 44 points in 1997–98, with the departure of team captain Vincent Damphousse in 1998–99, Koivu was named the 27th captain for the Canadiens on September 30,1999. He became the first European-born captain in team history and his first season as captain, was cut short due to a dislocated shoulder that took him off the ice for 40 games. Upon returning, he suffered knee injury, resulting in a shortened 24-game season. The next season, in 2000–01, Koivu sat out another 28 games after undergoing surgery on his left knee. After six seasons in the NHL, Koivu was diagnosed with Burkitts lymphoma, on September 6,2001, and missed nearly the entire 2001–02 season.
Koivu was on his way back from Finland with Canadiens teammate Brian Savage and he was suffering serious pains in stomach and vomiting and went to see the Canadiens physician David Mulder, after several tests, discovered the cancer. Koivu was expected to be out for the season but made a comeback in time for the last few games
In the sport of curling, the skip is the captain of a team. The skip determines strategy, and holds the broom in the house to indicate where a teammate at the end of the curling sheet should aim the stone. The skip usually throws the last two stones in the position, but may play in any other position. Overall, the leads the team and provides strategic direction. The skip calls shots teammates to play, through verbal direction, in many cases, skips communicate the planned trajectory of the shot by tapping their broom on the ice, and motion to other stones in the playing area if those are involved in the planned shot. The skip usually determines the weight and line of the stone. As each stone is delivered, the skip calls the line of the shot, the skip gauges the stones path and calls to the sweepers to sweep to maintain the stones path. In most cases, the skip, playing the fourth stones, as the person throwing last stones, the skip must have a good repertoire of shots and the ability to execute many types of shots at will.
The skip should be able to read the ice and call the game accordingly, the skip must understand the playing style and strengths of each player on his or her team. As captain of the team, the skip uses knowledge of the teammates to call according to their abilities. The skip must observe the oppositions gameplay and pinpoint their strengths, Ontario, John Wiley & Sons Canada, Ltd
In baseball, the field manager is an individual who is responsible for matters of team strategy on the field and team leadership. Managers are typically assisted by one and six assistant coaches, whose responsibilities are specialized. A manager is essentially equivalent to the coach in other North American professional sports leagues. How much control a manager takes in a games strategy varies from manager to manager and from game to game. Some managers control pitch selection, defensive positioning, decisions to bunt, pitch out, managers are typically assisted by two or more coaches. Typically, the title of manager is used in professional baseball. In many cases, a manager is a professional, semi-professional or college player. Many current and former managers are former catchers which include Mike Matheny, John Gibbons, Brad Ausmus, Joe Torre, Mike Scioscia, Bruce Bochy, the managers responsibilities normally are limited to in-game decisions, with off-the-field and roster management decisions falling to the teams general manager.
The term manager used without qualification almost always refers to the field manager, some owners carried out both GM and field managerial duties themselves. Major League Baseball managers differ from the coaches of most other professional sports in that they dress in the same uniform as the players and are assigned a jersey number. The wearing of a uniform is frequently practiced at other levels of play. The manager may be called skipper or skip informally by his players
Coin flipping, coin tossing, or heads or tails is the practice of throwing a coin in the air to choose between two alternatives, sometimes to resolve a dispute between two parties. It is a form of sortition which inherently has only two possible and equally likely outcomes, the historical origin of coin flipping is the interpretation of a chance outcome as the expression of divine will. Coin flipping as a game was known to the Romans as navia aut caput, as some coins had a ship on one side, in England, this game was referred to as cross and pile. The expression Heads or Tails results from heads and tails being considered opposite body parts, during a coin toss, the coin is thrown into the air such that it rotates edge-over-edge several times. Either beforehand or when the coin is in the air, an interested party calls heads or tails, the other party is assigned the opposite side. Depending on custom, the coin may be caught and inverted, when the coin comes to rest, the toss is complete and the party who called correctly or was assigned the upper side is declared the winner.
It is possible for a coin to land on its edge, even on a flat surface it is possible for a coin to land on its edge, with a chance of about 1 in 6000. Angular momentum typically prevents most coins from landing on their edges unsupported if flipped, such cases in which a coin does land on its edge are exceptionally rare and in most cases the coin is simply re-flipped. The coin may be any type as long as it has two sides, it need not be a circulating coin as such. Larger coins tend to be more popular than smaller ones, most high-profile coin tosses use custom-made ceremonial medallions. Three-way coin flips are possible, by a different process – this can be either to choose two out of three, or to choose one out of three. To choose two out of three, three coins are flipped, and if two coins come up the same and one different, the different one loses, leaving two players. To choose one out of three, either reverse this, or add a regular two-way coin flip between the players as a second step. Note that the flip is 75% likely to work each time it is tried.
A legacy of this coin flip was to reduce the use of coin flips to break ties in Texas sports, Coin tossing is a simple and unbiased way of settling a dispute or deciding between two or more arbitrary options. In a game theoretic analysis it provides even odds to both involved, requiring little effort and preventing the dispute from escalating into a struggle. Factors such as direction, the position of the sun. In team sports it is often the captain who makes the call, a competitive method may be used instead of a toss in some situations, for example in basketball the jump ball is employed, while the face-off plays a similar role in ice hockey