Amazon.com, Inc. is an American multinational technology company based in Seattle, Washington that focuses in e-commerce, cloud computing, artificial intelligence. Amazon is the largest e-commerce marketplace and cloud computing platform in the world as measured by revenue and market capitalization. Amazon.com was founded by Jeff Bezos on July 5, 1994, started as an online bookstore but diversified to sell video downloads/streaming, MP3 downloads/streaming, audiobook downloads/streaming, video games, apparel, food and jewelry. The company owns a publishing arm, Amazon Publishing, a film and television studio, Amazon Studios, produces consumer electronics lines including Kindle e-readers, Fire tablets, Fire TV, Echo devices, is the world's largest provider of cloud infrastructure services through its AWS subsidiary. Amazon has separate retail websites for some countries and offers international shipping of some of its products to certain other countries. 100 million people subscribe to Amazon Prime.
Amazon is the largest Internet company by revenue in the world and the second largest employer in the United States. In 2015, Amazon surpassed Walmart as the most valuable retailer in the United States by market capitalization. In 2017, Amazon acquired Whole Foods Market for $13.4 billion, which vastly increased Amazon's presence as a brick-and-mortar retailer. The acquisition was interpreted by some as a direct attempt to challenge Walmart's traditional retail stores. In 1994, Jeff Bezos incorporated Amazon. In May 1997, the organization went public; the company began selling music and videos in 1998, at which time it began operations internationally by acquiring online sellers of books in United Kingdom and Germany. The following year, the organization sold video games, consumer electronics, home-improvement items, software and toys in addition to other items. In 2002, the corporation started Amazon Web Services, which provided data on Web site popularity, Internet traffic patterns and other statistics for marketers and developers.
In 2006, the organization grew its AWS portfolio when Elastic Compute Cloud, which rents computer processing power as well as Simple Storage Service, that rents data storage via the Internet, were made available. That same year, the company started Fulfillment by Amazon which managed the inventory of individuals and small companies selling their belongings through the company internet site. In 2012, Amazon bought Kiva Systems to automate its inventory-management business, purchasing Whole Foods Market supermarket chain five years in 2017; as of March 2019, the board of directors is: Jeff Bezos, President, CEO, Chairman Tom Alberg, Managing partner, Madrona Venture Group Rosalind Brewer, Group President, COO, Starbucks Jamie Gorelick, Wilmer Cutler Pickering Hale, Dorr Daniel P. Huttenlocher and Vice Provost, Cornell University Judy McGrath, former CEO, MTV Networks Indra Nooyi, former CEO, PepsiCo Jon Rubinstein, former Chairman, CEO, Inc. Thomas O. Ryder, former Chairman, CEO, Reader's Digest Association Patty Stonesifer, CEO, Martha's Table Wendell P. Weeks, President, CEO, Corning Inc.
In 2000, U. S. toy retailer Toys "R" Us entered into a 10-year agreement with Amazon, valued at $50 million per year plus a cut of sales, under which Toys "R" Us would be the exclusive supplier of toys and baby products on the service, the chain's website would redirect to Amazon's Toys & Games category. In 2004, Toys "R" Us sued Amazon, claiming that because of a perceived lack of variety in Toys "R" Us stock, Amazon had knowingly allowed third-party sellers to offer items on the service in categories that Toys "R" Us had been granted exclusivity. In 2006, a court ruled in favor of Toys "R" Us, giving it the right to unwind its agreement with Amazon and establish its own independent e-commerce website; the company was awarded $51 million in damages. In 2001, Amazon entered into a similar agreement with Borders Group, under which Amazon would co-manage Borders.com as a co-branded service, Borders pulled out of the arrangement in 2007, with plans to launch its own online store. On October 18, 2011, Amazon.com announced a partnership with DC Comics for the exclusive digital rights to many popular comics, including Superman, Green Lantern, The Sandman, Watchmen.
The partnership has caused well-known bookstores like Barnes & Noble to remove these titles from their shelves. In November 2013, Amazon announced a partnership with the United States Postal Service to begin delivering orders on Sundays; the service, included in Amazon's standard shipping rates, initiated in metropolitan areas of Los Angeles and New York because of the high-volume and inability to deliver in a timely way, with plans to expand into Dallas, New Orleans and Phoenix by 2014. In June 2017, Nike confirmed a "pilot" partnership with Amazon to sell goods directly on the platform; as of October 11, 2017, AmazonFresh sells a range of Booths branded products for home delivery in selected areas. In September 2017, Amazon ventured with one of its sellers JV Appario Retail owned by Patni Group which has recorded a total income of US$ 104.44 million in financial year 2017–18. In November 2018, Amazon reached an agreement with Apple Inc. to sell selected products through the service, via the company and selected Apple Authorized Resellers.
As a result of this partnership, only Apple Authorized Resellers may sell Apple products on Amazon effective January 4, 2019. Amazon.com's product lines available at its website include several media, baby products, consumer electronics, beauty products, gourmet food, groceries and perso
Isaiah Bradley is a fictional character appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. The character is depicted as an early product of the United States' Super-Soldier program during World War II and an alternate version of Captain America; as depicted in the 2003 limited series Truth: Red, White & Black, the World War II Super Soldier program of 1942, operated by "Reinstein", uses African American test subjects to re-create the formula, used to turn Steve Rogers from a skinny, but patriotic army reject into Captain America. The clandestine experimentation that empowers Isaiah holds similarities with the Tuskegee Syphilis Study; the original concept for the character came from an offhand comment by Marvel's publisher, Bill Jemas. Axel Alonso was taken by the idea and pursued it, as it offered a chance to tell a larger story about America's history. Robert Morales, brought in to write the story, created the supporting cast and the ending; the idea of an African American Captain America made Morales laugh, once he heard the premise, he found it depressing.
Bradley's strong marriage came from an unsuccessful Luke Cage proposal by Brian Azzarello. Morales envisioned the character as a scientist who experimented on himself, a reference to Silver Age scientists Reed Richards and Bruce Banner. Morales was able to push through an ending in which Bradley suffered brain damage, a reference to Muhammad Ali that gave the character a tragic ending. Morales performed extensive research into the time period, which he balanced with editorial suggestions. Project: Rebirth begins as a collaboration between US, British and German eugenicists led by Dr. "Josef Reinstein", Dr. Koch; when World War II begins, Koch takes over the German program and Josef Reinstein takes over the American program. Each attempts to recreate the super soldier serum which had turned Steve Rogers into Captain America a year prior to Pearl Harbor. Reinstein's early attempts to refine the formula are tested on African-Americans. Three hundred of these soldiers are taken from Camp Cathcart and subjected to fatal experiments at an undisclosed location, as seen in Truth: Red, White & Black.
Only five subjects survive the original trials. In the name of secrecy, US soldiers execute the camp's commander and hundreds of black soldiers left behind at Camp Cathcart; the government tells the families of the three hundred subjects that their loved ones had died in battle. Due to field missions in Europe and internal strife, Bradley emerges the sole survivor of his test group, he steals a spare costume and a shield intended for Captain America before he engages in a suicide mission to destroy the Super-Soldier efforts of the Nazis at the Schwarzebitte concentration camp. There, he is able to assassinate Koch. Nazi interest in the American supersoldier is high. Bradley is rescued by German insurgents, only to be court-martialed and imprisoned at Leavenworth around 1943. In 1960, Bradley is released. Considered to be the "Black Captain America", Isaiah Bradley is depicted as an underground legend among much of the African-American community in the Marvel Universe. A number of the most noted Africans and African-Americans of the twentieth century's last four decades visit Bradley as a sign of respect and, in many cases, hero worship.
He receives fictional visits from Malcolm X, Richard Pryor, Muhammad Ali, Angela Davis, Alex Haley, Nelson Mandela, Colin Powell. Outside the Black community, however, he remains unknown; when he arrives as a special guest at the wedding of Storm and the Black Panther, several African-American heroes are awestruck, including Luke Cage, Monica Rambeau and the Falcon. However, the Canadian-born Wolverine is unaware of the man's identity or importance. While Isaiah is in prison, the government attempts to use his altered DNA to create another Super-Soldier. After 39 attempts the result is a child named Josiah and Faith's genetic son. Josiah X, as he would call himself, is born to a surrogate mother, who smuggles him out of the government's clutches. Meanwhile, the long-term effects of the test serum damage Isaiah Bradley's mind and body, similar in part to the effects of various steroids and Alzheimer's. In 2003, Steve Rogers learns the truth behind the Super-Soldier program and attempts a reconciliation with the now-childlike Isaiah Bradley.
However, Captain America never discovers that the true mastermind behind the Super-Soldier program is the clandestine organization Weapon Plus and that Bradley is only one in a long line of Weapons, including Wolverine and Fantomex. Isaiah is the grandfather of Elijah Bradley. Elijah claims that his powers originated from a blood transfusion from Isaiah, whereby he gained the abilities of the super soldier serum; the Young Avengers convince him that he does not need superpowers to be a superhero, he becomes the head of the Young Avengers using his intelligence and natural athletic abilities. Eli is critically injured in a battle with the Kree and Skrulls, he ends up getting the blood
Rick Jones (comics)
Richard Milhouse "Rick" Jones is a fictional character appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. Rick has been a sidekick to Bruce Banner / Hulk, Steve Rogers / Captain America, Mar-Vell / Captain Marvel, Artour / R. O. M; the Spaceknight, Genis-Vell / Captain Marvel. He has been an active participant in many significant Marvel Universe story lines including the Kree-Skrull War and the Destiny War, he acquired powers, causing his learning capabilities to be increased. He decided to direct his new ability towards communications technology, ended up becoming a hacktivist known as the Whisperer. Rick Jones was created in 1962 by Stan Lee and Jack Kirby in Hulk #1. Rick Jones was born in Arizona, he as a result grew up at an orphanage. He accepts a dare to drive out to a bomb testing ground in New Mexico; as luck would have it, the gamma bomb designed by Dr. Robert Bruce Banner is being tested. Banner pushes Rick into a protective trench saving his life, but absorbing the gamma rays that transform Banner into the Hulk.
Rick thus becomes the sole confidant of the Hulk's true identity. Jones' guilt over causing the incident leads him to stay close to the Hulk alter ego. In one story, he gains mental control over Hulk; the dangerous unpredictability of Hulk forces Rick to keep his distance. Rick forms the Teen Brigade, a loose network of teenagers with ham radios throughout the United States; the first Teen Brigade played a role in the origin of the Avengers when the Norse god Loki tampered with the Teen Brigade's radio transmission. The Teen Brigade intended to bring the Fantastic Four together to battle the Hulk, but instead brought Iron Man, Ant-Man and Thor together to form the Avengers. After the Hulk's departure from the team, Rick becomes an honorary Avenger, he alerted the team to the Hulk's presence. He becomes close to the revived Captain America although his guilt leads him to leave the Avengers and seek out Banner and Hulk on his own. Captain America rescues Rick from one of Hulk's rampages, after that Rick becomes Captain America's sidekick taking the title and uniform of Bucky, Captain America's long-dead junior partner.
This was on Jones' own insistence, but Captain America continues to have guilty objections, noting that others have lost partners and it was time to move on. Rick's brief time as Bucky gave him the training to survive around superheroes to this day; when Rick believed Hulk to be dead, he revealed the truth of Banner's condition to Col. Glenn Talbot, thus inadvertently making Banner a wanted fugitive by the US Military. After being neglected by Captain America, Rick became fed up with the Captain's ego. After talking with Edwin Jarvis, Rick decided to leave the Avengers for good. Rick joined with the Kree Captain Marvel. Donning the Bands, he is linked to Captain Marvel. Once joined, one of the two remains in a protective bubble in the Negative Zone. After either the person not in the Negative Zone strikes the Nega-Bands together or a certain amount of time passes, the two switch places. Rick and Mar-Vell go on various adventures encountering many different heroes, such as the Hulk and Captain America.
Rick and Mar-Vell play a critical part in the Kree-Skrull War. Rick is freed from the Negative Zone through a portal in the Fantastic Four headquarters. Mar-Vell is released from the Negative Zone while Rick is still in the regular world without the use of the Nega-Bands; the bond between the two is broken. At the height of the conflict, the Kree Supreme Intelligence unleashes the Destiny Force from within Rick. Rick uses his new-found ability to summon images of various Golden Age heroes. While at full power, Rick single-handedly stops both the Kree and Skrull fleets long enough to put an end to the conflict. Injuries that Rick sustains lead Mar-Vell to willingly bond with Rick. Shortly after this the Captain Marvel series was re-launched and we found that Rick wasn't able to contain the energy of Mar-Vell, he was bombarded with photonic energy, which saved him and enabled him to contain Mar-Vell safely. A consequence of this was that Mar-Vell gained the ability to absorb energy in addition to the nega-band energies to boost his strength and could fly with the photonic energy now.
Rick and Mar-Vell serve as a duo for several years while Rick pursues his musical career and love life. The two are again freed from their bond while aiding the Avengers against the Super-Adaptoid. Rick parts company with Mar-Vell. Rick begins to spend his time with the Hulk again and forms a new Teen Brigade, after which Rick finds himself again teamed with Mar-Vell, though not merged with him as they deal with a legacy left by the Mad Titan Thanos. Sometime after, Mar-Vell dies of cancer that he received when he was exposed to a deadly nerve gas stolen by the villain Nitro. Note: Mar-Vell collapsed from the gas and was comatose until he was given an antidote to the gas. However, despite the antidote, Mar-Vell still developed cancer and there was some momentary concern that the link Rick shared with him could have caused himself to contract the condition. Rick was at Mar-Vell's bedside. After Mar-Vell's death, Rick began to team with the Hulk again. Guilt over causing Banner to be hit with the gamma rays made Rick decide to expose himself to gamma rays in an attempt to become another Hulk-like being that could stop the Hulk.
However this plan backfired and Rick was dying of gamma poisoning until Banner cured him. However, this too led to the
Captain America is a fictional superhero appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. Created by cartoonists Joe Simon and Jack Kirby, the character first appeared in Captain America Comics #1 from Timely Comics, a predecessor of Marvel Comics. Captain America was designed as a patriotic supersoldier who fought the Axis powers of World War II and was Timely Comics' most popular character during the wartime period; the popularity of superheroes waned following the war and the Captain America comic book was discontinued in 1950, with a short-lived revival in 1953. Since Marvel Comics revived the character in 1964, Captain America has remained in publication; the character wears a costume bearing an American flag motif, he utilizes a nearly indestructible shield which he throws as a projectile. Captain America is the alter ego of Steve Rogers, a frail young man enhanced to the peak of human perfection by an experimental serum to aid the United States government's efforts in World War II.
Near the end of the war, he was trapped in ice and survived in suspended animation until he was revived in the present day. Although Captain America struggles to maintain his ideals as a man out of his time with its modern realities, he remains a respected figure in his community which includes becoming the long-time leader of the Avengers. Captain America was the first Marvel Comics character to appear in media outside comics with the release of the 1944 movie serial, Captain America. Since the character has been featured in other films and television series. In the Marvel Cinematic Universe, the character is portrayed by Chris Evans in Captain America: The First Avenger, The Avengers, Captain America: The Winter Soldier, Avengers: Age of Ultron, Ant-Man, Captain America: Civil War, Spider-Man: Homecoming, Avengers: Infinity War, Captain Marvel, Avengers: Endgame. Captain America is ranked sixth on IGN's "Top 100 Comic Book Heroes of All Time" in 2011, second in their list of "The Top 50 Avengers" in 2012, second in their "Top 25 best Marvel superheroes" list in 2014.
In 1940, writer Joe Simon conceived the idea for Captain America and made a sketch of the character in costume. "I wrote the name'Super American' at the bottom of the page," Simon said in his autobiography, decided: No, it didn't work. There were too many "Supers" around. "Captain America" had a good sound to it. There weren't a lot of captains in comics, it was as easy as that. The boy companion was named Bucky, after my friend Bucky Pierson, a star on our high school basketball team. Simon recalled in his autobiography that Timely Comics publisher Martin Goodman gave him the go-ahead and directed that a Captain America solo comic book series be published as soon as possible. Needing to fill a full comic with one character's stories, Simon did not believe that his regular creative partner, artist Jack Kirby, could handle the workload alone: I didn't have a lot of objections to putting a crew on the first issue... There were two young artists from Connecticut. Al Avison and Al Gabriele worked together and were quite successful in adapting their individual styles to each other.
Their work was not too far from Kirby's. If they worked on it, if one inker tied the three styles together, I believed the final product would emerge as quite uniform; the two Als were eager to join in on the new Captain America book. "You're still number one, Jack," I assured him. "It's just a matter of a quick deadline for the first issue." "I'll make the deadline," Jack promised. "I'll pencil it myself and make the deadline." I hadn't expected this kind of reaction... but I acceded to Kirby's wishes and, it turned out, was lucky that I did. There might have been two Als, but there was only one Jack Kirby... I wrote the first Captain America book with penciled lettering right on the drawing boards, with rough sketches for figures and backgrounds. Kirby did his thing, building the muscular anatomy, adding ideas and popping up the action as only he could, he tightened up the penciled drawings, adding detailed backgrounds and figures." Al Lieberman would ink that first issue, lettered by Simon and Kirby's regular letterer, Howard Ferguson.
Simon said. We wanted to have our say too." Captain America Comics #1 — cover-dated March 1941 and on sale December 20, 1940, a year before the attack on Pearl Harbor, but a full year into World War II — showed the protagonist punching Nazi leader Adolf Hitler. While most readers responded favorably to the comic, some took objection. Simon noted, "When the first issue came out we got a lot of... hate mail. Some people opposed what Cap stood for." The threats, which included menacing groups of people loitering out on the street outside of the offices, proved so serious that police protection was posted with New York Mayor Fiorello La Guardia contacting Simon and Kirby to give his support. Though preceded as a "patriotically themed superhero" by MLJ's The Shield, Captain America became the most prominent and enduring of that wave of superheroes introduced in American comic books prior to and during World War II, as evidenced by the unusual move at the time of premiering the character in his own title instead of an anthology title first.
This popularity drew the attention and a complaint from MLJ that the character's triangular
Captain America: The Winter Soldier
Captain America: The Winter Soldier is a 2014 American superhero film based on the Marvel Comics character Captain America, produced by Marvel Studios and distributed by Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures. It is the sequel to 2011's Captain America: The First Avenger and the ninth film in the Marvel Cinematic Universe; the film was directed by Anthony and Joe Russo, with a screenplay by the writing team of Christopher Markus and Stephen McFeely. It stars Chris Evans as Steve Rogers / Captain America, alongside Scarlett Johansson, Sebastian Stan, Anthony Mackie, Cobie Smulders, Frank Grillo, Emily VanCamp, Hayley Atwell, Robert Redford, Samuel L. Jackson. In Captain America: The Winter Soldier, Captain America, Black Widow, Falcon join forces to uncover a conspiracy within S. H. I. E. L. D. While facing a mysterious assassin known as the Winter Soldier. A major influence in The Winter Soldier was conspiracy fiction from the 1970s such as Three Days of the Condor, with the script drawing from the Winter Soldier story arc written by Ed Brubaker.
The script was written in 2011, with the Russo brothers entering negotiations to direct in June 2012 and casting beginning the following month. Principal photography commenced in April 2013 in Los Angeles, California before moving to Washington, D. C. and Cleveland, Ohio. While the directors aimed for more realism, with focus on practical effects and intense stunt work, 2,500 visual effects shots were done by six different companies. Captain America: The Winter Soldier premiered in Los Angeles on March 13, 2014, was released in the United States on April 4, 2014, in 2D, 3D, IMAX 3D; the film earned positive reviews from critcs, receiving praise for its action sequences, musical score, direction, themes, stunt work, visuals. It was a commercial success, grossing over $714 million worldwide, making it the seventh highest-grossing film of 2014, received an Academy Award nomination for Best Visual Effects. A sequel titled Captain America: Civil War directed by the Russo brothers, was released on May 6, 2016.
Two years after the Battle of New York, Steve Rogers works in Washington, D. C. for the espionage agency S. H. I. E. L. D. Under Director Nick Fury, while adjusting to contemporary society. Rogers and Agent Natasha Romanoff are sent with S. H. I. E. L. D.'s counter-terrorism S. T. R. I. K. E. Team, led by Agent Rumlow, to free hostages aboard a S. H. I. E. L. D. Vessel from Georges Batroc and his mercenaries. Mid-mission, Rogers discovers Romanoff has another agenda: to extract data from the ship's computers for Fury. Rogers returns to the Triskelion, S. H. I. E. L. D.'s headquarters, to confront Fury and is briefed about Project Insight: three Helicarriers linked to spy satellites, designed to preemptively eliminate threats. Unable to decrypt the data recovered by Romanoff, Fury becomes suspicious about Insight and asks senior S. H. I. E. L. D. Official and Secretary of Internal Security Alexander Pierce to delay the project. On his way to rendezvous with Maria Hill, Fury is ambushed by assailants led by a mysterious assassin called the Winter Soldier.
Fury escapes to Rogers' apartment, warns Rogers that S. H. I. E. L. D. is compromised. Fury is gunned down by the Winter Soldier, before handing Rogers a flash drive containing data from the ship. Fury is pronounced dead during surgery, Hill recovers the body; the next day, Pierce summons Rogers to the Triskelion. When Rogers withholds Fury's information, Pierce brands him a fugitive. Hunted by S. T. R. I. K. E. Rogers meets with Romanoff. Using data in the flash drive, they discover a secret S. H. I. E. L. D. Bunker in New Jersey, where they activate a supercomputer containing the preserved consciousness of Arnim Zola. Zola reveals that since S. H. I. E. L. D. was founded after World War II, Hydra has secretly operated within its ranks, sowing global chaos with the objective of making humanity surrender its freedom in exchange for security. The pair narrowly escape death when a S. H. I. E. L. D. Missile destroys the bunker, realize that Pierce is Hydra's leader within S. H. I. E. L. D. Rogers and Romanoff enlist the help of former USAF pararescueman Sam Wilson, whom Rogers befriended, acquire his powered "Falcon" wingpack.
Deducing that S. H. I. E. L. D. Agent Jasper Sitwell is a Hydra mole, they force him to divulge that Zola developed a data-mining algorithm that can identify individuals becoming threats to Hydra; the Insight Helicarriers will sweep the globe, using satellite-guided guns to eliminate these individuals. Rogers and Wilson are ambushed by the Winter Soldier, who kills Sitwell. During the fight, Rogers recognizes the Winter Soldier as Bucky Barnes, his childhood best friend who fell to his death on a mission, but was captured and experimented upon after WWII. Hill manages to extract the trio to a safehouse where Fury, who had faked his death, is waiting with plans to sabotage the Helicarriers by replacing their controller chips. After the World Security Council members arrive for the Helicarriers' launch, Rogers broadcasts Hydra's plot to everyone at the Triskelion. Romanoff, disguised as one of the Council members, disarms Pierce. Fury arrives and forces Pierce to unlock S. H. I. E. L. D.'s database so that Romanoff can leak classified information.
Following a struggle, Fury kills Pierce. Meanwhile and Wilson storm two Helicarriers and replace the controller chips, but the Winter Soldier destroys Wilson's suit and fights Rogers on the third. Rogers fends him off and replaces the final chip, allowing Hill to take control and have the vessels destroy each other. Rogers refuses to fight the Winter Soldier in an attempt to reach his friend, but as the ship collides with the Triskelion, Rogers is thrown out into the Potomac River; the Winter Soldier rescues the unconscious Rogers before disappearing into
The Avengers are a fictional team of superheroes appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. The team made its debut in The Avengers #1, created by writer-editor Stan Lee and artist/co-plotter Jack Kirby; the Avengers is Lee and Kirby's renovation of a previous superhero team, All-Winners Squad, who appeared in comic books series published by Marvel Comics' predecessor Timely Comics. Labeled "Earth's Mightiest Heroes", the Avengers consisted of Ant-Man, the Hulk, Iron Man and the Wasp. Ant-Man had become Giant-Man by issue #2; the original Captain America was discovered trapped in ice in issue #4, joined the group after they revived him. A rotating roster became a hallmark of the series, although one theme remained consistent: the Avengers fight "the foes no single superhero can withstand." The team, famous for its battle cry of "Avengers Assemble!", has featured humans, Inhumans, aliens, supernatural beings, former villains. The team has appeared in a wide variety of media outside of comic books, including a number of different animated television series and direct-to-video films.
The 2012 live-action feature film The Avengers, directed by Joss Whedon, set numerous records during its box office run, including one of the biggest opening debuts in North America, with a weekend gross of $207.4 million. A second Avengers film titled Avengers: Age of Ultron was released on May 1, 2015, followed by Avengers: Infinity War, which became the first superhero film to gross over $2 billion and was released on April 27, 2018. A fourth film, Avengers: Endgame, is scheduled for release on April 26, 2019; the team debuted in The Avengers #1. Much like the Justice League, the Avengers were an assemblage of pre-existing superhero characters created by Lee and Jack Kirby; this initial series, published bi-monthly through issue #6 and monthly thereafter ran through issue #402, with spinoffs including several annuals, miniseries and a giant-size quarterly sister series that ran in the mid-1970s. Other spinoff series include West Coast Avengers published as a four-issue miniseries in 1984, followed by a 102-issue series, retitled Avengers West Coast with #47.
Between 1996 and 2004, Marvel relaunched the primary Avengers title three times. In 1996, the "Heroes Reborn" line took place in an alternate universe, with a revamped history unrelated to mainstream Marvel continuity; the Avengers vol. 3 relaunched and ran for 84 issues from February 1998 to August 2004. To coincide with what would have been the 500th issue of the original series, Marvel changed the numbering, The Avengers #500–503, the one-shot Avengers Finale became the "Avengers Disassembled" storyline and final issues. In January 2005, a new version of the team appeared in the ongoing title The New Avengers, followed by The Mighty Avengers, Avengers: The Initiative, Dark Avengers. Avengers vol. 4 debuted in July 2010 and ran until January 2013. Vol. 5 was launched in February 2013. After Secret Wars, a new Avengers team debuted, dubbed the All-New, All-Different Avengers, starting with a Free Comic Book Day preview. Following Civil War II, the book was relaunched in 2016 as Avengers, while retaining the same writer and much of the cast from the All-New, All-Different run.
The series ran for 11 issues before reverting to the numbering of the original Avengers series with issue #672. Starting with issue #675, all four Avengers titles being published at the time were merged into a single weekly series dubbed Avengers: No Surrender, designed to close out this era of the team's history. Following the conclusion of No Surrender in 2018, the series will be relaunched again as Avengers; when the Asgardian god Loki seeks revenge against his brother Thor, his machinations unwittingly lead teenager Rick Jones to collect Ant-Man, the Wasp, Iron Man to help Thor and the Hulk, whom Loki used as a pawn. After the group vanquished Loki, Ant-Man stated that the five worked well together and suggested they form a team; the roster changed immediately. Captain America soon joined the team in issue #4, he was given "founding member" status in the Hulk's place; the Avengers went on to fight foes such as Baron Zemo, who formed the Masters of Evil, Kang the Conqueror, Wonder Man, Count Nefaria.
The next milestone came. Giant-Man, now calling himself Goliath, the Wasp rejoined. Hercules became part of the team, while the Black Knight, the Black Widow, abetted the Avengers but did not become members until years later. Spider-Man did not join the group; the Black Panther joined after rescuing the team from Klaw. The X-Men #45 featured a crossover with The Avengers #53; this was followed by the introduction of the android the Vision. Pym assumed the new identity of Yellowjacket in issue #59, married the Wasp the following month; the Avengers headquarters was in a New York City building called Avengers Mansion, courtesy of Tony Stark. The mansion was serviced by Edwin Jarvis, the Avengers' faithful butler, furnished with state of the art technology and defense systems, included the Avengers' primary mode of transport: the five-engine Quinjet. The
Black Widow (Natasha Romanova)
Natalia Alianovna Romanova, colloquial: Black Widow is a fictional superhero appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. Created by editor and plotter Stan Lee, scripter Don Rico, artist Don Heck, the character debuted in Tales of Suspense #52; the character was introduced as an antagonist of the superhero Iron Man. She defected to the United States, becoming an agent of the fictional spy agency S. H. I. E. L. D. and a member of the superhero team the Avengers. Scarlett Johansson portrays the character Black Widow in films Iron Man 2, The Avengers, Captain America: The Winter Soldier, Avengers: Age of Ultron, Captain America: Civil War, Avengers: Infinity War, Captain Marvel, Avengers: Endgame as part of the Marvel Cinematic Universe. Johansson will star in her own Black Widow solo film; the Black Widow's first appearances were as a recurring, non-costumed, Russian-spy antagonist in the feature "Iron Man", beginning in Tales of Suspense #52. Five issues she recruits the besotted costumed archer and superhero Hawkeye to her cause.
Her government supplies her with her first Black Widow costume and high-tech weaponry, but she defects to the United States after appearing, temporarily brainwashed against the U. S. in the superhero-team series The Avengers #29. The Widow becomes a recurring ally of the team before becoming its sixteenth member many years later; the Black Widow was visually updated in 1970: The Amazing Spider-Man #86 reintroduced her with shoulder-length red hair, a skintight black costume, wristbands which fired spider threads. This would become the appearance most associated with the character. In short order, The Black Widow starred in her own series in Amazing Adventures #1–8, sharing that split book with the feature Inhumans; the Black Widow feature was dropped after only eight issues. After her initial solo feature ended, the Black Widow co-starred in Daredevil #81–124, of which #93-108 were cover titled Daredevil and the Black Widow. Daredevil writer Gerry Conway recounted, "It was my idea to team up Daredevil and the Black Widow because I was a fan of Natasha, thought she and Daredevil would have interesting chemistry."
Succeeding writers, felt that Daredevil worked better as a solo hero, wrote the Black Widow out of the series. She was recast into the super-team series The Champions as the leader of the titular superhero group, which ran for 17 issues. Throughout the 1980s and 1990s, the Black Widow appeared as both an Avengers member and a freelance agent of S. H. I. E. L. D, she starred in a serialized feature within the omnibus comic-book series Marvel Fanfare #10–13, written by George Pérez and Ralph Macchio, with art by penciller Perez. These stories were collected in the oversized one-shot Black Widow: Web of Intrigue #1; the Widow guest-starred in issues of Solo Avengers, Force Works, Iron Man, Marvel Team-Up, other comics. She had made frequent guest appearances in Daredevil since the late 1970s, she starred in a three-issue arc, "The Fire Next Time", by writer Scott Lobdell and penciller Randy Green, in Journey into Mystery #517–519. A new ongoing Black Widow comic title debuted in April 2010; the first story arc was written by Marjorie Liu with art by Daniel Acuna.
Beginning with issue #6, the title was written by Duane Swierczynski, with artwork by Manuel Garcia and Lorenzo Ruggiero. Black Widow appeared as a regular character throughout the 2010–2013 Secret Avengers series, from issue #1 through its final issue #37. Black Widow appears in the 2013 Secret Avengers series by Luke Ross. Black Widow appears in a relaunched ongoing series by artist Phil Noto; the first issue debuted in January 2014. In October 2015, it was announced that Mark Waid and Chris Samnee would be launching a new Black Widow series for 2016 as part of Marvel's post-Secret Wars relaunch; the first issue was released in March 2016. Aside from the arcs in Marvel Fanfare and Journey into Mystery, the Black Widow has starred in four limited series and four graphic novels; the three-issue Black Widow, under the Marvel Knights imprint, starred Romanova and introduced her appointed successor, Captain Yelena Belova, who had appeared in an issue of the 1999 series Inhumans. The writer for the story arc, "The Itsy-Bitsy Spider" was Devin K. Grayson while J. G. Jones was the artist.
The next three-issue, Marvel Knights mini-series titled Black Widow featured both Black Widows in the story arc "Breakdown", by writers Devin Grayson and Greg Rucka with painted art by Scott Hampton. Romanova next starred in another solo miniseries titled Black Widow: Homecoming under the Marvel Knights imprint and written by science fiction novelist Richard K. Morgan, with art by Bill Sienkiewicz and by Sienkiewicz over Goran Parlov layouts. A six-issue sequel, Black Widow: The Things They Say About Her, by writer Morgan, penciller Sean Phillips, inker Sienkiewicz, picks up where the previous miniseries left off, continuing the story using many of the same characters, she starred in the solo graphic n