Uranus is the seventh planet from the Sun. It has the third-largest planetary radius and fourth-largest planetary mass in the Solar System. Uranus is similar in composition to Neptune, both have bulk chemical compositions which differ from that of the larger gas giants Jupiter and Saturn. For this reason, scientists classify Uranus and Neptune as "ice giants" to distinguish them from the gas giants. Uranus' atmosphere is similar to Jupiter's and Saturn's in its primary composition of hydrogen and helium, but it contains more "ices" such as water and methane, along with traces of other hydrocarbons, it is the coldest planetary atmosphere in the Solar System, with a minimum temperature of 49 K, has a complex, layered cloud structure with water thought to make up the lowest clouds and methane the uppermost layer of clouds. The interior of Uranus is composed of ices and rock. Like the other giant planets, Uranus has a ring system, a magnetosphere, numerous moons; the Uranian system has a unique configuration because its axis of rotation is tilted sideways, nearly into the plane of its solar orbit.
Its north and south poles, lie where most other planets have their equators. In 1986, images from Voyager 2 showed Uranus as an featureless planet in visible light, without the cloud bands or storms associated with the other giant planets. Observations from Earth have shown seasonal change and increased weather activity as Uranus approached its equinox in 2007. Wind speeds can reach 250 metres per second. Uranus is the only planet whose name is derived directly from a figure from Greek mythology, from the Latinised version of the Greek god of the sky Ouranos. Like the classical planets, Uranus is visible to the naked eye, but it was never recognised as a planet by ancient observers because of its dimness and slow orbit. Sir William Herschel announced its discovery on 13 March 1781, expanding the known boundaries of the Solar System for the first time in history and making Uranus the first planet discovered with a telescope. Uranus had been observed on many occasions before its recognition as a planet, but it was mistaken for a star.
The earliest known observation was by Hipparchos, who in 128 BC might have recorded it as a star for his star catalogue, incorporated into Ptolemy's Almagest. The earliest definite sighting was in 1690, when John Flamsteed observed it at least six times, cataloguing it as 34 Tauri; the French astronomer Pierre Charles Le Monnier observed Uranus at least twelve times between 1750 and 1769, including on four consecutive nights. Sir William Herschel observed Uranus on 13 March 1781 from the garden of his house at 19 New King Street in Bath, Somerset and reported it as a comet. Herschel "engaged in a series of observations on the parallax of the fixed stars", using a telescope of his own design. Herschel recorded in his journal: "In the quartile near ζ Tauri... either Nebulous star or a comet." On 17 March he noted: "I looked for the Comet or Nebulous Star and found that it is a Comet, for it has changed its place." When he presented his discovery to the Royal Society, he continued to assert that he had found a comet, but implicitly compared it to a planet: The power I had on when I first saw the comet was 227.
From experience I know that the diameters of the fixed stars are not proportionally magnified with higher powers, as planets are. Moreover, the comet being magnified much beyond what its light would admit of, appeared hazy and ill-defined with these great powers, while the stars preserved that lustre and distinctness which from many thousand observations I knew they would retain; the sequel has shown that my surmises were well-founded, this proving to be the Comet we have observed. Herschel notified the Astronomer Royal Nevil Maskelyne of his discovery and received this flummoxed reply from him on 23 April 1781: "I don't know what to call it, it is as to be a regular planet moving in an orbit nearly circular to the sun as a Comet moving in a eccentric ellipsis. I have not yet seen any coma or tail to it."Although Herschel continued to describe his new object as a comet, other astronomers had begun to suspect otherwise. Finnish-Swedish astronomer Anders Johan Lexell, working in Russia, was the first to compute the orbit of the new object.
Its nearly circular orbit led him to a conclusion. Berlin astronomer Johann Elert Bode described Herschel's discovery as "a moving star that can be deemed a hitherto unknown planet-like object circulating beyond the orbit of Saturn". Bode concluded; the object was soon universally accepted as a new planet. By 1783, Herschel acknowledged this to Royal Society president Joseph Banks: "By the observation of the most eminent Astronomers in Europe it appears that the new star, which I had the honour of pointing out to them in March 1781, is a Primary Planet of our Solar System." In recognition of his achievement, King George III gave Herschel an annual stipend of £200 on condition that he move to Windsor so that the Royal Family could look through his telescopes. The name of Uranus references the ancient Greek deity of the sky Uranus, the father of Cronus and grandfather of Zeus, wh
A primary school is a school in which children receive primary or elementary education from the age of about five to eleven, coming after preschool, infant school and before secondary school. In most parts of the world, primary education is the first stage of compulsory education, is available without charge, but may be offered in a fee-paying independent school; the term grade school is sometimes used in the US, although this term may refer to both primary education and secondary education. The term primary school is derived from the French école primaire, first used in 1802. Primary school is the preferred term in the United Kingdom and many Commonwealth nations, in most publications of the United Nations Educational and Cultural Organization. Elementary school is preferred in some countries in the United States and Canada. In some parts of the United States, "primary school" refers to a school with grades Kindergarten through second grade or third grade. In these locations, the "elementary school" includes grades four to six.
In some places, primary schooling has further been divided between lower primary schools, which were the elementary schools, higher primary schools, which were established to provide a more practical instruction to poorer classes than what was provided in the secondary schools. Blab school Early childhood education Elementary school Elementary school Elementary school Elementary schools in Japan Educational stage Secondary school School Virtual reality in primary education National Center for Education Statistics Elementary Schools with Education and Crime Statistics
Captain Underpants: The First Epic Movie
Captain Underpants: The First Epic Movie is a 2017 American computer-animated superhero comedy film based on Dav Pilkey's children's novel series of the same name, produced by DreamWorks Animation and distributed by 20th Century Fox. It was directed by David Soren from a screenplay by Nicholas Stoller, stars the voices of Kevin Hart, Ed Helms, Nick Kroll, Thomas Middleditch, Jordan Peele and Kristen Schaal; the plot follows two imaginative elementary school pranksters named George Beard and Harold Hutchins who hypnotize their mean-spirited principal, Mr. Krupp, into thinking he is Captain Underpants, a superhero who fights crime while wearing only underwear and a cape. Captain Underpants premiered on May 21, 2017, at the Regency Village Theater in Los Angeles, was released in the United States on June 2, 2017, in 3D and 2D; the film received positive reviews and grossed $125 million worldwide against a budget of $38 million, making it the lowest-budgeted computer-animated feature of DreamWorks Animation's history.
This was the last DreamWorks Animation film to be distributed by 20th Century Fox. With the film's release in Saudi Arabia paired with The Emoji Movie on January 13, 2018, both became the first films to be given official public screenings in the country in 35 years after the removal of Saudi Arabia's cinema ban. In Piqua, George Beard and Harold Hutchins are two fourth-grade friends and next-door neighbors who bring joy to their school, Jerome Horwitz Elementary School, by excessively pranking the cruel teachers the mean Principal Benjamin "Benny" Krupp, which puts them at odds with him; the duo create comic books about a superhero named Captain Underpants, a character who has superpowers and wears underwear and a cape. They sell these to their schoolmates through a comic company called Treehouse Comix Inc, housed in their treehouse. George and Harold's pranks come to an apparent end after they tamper with a toilet invention, the Turbo Toilet 2000, made by the school's local snitch, intellectual Melvin Sneedly.
This causes Mr. Krupp to decide to annihilate their friendship. To prevent this, George hypnotizes Mr. Krupp with a 3D Hypno Ring; the boys soon learn the severity of their acts when Captain Underpants begins causing some problems around Piqua and take him to their tree-house. There they discover that they can turn Captain Underpants back into Mr. Krupp by splashing water on him and can turn him back into Captain Underpants by snapping their fingers. Believing that Mr. Krupp will continue with trying to separate them, they decide to settle with Captain Underpants but insist that he be dressed up as Mr. Krupp under the pretense of a'secret identity' to which Captain Underpants agrees, his sudden personality change manages to attract the attention and affection of the school's shy lunch lady, Edith. Just when George and Harold believe that their troubles have ended, Jerome Horwitz Elementary School is visited by an odd, German-accented scientist named Professor Pippy P. Poopypants, or as he calls himself Professor P.
Captain Underpants hires him to be a new teacher, but George and Harold are suspicious of him due to his short-tempered and violent behavior. As it turns out, Poopypants is seeking to get rid of laughter altogether due to the fact that people have made fun of his name for years. With Captain Underpants as principal, the school is a more lively place, with a funfair being set up in the yard. However, a rainstorm occurs and Captain Underpants turns back into Mr. Krupp, who finishes the paperwork to put George and Harold into separate classes. Meanwhile Professor P. recruits Melvin into his plan. Soon, Professor Poopypants tries to take over the town with a giant version the Turbo Toilet 2000, fueled by the school cafeteria's rotten leftovers left out by Edith– and uses Melvin's brain to turn the children into glum, humorless zombies. Captain Underpants tries to stop the villain, but due to having no actual superpowers, is effortlessly defeated and thrown into the toilet. George and Harold are captured and nearly turned into zombies, but are able to escape when their laughter damages the Turbo Toilet 2000's computer.
Upon consuming the mutated leftovers, Captain Underpants acquires superpowers and, with George and Harold's help and shrinks Poopypants, though he escapes on a bee shortly thereafter. Knowing that they cannot control Captain Underpants and Harold destroy the Hypno Ring to permanently change him back into Mr. Krupp. Feeling that Mr. Krupp would be nicer if he had friends, the boys set him and lovesick Edith up on a date, thus making Mr. Krupp have a change of heart, returns the comics he took away from George and Harold, admits their comics are funny. However, the toxic waste from the Turbo Toilet 2000 transforms all the toilets into an army of Talking Toilets which attack the restaurant at which Mr. Krupp and Edith are dining. Upon snapping his fingers, Mr. Krupp once again becomes Captain Underpants, carrying George and Harold away to help him fight them, much to Edith's surprise and admiration. In a mid-credits scene and Harold realize that the secretary, who put her on the phone before by faking for a contest of $2 billion, has been on the phone for the entire film, so they shut off the call, make the secretary angry, make a new comic based on her reaction.
Kevin Hart as George Be
Captain Underpants and the Perilous Plot of Professor Poopypants
Captain Underpants and the Perilous Plot of Professor Poopypants is the fourth book in the Captain Underpants series written by Dav Pilkey. A scientist from the fictitious country of New Swissland called Professor Pippy P. Poopypants goes to the United States to demonstrate how his striking Shrinky-Pig and Goosy-Grow can help the world by reducing the garbage and increasing food, but everyone laughs at Poopypants' name rather than take him seriously. Meanwhile, Jerome Horwitz Elementary School is going to a restaurant-arcade called The Piqua Pizza Palace, but when George and Harold rearrange the lunch sign, Mr. Krupp demands they clean the teachers' lounge, making them lose their chance of going to the Piqua Pizza Palace with everyone else. However, the boys get their revenge by modifying things around in the teachers' lounge and after the field trip, the teachers get covered in glue and foam pellets before Ms. Ribble makes it worse, they chase the boys around the school and after seeing the teachers looking like abominable snowmen, Mr. Fyde retires, thinking he's going insane.
Meanwhile, Professor Poopypants sees an ad to teach and applies for the job, thinking children to be kind and sweet-hearted, but they spend days laughing at his silly name. The professor only gets them interested by building a robot that makes gerbils jog along with them but it is short-lived; some time Ms. Ribble reads the Pied Piper of Hamelin, which inspires George and Harold to make a comic about the Professor trying to take over the world, which destroys the last of Professor Poopypants' sanity, he makes the gerbil machine as large as a tall building shrinks the school and holds them hostage to turn their names sillier, with a system of 3 alphabetical name charts based on the first/last letter of each part of a first and last name. George and Harold's names are changed to "Fluffy" and "Cheeseball" respectively, they get Captain Underpants to steal Professor Poopypants' enlarging machine, but he and the machine are shrunk in the process. The two of them get flicked off the school. Harold makes a paper airplane that George enlarges and after many dangers, Underpants rescues them.
George enlarges Underpants to the gerbil's size he defeats Professor Poopypants and everyone's names revert. The boys use the machines to bring Captain Underpants back to normal size. Captain Underpants is soaked with water. Professor Poopypants is hauled off to jail and from George and Harold, he changes his name so that no one will make fun of it anymore, he changes his name to his grandfather's, Tippy Tinkletrousers, that which makes the prisoners ridicule him more. George Beard/Fluffy Toiletnose Harold Hutchins/Cheeseball Wafflefanny Mr. Benjamin Krupp/Mr. Lumpy Pottybiscuits Captain Underpants/Buttercup Chickenfanny Chuckles Jingleberry McMonkeyburger, Jr. Stinky McMonkeyburger Jiggles T. Chunkyskunks Tipper Q. Zipperdripper Professor Pippy P. Poopypants/Tippy Tinkletrousers Porkbelly Funkyskunk Connor Mancini/Buttercup Bananalips Aaron Mancini/Stinky Bananalips Ingrid Ashley/Chim-Chim Diaperbrains Larry Zarrow/Booger Stinkersquirt Stephanie Yarkoff/Snotty Gorillabreath Robbie Staenberg/Loopy Pizzapants Janet Warwick/Poopsie Chucklebutt Melvin Sneedly/Pinky Pizzabrains Ivana Godadebafroom/Chim-Chim Lizardtushie Mr. Rected/Mr.
Gizzardnose Miss Labler / Miss Liverbuns Ms. Ribble/Ms. Gizzardtush Mr. Meaner/Mr. Bananabuns Miss Anthrope/Miss Diapertush Ms. Guided/ Ms. Lizardnose Mr. Fyde/Mr. Barftush Dr. Diaper / Dr. Bubblebuns Authors: Cynthia Rylant/Buttercup Gizzardsniffer Dav Pilkey/Gidget Hamsterbrains Dan Santat/Gidget Pizzasniffer Jose Garibaldi/Poopsie Lizardlips Martin Ontiveros/Pinky Burgerfanny Dav Pilkey and Captain Underpants; the book that followed this was The Wicked Wedgie Woman. The Book received positive reviews from critics, making the villain, Professor Poopypants, appear in Books of the series as both a recurring character, or the main villain; the book was removed from an elementary school in Page, North Dakota due to parental complaints
A hardcover or hardback book is one bound with rigid protective covers. It has a sewn spine which allows the book to lie flat on a surface when opened. Following the ISBN sequence numbers, books of this type may be identified by the abbreviation Hbk. Hardcover books are printed on acid-free paper, they are much more durable than paperbacks, which have flexible damaged paper covers. Hardcover books are marginally more costly to manufacture. Hardcovers are protected by artistic dust jackets, but a "jacketless" alternative is becoming popular: these "paper-over-board" or "jacketless hardcover" bindings forgo the dust jacket in favor of printing the cover design directly onto the board binding. If brisk sales are anticipated, a hardcover edition of a book is released first, followed by a "trade" paperback edition the next year; some publishers publish paperback originals. For popular books these sales cycles may be extended, followed by a mass market paperback edition typeset in a more compact size and printed on shallower, less hardy paper.
This is intended to, in part, prolong the life of the immediate buying boom that occurs for some best sellers: After the attention to the book has subsided, a lower-cost version in the paperback, is released to sell further copies. In the past the release of a paperback edition was one year after the hardback, but by the early twenty-first century paperbacks were released six months after the hardback by some publishers, it is unusual for a book, first published in paperback to be followed by a hardback. An example is the novel The Judgment of Paris by Gore Vidal, which had its revised edition of 1961 first published in paperback, in hardcover. Hardcover books are sold at higher prices than comparable paperbacks. Books for the general public are printed in hardback only for authors who are expected to be successful, or as a precursor to the paperback to predict sale levels. Hardcovers consist of a page block, two boards, a cloth or heavy paper covering; the pages are sewn together and glued onto a flexible spine between the boards, it too is covered by the cloth.
A paper wrapper, or dust jacket, is put over the binding, folding over each horizontal end of the boards. Dust jackets serve to protect the underlying cover from wear. On the folded part, or flap, over the front cover is a blurb, or a summary of the book; the back flap is. Reviews are placed on the back of the jacket. Many modern bestselling hardcover books use a partial cloth cover, with cloth covered board on the spine only, only boards covering the rest of the book. Bookbinding Paperback
Captain Underpants and the Terrifying Re-Turn of Tippy Tinkletrousers
Captain Underpants and the Terrifying Return of Tippy Tinkletrousers is a 2012 American children's novel and the ninth book in the Captain Underpants series by Dav Pilkey. It was published on August 2012, six years after the publication of the previous book. Tippy Tinkletrousers is Professor Poopypants, as revealed in the previous book; this book explains how Tippy Tinkletrousers arrived at the end of the eighth book, as well as a prequel story of George and Harold in kindergarten explaining how their friendship began and setting the page for their life before Captain Underpants. Tippy has come from the future, George and Harold are arrested for the crimes that their alternate versions did, the two are imprisoned. At the Piqua State Penitentiary, Tippy is asked to build a statue of Warden Gordon, the chief jailer of the prison. On the day Tippy presents his robot suit, he freezes everyone in his way takes Krupp to find the boys for Tippy. George and Harold snap their fingers bringing Captain Underpants to life, soon, while trying to freeze him, Tippy accidentally freezes his robotic legs.
Though Captain Underpants pulls off the top half of the robo-suit, Tippy escapes by going back in time to a bit over five years ago. Moved in from Michigan, five-and-three-quarters-year-old George's mother makes him wear a tie as a good first impression. On his way to school, he notices six-year-old Harold being attacked by Kipper and his group, with the mean owner of a gas station, Billy Bill, egging them on. Angered at this, George plays a smart prank on the owner by changing his gas station's sign from "Free Brake Inspection" to "Free Bra Inspection", prompting a group of infuriated and offended women to attack the latter. George saves Harold and the two become best friends. Mr. Krupp arrives and sends the two to detention for "bullying Kipper". To pass time, the two make their first comic: The Adventures of Dog Man. George and Harold study Kipper for a week and later switch his padlock for one of their own locks, replace his stolen lunch money with girly things like friendship bracelets and dolls, while sending strange texts to Kipper's goons, all while placing a note from "Wedgie Magee" with it.
However, Kipper catches on to the setup and, the next day and his gang steal the pizzas that George and Harold bought for the kindergartners as a way to torture them further. Infuriated, the two friends come up with another major prank on the bullies in retaliation. First, they fill the four bullies' lockers with shaving cream to pass it off as ectoplasmic ghost juice. While this works, Principal Krupp points out that the "ectoplasm" was sprayed through the vents on doors. Enraged and tired of the anonymous pranks and his friends begin to torture the kindergarteners for answers stealing more pizzas, which George and Harold were counting on them to steal, as they ordered them to have double ghost chili peppers which cause the bullies' tongues to burn up resulting in them getting sent to the nurse's office. George and Harold create a comic that tells the tale of Wedgie Magee and the signs of his curse, all of which match their pranks. After Kipper and his gang "see" that ghost, they run outside in terror, during a severe thunderstorm and power outage.
In the original timeline, they apologize for their deeds, compensate the kindergartners, never bully anyone again. Tippy arrives in the past at the same time Kipper's gang runs outside; the four bullies go insane from fear as Tippy's robot resembles the ghost of Wedgie Magee. This causes the police to accuse Principal Krupp of causing Kipper and his friends' insanity despite no charges being filed against him, which results in him permanently losing his job. Tippy time travels four years back in the future, believing that kids five years ago were weird. However, as Mr. Krupp was hypnotized to become Captain Underpants when George and Harold were in the 4th grade, a paradox happens, a universe is created where Captain Underpants never existed. Tippy arrives in the present only to find out all that remains of Earth is a flaming and devastated wasteland overrun by giant evil zombie nerds. At the end, Tippy gets squashed and killed by two zombie nerds who once were George and Harold. What is left of Tippy is a red squishy stain, which appears to be blood.
One day, the cop and his trained police dog Greg spot a bomb, but they are critically injured by its explosion and the doctor announces that Greg's body and the cop's head are dying. The surgical crew sews Greg's head on the Cop's body and everyone calls the hybrid "Dog Man." Dog Man catches criminals with his sensitive nose, hears crimes with his ears, punches criminals with his fists. Petey, Rip Van Tinkle's former feline minion, sees Dog Man's weakness and invents an evil vacuum robot, which steals all the money from the bank and Dog Man comes to stop it, but the vacuum chases him until he is cornered. Dog Man is certain he will die but the vacuum robot unplugs and shuts down he follows its cord to Petey's hideout and Dog Man arrests him. Dog Man celebrates by drinking some alcohol-free wine with his fellow cops; the comic is about a boy called Wedgie Magee, bullied up to the point where he can't bear it any longer. He visits a fortune teller who tells him she will concoct an anti-wedgie elixir.
However, the fortune teller grabs a voodoo elixir by mistake. The next day, Wedgie rubs the elixir onto his trousers, he dies of embarrassment. That even
Children's literature or juvenile literature includes stories, books and poems that are enjoyed by children. Modern children's literature is classified in two different ways: genre or the intended age of the reader. Children's literature can be traced to stories and songs, part of a wider oral tradition, that adults shared with children before publishing existed; the development of early children's literature, before printing was invented, is difficult to trace. After printing became widespread, many classic "children's" tales were created for adults and adapted for a younger audience. Since the fifteenth century much literature has been aimed at children with a moral or religious message; the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries is known as the "Golden Age of Children's Literature", because many classic children's books were published then. There is no single or used definition of children's literature, it can be broadly defined as anything that children read or more defined as fiction, non-fiction, poetry, or drama intended for and used by children and young people.
One writer on children's literature defines it as "all books written for children, excluding works such as comic books, joke books, cartoon books, non-fiction works that are not intended to be read from front to back, such as dictionaries and other reference materials". However, others would argue that comics should be included: "Children's Literature studies has traditionally treated comics fitfully and superficially despite the importance of comics as a global phenomenon associated with children"; the International Companion Encyclopedia of Children's Literature notes that "the boundaries of genre... are not fixed but blurred". Sometimes, no agreement can be reached about whether a given work is best categorized as literature for adults or children; some works defy easy categorization. J. K. Rowling's Harry Potter series was written and marketed for young adults, but it is popular among adults; the series' extreme popularity led The New York Times to create a separate best-seller list for children's books.
Despite the widespread association of children's literature with picture books, spoken narratives existed before printing, the root of many children's tales go back to ancient storytellers. Seth Lerer, in the opening of Children's Literature: A Reader's History from Aesop to Harry Potter, says, "This book presents a history of what children have heard and read... The history I write of is a history of reception." Early children's literature consisted of spoken stories and poems that were used to educate and entertain children. It was only in the eighteenth century, with the development of the concept of childhood, that a separate genre of children's literature began to emerge, with its own divisions and canon; the earliest of these books were educational books, books on conduct, simple ABCs—often decorated with animals and anthropomorphic letters. In 1962, French historian Philippe Ariès argues in his book Centuries of Childhood that the modern concept of childhood only emerged in recent times.
He explains that children were in the past not considered as different from adults and were not given different treatment. As evidence for this position, he notes that, apart from instructional and didactic texts for children written by clerics like the Venerable Bede and Ælfric of Eynsham, there was a lack of any genuine literature aimed at children before the 18th century. Other scholars have qualified this viewpoint by noting that there was a literature designed to convey the values and information necessary for children within their cultures, such as the Play of Daniel from the 12th century. Pre-modern children's literature, tended to be of a didactic and moralistic nature, with the purpose of conveying conduct-related and religious lessons. During the 17th century, the concept of childhood began to emerge in Europe. Adults saw children as separate beings, innocent and in need of protection and training by the adults around them; the English philosopher John Locke developed his theory of the tabula rasa in his 1690 An Essay Concerning Human Understanding.
In Locke's philosophy, tabula rasa was the theory that the mind is at birth a "blank slate" without rules for processing data, that data is added and rules for processing are formed by one's sensory experiences. A corollary of this doctrine was that the mind of the child was born blank and that it was the duty of the parents to imbue the child with correct notions. Locke himself emphasized the importance of providing children with "easy pleasant books" to develop their minds rather than using force to compel them, he suggested that picture books be created for children. In the nineteenth century, a few children's titles became famous as classroom reading texts. Among these were the fables of Aesop and Jean de la Fontaine and Charles Perraults's 1697 Tales of Mother Goose; the popularity of these texts led to the creation of a number of nineteenth-century fantasy and fairy tales for children which featured magic objects and talking animals. Another influence on this shift in attitudes came from Puritanism, which stressed the importance of individual salvation.
Puritans were concerned with the spiritual welfare of their children, there was a large growth in the publication of "good godly books" aimed squarely at children. Some of the most popular works were by James Janeway, but the most enduring book from this movement, still read toda