English Fury at Mechelen
The English Fury at Mechelen or the Capture of Mechelen was an event in the Eighty Years War and the Anglo–Spanish War on April 9,1580. The city of Mechelen was conquered by Calvinist forces from Brussels which included a contingent of English soldiers. The city was sacked and the nomenclature was given. In 1579, the Lordship of Mechelen was one of the few territories in the Netherlands that had remained loyal to the Spanish King, most surrounding cities, like Antwerp and Ghent were ruled by Calvinists. There in 1580, plans were made to take all remaining loyal cities. The Calvinist mayor of Brussels, Olivier van den Tympel, gathered a force, supported by English troops under command of John Norreys. After a short battle with Mechelens Schutterij and Spanish troops the city was easily taken, the English however turned against the population and plundered homes and monasteries. Some sixty civilians were killed and Archbishop Mathias Hovius hid in a cupboard for three days and fled the city, dressed as a peasant, the Spanish garrison artillery commander Pedro Lobo a large friar was killed by John Norreys himself with his bare hands.
Mechelen remained under Calvinist rule until it was reconquered in 1585 by the Spanish under Alexander Farnese, the 1580 event was named the English Fury after the Spanish Fury that hit the city in 1572. Citations Bibliography Harline & Put, Craig E. & Eddy F. Verloren schapen, schurftige herders, the Age of Wars of Religion, 1000-1650, An Encyclopedia of Global Warfare and Civilization, Volume 1. Sir John Norreys and the Elizabethan Military World, Liverpool University Press - Liverpool Science Fiction Texts and Studies. The Founding of the Dutch Republic, Finance, external links History Reconsidered, Eighty Years War 1568 -1648
Siege of Leiden
In the end the siege failed when the city was successfully relieved in October 1574. In the war that had broken out, Dutch rebels took up arms against the king of Spain, whose family had inherited the Seventeen Provinces of the Netherlands. Most of the counties of Holland and Zeeland were occupied by rebels in 1572, who sought to end the harsh rule of the Spanish Duke of Alba, governor-general of the Netherlands. This territory had a high density of cities, which were protected by huge defense works and by the low-lying boglands. The Duke of Alba tried to break resistance using brute force and he used Amsterdam as a base, as this was the only city in the country of Holland that had remained loyal to the Spanish government. Albas cruel treatment of the populations of Naarden and Haarlem was notorious, the rebels learned that no mercy was shown there and were determined to hold out as long as possible. The county of Holland was split in two when Haarlem was conquered by the Spanish after a costly seven-month siege, Alba attempted to conquer Alkmaar in the north, but the city withstood the Spanish attack.
Alba sent his officer Francisco de Valdez to attack the rebel territory. In the meantime, due to his failure to quell the rebellion as quickly as he had intended, Alba submitted his resignation, the less harsh and more politic Luis de Zúñiga y Requesens replaced him as governor-general. The city of Leiden had plenty of food stored for the siege when it started in October 1573, the siege was very difficult for the Spanish, because the soil was too loose to dig holes, and the city defense works were hard to break. Defending Leiden was a Dutch States rebel army which consisted of English, the leader of the Dutch rebels, William the Silent, Prince of Orange, tried to relieve Leiden by sending an army into the Netherlands under the command of his brother, Louis of Nassau. Valdez halted the siege in April 1574 to face the invading troops, but Sancho dAvila reached them first and defeated the army of Orange in the Battle of Mookerheyde. During the brief respite from the siege, Orange had counselled the citizens of Leiden to restock their city with supplies, and take in a larger rebel garrison to help defend the town.
They disregarded his advice however, with the result that when Valdez army returned to continue the siege on May 26,1574, the city considered surrendering, because there was almost no chance of relief and supplies were dwindling. The rebel army was defeated and the territory was very small compared to the huge Spanish empire. The Prince of Orange, was determined to relieve the city, therefore, he sent a carrier pigeon into the city pleading for it to hold out for three months. But the damage to the countryside would be enormous. However, in the end, the Prince prevailed and the dikes were broken on August 3
Battle of Borgerhout
Taking advantage of the Dutch rebel armys indiscipline, Farnese decided at the beginning of 1579 to besiege Maastricht. The assault was divided into three columns, each one provided with a bridge to pass over the camps moat. After one of the attacks, undertaken by Walloon troops, succeeded in securing a bridge, William of Orange, leader of the Dutch revolt, and archduke Matthias of Habsburg, Governor-General of the Netherlands appointed by the States General, witnessed the fight from Antwerps walls. The battle meant the destruction of the villages of Borgerhout and Deurne, Farnese proceeded to besiege Maastricht, which the Spanish Army invested less than a week after the battle and was taken by assault on 29 June of the same year. Farneses successful campaign opened the way to a period of Spanish reconquest of much of the Netherlands. Orange invaded the Netherlands twice, in 1568 and 1572, the second time, the revolt spread into the provinces of Holland and Zealand, and Alba was unable of quelling it.
In reaction, the loyal and rebel provinces united to expel the foreign troops under the Pacification of Ghent, johns striking victory at the Battle of Gembloux in January 1578, was followed by a tactical defeat at Rijmenam in July, and John himself died of plague in October. The States General called for help Francis, Duke of Anjou and heir of the King of France, who entered Mons in July 1578, the Catholic provinces of Namur and Limburg were already controlled by the Spanish. The Union of Arras opened talks in February with Alexander Farnese, in the south, Farnese was planning the capture of Maastricht to use the city with its stone bridge over the Meuse as a base to conquer Brussels and Antwerp in the following campaigns. In November 1578, the Spanish Army left Namur and crossed the Ardennes, Farnese deemed too risky starting the siege of Maastrich at midwinter and with the John Casimirs numerous cavalry on the countryside. For the 1579 campaign, Farnese planned two different movements, the first part of the plan was accomplished when Mondragón took the towns of Kerpen and Straelen between 7 and 15 January.
On 24 January, Farnese moved to attack the States General army, which was at Weert, east of Antwerp. They asked the city council to allow them to enter the city, but it was refused, in the meantime, Farnese entrusted to Count Hannibal dAltemps the capture of Weert and continued his advance upon the Dutch Army. DAltemps encircled Weert with 6,000 men and breached its walls with a two-cannon battery. The defenders of the castle surrendered at discretion but, on Farnese orders, were hanged on the windows, instead of following the Dutch Army to its quarters, lodged in Turnhout with his troops and his court to forage. Before moving to Antwerp he dealt with John Casimirs German Army, Spanish troops attacked and defeated part of the German reiters near Eindhoven on 10 February. Once this matter was finished, Farnese advanced upon Borgerhout, the Dutch States troops quartered in the village of Borgerhout numbered 25 or 40 infantry companies which comprised from 3,000 to 4,000 soldiers, plus 100 additional mounted troops.
They were the backbone of the army and William of Orange referred to them as his braves
Destruction of Neuss
The Destruction of Neuss occurred in July 1586, during the Cologne War. Alexander Farnese, Duke of Parmas troops surrounded the city of Neuss, in total, approximately 3000 civilians died, out of a population of approximately 4500, and the entire garrison was killed. Neuss had been seized by supporters of the Protestant Prince-Elector Gebhard Truchsess von Waldburg in February 1586. Adolf, Count of Moers and Neuenahr and supplied the city and took most of his troops north, to Moers and Venlo, Cloedt had a garrison of 1600 men, mostly Germans and Dutch soldiers, some had military experience, but many were recent recruits. In June, the Duke of Parma approached the city and surrounded its landed fortifications, he was supported by Karl von Mansfeld, Francisco Verdugo, the next day, being the feast of St. Once the cannonade began, Parmas 45 artillery pounded at the walls for 30 hours with iron cannonballs weighing 30 to 50 pounds, the Spanish made several attacks, each repelled. With the ninth assault, the wall was breached, and soldiers poured into the city, the Italians from one end.
They met in the marketplace in the middle, gravely injured, had been carried into the town. The Spanish and Italian forces entered the town from opposing ends, Parma was reportedly inclined to honor the garrison commander, Ernst demanded his blood. Soldiers found Cloedt and the man was hanged from the window. Italian and Spanish soldiers, on their rampage through the city, slaughtered the rest of the garrison, who had taken refuge in some of the churches, were initially spared, but when the fire started, they were forced into the street. Parma wrote to the king that over 4000 lay dead in the ditches, english observers confirmed this report, and elaborated that only 8 buildings remained standing. Although Parma had taken the city, his Protestant opponents took some comfort in the fact that the city had been destroyed in the process and was of no use as a garrison. Parma had nearly unfettered access to the Electorates northern regions, called the Niederstift, Gebhard renounced of the Electorate in 1588.
Despite Ernst of Bavarias unchallenged possession, Parma continued to acquire, the history of Holland and the Dutch nation, vol. Der Kampf um das Erzstift Köln zur Zeit der Kurfürsten, Hajo, A History of Modern Germany, The Reformation. Princeton NJ, Princeton University Press,1959
Siege of Haarlem
The siege of Haarlem was an episode of the Eighty Years War. From 11 December 1572 to 13 July 1573 an army of Philip II of Spain laid bloody siege to the city of Haarlem in the Netherlands, after the naval battle of Haarlemmermeer and the defeat of a land relief force, the starving city surrendered and the garrison was massacred. The resistance nonetheless was taken as an example by the Orangists at the sieges of Alkmaar. The city of Haarlem initially held a view in the religious war that was going on in the Netherlands. It managed to escape from the Reformed iconoclasm in 1566 that affected other cities in the Netherlands, when the city of Brielle was conquered by the Geuzen revolutionary army on 1 April, Haarlem did not initially support the Geuzen. The ruler of Spain was not pleased, and sent an army north under command of Don Fadrique, on 17 November 1572 all citizens of the city of Zutphen were murdered by the Spanish army, and on 1 December the city of Naarden suffered the same fate. The city administration of Haarlem sent a deputation of 4 people to Amsterdam to attempt to negotiate with Don Fadrique, the cities defenses were commanded by city-governor Wigbolt Ripperda, a commander put in charge by William the Silent, the Prince of Orange.
He strongly disapproved of negotiating with the Spanish army, called the city guard together, the citys administration was replaced with pro-Orange citizens. When the deputation came back from Amsterdam, they were convicted as traitors, the Sint-Bavokerk was cleared of Roman Catholic symbols the same day. On 11 December 1572 the Spanish army laid siege to Haarlem, the city was not very strong, militarily speaking. Although the city was surrounded by walls, they were not in good shape. The area around the city could not be inundated, and offered the enemy many places to set up camp, the existence of the Haarlemmermeer nearby made it difficult for the enemy to cut off the transportation of food into the city completely. In the Middle Ages it was unusual to fight in the winter, during the first two months of the siege, the situation was in balance. The Spanish army dug two tunnels to reach the city walls and collapse them, the defenders made tunnels to blow up the Spanish tunnels. The situation became worse for Haarlem on 29 March 1573, the Amsterdam army, faithful to the Spanish king, occupied the Haarlemmermeer and effectively blocked Haarlem from the outside world.
The hunger in the city grew, and the situation became so tense that on 27 May many prisoners were taken from the prison, on 19 December no less than 625 shots were fired at the defensive wall between the Janspoort to the Catherijnebridge. This forced the defenders to put up a new wall. Two city gates, the Kruispoort and the Janspoort collapsed from the fighting, kenau Simonsdochter Hasselaer, a very strong woman, helped defending the city
Maurice, Prince of Orange
Maurice of Orange was stadtholder of all the provinces of the Dutch Republic except for Friesland from 1585 at earliest until his death in 1625. Before he became Prince of Orange upon the death of his eldest half-brother Philip William in 1618, Maurice spent his youth in Dillenburg in Nassau, and studied in Heidelberg and Leiden. He succeeded his father William the Silent as stadtholder of Holland and Zeeland in 1585, and became stadtholder of Utrecht and Overijssel in 1590, and of Groningen in 1620. As Captain-General and Admiral of the Union, Maurice organised the Dutch rebellion against Spain into a coherent, successful revolt, Maurice set out to revive and revise the classical doctrines of Vegetius and pioneered the new European forms of armament and drill. During the Twelve Years Truce, a dispute broke out in the Republic. After the Truce, Maurice failed to achieve more military victories and he died without legitimate children in The Hague in 1625, and was succeeded by his younger half-brother Frederick Henry.
Maurice was a son of William the Silent and Princess Anna of Saxony and was born at the castle of Dillenburg and he was named after his maternal grandfather, the Elector Maurice of Saxony, who was a noted general. Maurice never married but was the father of children by Margaretha van Mechelen. He was raised in Dillenburg by his uncle Johan of Nassau, together with his cousin Willem Lodewijk he studied in Heidelberg and in Leiden where he met Simon Stevin. The States of Holland and Zeeland paid for his studies, as their father had run into problems after spending his entire fortune in the early stages of the Dutch revolt. Only 16 when his father was murdered in Delft in 1584, he took over as stadtholder. The monarchs of England and France had been requested to accept sovereignty and this had left Maurice as the only acceptable candidate for the position of Stadtholder. He became stadtholder of Holland and Zeeland in 1585, of Guelders and Utrecht in 1590 and of Groningen, protestant Maurice was preceded as Prince of Orange by his Roman Catholic eldest half-brother Philip William, Prince of Orange, deceased 1618.
However, Philip William was in the custody of Spain, remaining so until 1596 and he was appointed captain-general of the army in 1587, bypassing the Earl of Leicester, who returned to England on hearing this news. Maurice organised the rebellion against Spain into a coherent, successful revolt, the Eighty Years War was a challenge to his style, so he could prove himself a good leader by taking several Spanish Outposts. In 1597 he went on an offensive and took Rheinberg, Groenlo, Enschede, Oldenzaal. These victories rounded out the borders to the Dutch Republic, solidifying the revolt and they established Maurice as the foremost general of his time. Many of the generals of the succeeding generation, including his brother Frederick Henry
Battle of Empel
In Spain the battle is still remembered as it is believed that the army was saved due to intervention of Mary of the Immaculate Conception. After the campaign of 1585, the Governor of Spanish Netherlands and commander of the Spanish troops Alexander Farnese, the troops of Karl von Mansfeld occupied the area around s-Hertogenbosch. But all farmers had left the island, taking their livestock with them, to make the situation of the hungry Spanish troops even worse, Dutch commander Philip of Hohenlohe-Neuenstein arrived with a strong land force and 100 ships. The Dutch leader offered a surrender to the Spaniards but the response was resolute. Ya hablaremos de capitulación después de muertos. », Philip of Hohenlohe-Neuenstein breached the dikes of Bommelwaard, forcing the Spanish back over the Rhine to Empel. There they were unable to reach s-Hertogenbosch, because the terrain was flooded and guarded by the fleet of Hohenlohe, the island was attacked as well by artillery fire coming from a fort, at the other side of the river.
The situation for the Spanish looked desperate, a Spanish soldier who was digging a trench around the church commented this is more likely to be my grave than a trench. As he dug, he found a painting representing Mary of the Immaculate Conception, bobadilla interpreted the discovery as a sign from God, and had the painting put on the Spanish flag for worship. That night, an unusual and completely intensely cold wind that chilled the waters of the River Meuse broke, the Dutch ships had to be withdrawn to prevent them being stuck in the ice. This made it possible for the remaining Spanish troops to escape to the safety of s-Hertogenbosch, admiral Hohenlohe-Neuenstein went on to say, It seems that God is Spanish to work for me so great miracle. That same day, Mary of the Immaculate Conception was proclaimed patroness of the Spanish Tercios of Flanders, article on the site of the Army Museum of The Netherlands
Siege of Mons (1572)
In the spring of 1572, after the capture of Valenciennes by a Protestant force under Louis of Nassau, the Dutch commander continued with his offensive and took Mons by surprise on 24 May. On 23 May Louis of Nassau arrived at Mons with 1,000 infantry and 500 cavalry, Louis took control of the city, and a few days later, was reinforced by about 4,500 infantry and cavalry under the command of the Count of Montgomery. On 23 June Fadriques forces arrived at Mons and laid siege to the city, Louis sent a message to Genlis, urging that he should join to the army of his brother, William of Orange, but Genlis ignored the message, and advanced against the Spaniards. On 19 July Genlis and his forces encamped near Mons, in a circular plane, Don Fadrique, aware his arrival, advanced towards him with 4,000 infantry,1,500 cavalry, and 3,000 armed villagers for the occasion. Genlis sent a detachment to reconnoitre, but after seeing the advance of the Spanish forces, Don Frederic de Toledo is coming upon us, they cried.
The Spanish cavalry of Philip of Noircarmes, without delay, charged against the French army, followed by infantry, the attack caused panic among the French Huguenots, and then, the Spanish infantry shattered the French army. The Spanish victory was complete, and the army of Genlis was entirely routed, about 2,000 French soldiers were killed or wounded, and 700 captured, including 70 nobles and officers. The leader of the French army, Adrien de Hangest, was captured, the Captain Francisco de Bobadilla was honored with carrying the news of the victory to the King Philip II, for the proven value during the battle. Meantime, the Prince of Orange with his new army continued to advance towards Mons, on 23 July, after the capture of Roermond, his troops mutinied. On 27 August, with guarantees of payment of some cities in Holland, crossed the Meuse, advancing over Diest, Termonde and Nivelles. On 11 August Gaspard de Coligny, with the approval of the King Charles IX, had written to the Prince, the result was St.
Bartholomews Day massacre on 23 August. In early September, Don Fernando, Duke of Alba, arrived at Mons with reinforcements, on 10 September arrived near Mons, and Alba, knowing the Oranges arrival, positioned his troops for a possible attack. After the failed attack, the Prince retreated to the village of Harmignies, in this raid 600 rebels were killed, for only 60 Spaniards. Hundred of horses were captured, and a part of the tents. During the action, William of Orange himself was in profound slumber, and was saved by the barking of his Spaniel dog, with a heavy heart, William wrote to his brother Louis of his forlorn condition and inability to relieve Mons. The Prince retreated with his army to Nivelles and Mechelen, marching to the Rhine, thereafter he made his way almost alone to Holland, the only province which still remained true to him. After the defeat of the army of French Huguenots under Adrien de Hangest, even the French Huguenots under his command mutinied as a consequence for the support of the King of France to the massacre of St.
Bartholomew. On 19 September Louis of Nassau surrendered Mons to the Duke of Alba, Louis of Nassau would be received by the Duke of Alba, the Duke of Medinaceli and Don Fadrique
By population, Spain is the sixth largest in Europe and the fifth in the European Union. Spains capital and largest city is Madrid, other urban areas include Barcelona, Seville, Bilbao. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago, in the Middle Ages, the area was conquered by Germanic tribes and by the Moors. Spain is a democracy organised in the form of a government under a constitutional monarchy. It is a power and a major developed country with the worlds fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP. Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the span is the Phoenician word spy. Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean the land where metals are forged, two 15th-century Spanish Jewish scholars, Don Isaac Abravanel and Solomon ibn Verga, gave an explanation now considered folkloric. Both men wrote in two different published works that the first Jews to reach Spain were brought by ship by Phiros who was confederate with the king of Babylon when he laid siege to Jerusalem.
This man was a Grecian by birth, but who had given a kingdom in Spain. He became related by marriage to Espan, the nephew of king Heracles, Heracles renounced his throne in preference for his native Greece, leaving his kingdom to his nephew, from whom the country of España took its name. Based upon their testimonies, this eponym would have already been in use in Spain by c.350 BCE, Iberia enters written records as a land populated largely by the Iberians and Celts. Early on its coastal areas were settled by Phoenicians who founded Western Europe´s most ancient cities Cadiz, Phoenician influence expanded as much of the Peninsula was eventually incorporated into the Carthaginian Empire, becoming a major theater of the Punic Wars against the expanding Roman Empire. After an arduous conquest, the peninsula came fully under Roman Rule, during the early Middle Ages it came under Germanic rule but later, much of it was conquered by Moorish invaders from North Africa. In a process took centuries, the small Christian kingdoms in the north gradually regained control of the peninsula.
The last Moorish kingdom fell in the same year Columbus reached the Americas, a global empire began which saw Spain become the strongest kingdom in Europe, the leading world power for a century and a half, and the largest overseas empire for three centuries. Continued wars and other problems led to a diminished status. The Napoleonic invasions of Spain led to chaos, triggering independence movements that tore apart most of the empire, eventually democracy was peacefully restored in the form of a parliamentary constitutional monarchy. Spain joined the European Union, experiencing a renaissance and steady economic growth
Siege of Lochem (1582)
The Siege of Lochem known as the Relief of Lochem was a siege that took place in the Dutch city of Lochem during the Eighty Years War and the Anglo–Spanish War. This marked the end of the Spanish siege of the city by the Spanish general Francisco Verdugo, in the summer of 1581 Francisco Verdugo had been sent by the Duke of Parma to replace the Count of Rennenberg after his defeat by Anglo Dutch forces under John Norreys at Kollum. Verdugo was able to defeat Norreys at Noordhorn his attempt to seize Niezijl was foiled by stout resistance and bad weather in the autumn of 1581. The following year Verdugo instead turned his attention to Lochem, a city in Guelderland, where Johann Baptista von Taxis had built a sconce around the walls of the town. Taxis joined forces with the Baron van Anholt, Lieutenant-colonel of former Rennenbergs regiment of foot, Verdugo had not given orders to start the siege and deemed it too risky because Lochem was easy to relief. Nevertheless, after Anholt brought to Groningen news of the siege, with Lochem taken Verdugo would have an easy chance to advance and take the cities of Zutphen and Deventer.
By July 22 Lochem was under siege by 4,000 Spanish troops and 400 cavalry, in Lochem itself after a month of siege they had managed to hold out but conditions inside the town were appalling. Starvation took hold and many citizens had resorted to eating their own horses, the weather had been poor and the countryside was flooded, hampering conditions for both besieged and besieger. Philip Hohenlohe had sent some Frisian companies on an offensive in the provinces, hoping to lure the Spanish commander Verdugo away from Lochem. Hohenlohe organised a relief force whilst in Deventer in late August and he gathered an army of 2,500 infantry and 1,500 cavalry which included fourteen companies of English and Scots troops under John Norreys. Hohenlohe had with him four pieces of artillery and was expected to join up with more forces on his way. On September 21,1582 they left Deventer and joined together with the army of William Louis, the size of the army grew to 5,000 soldiers and 2,500 cavalry including 1,800 newly arrived French Huguenot soldiers.
This force carried large quantities of food and supplies to meet the population of Lochem. On sighting the relief army from nearby Wildenborch castle the Spanish seeing they were outnumbered there decided to retreat, the allied force immediately occupied the castle, constructed a sconce and built a bridge over the moat. The rising waters of the small river Brekel caused by mills in Zutphen stopping the water meant that for Verdugo it was now impossible to prevent the city from being resupplied. In the night Hohenlohe gained access to the city and at once provided some food, evacuated the sick, Verdugo on the other hand managed to launch an assault, and in confused fighting managed to drive Hohenholes French troops from a sconce and destroyed them. The success for Verudgo however was only temporary, the morning the combined allied force mounted an attack on the besiegers. The assault was a success and many guns were captured, and his rearguard under the command of van Anholt suffered heavily protecting the Spanish retreat and lost five ensigns as a result, whilst van Anholt was severely injured