Dutch pacification campaign on Formosa
Prior to the campaign the Dutch had been in Formosa for eleven years, but did not control much of the island beyond their principal fortress at Tayouan, and an alliance with the town of Sinkan. Thus the Dutch were able to expand the extent of their territorial control in a short time. The campaign ended in February 1636, when representatives from twenty-eight villages attended a ceremony in Tayouan to cement Dutch sovereignty, solidifying the southwest under their rule, the Dutch were able to expand their operations from the limited entrepôt trading carried out by the colony prior to 1635. The expanded territory allowed access to the trade, which became very lucrative. It provided fertile land, which the Dutch used imported Chinese labour to farm, the allied villages provided opportunities for Dutch missionaries to spread their faith. The pacification campaign is considered the stone on which the success of the colony was built. Although initially the intention was to run the colony solely as an entrepôt, the Company decided to ally with the closest village, the relatively small Sinkan, who were able to supply them firewood and fish.
However, relations with the villages were not so friendly. The aboriginal settlements of the area were involved in more or less constant low-level warfare with other. In 1625 the Dutch bought a piece of land from the Sinkaners for the sum of fifteen cangans, initially other villages in the area, chiefly Mattau and Bakloan, professed their desire to live in peace with the Dutch. The villages saw that it was in their interest to good relations with the newcomers. The earliest of these was a Dutch attack on Chinese pirates in the bay of Wancan, not far from Mattau, the pirates were able to drive off the Dutch soldiers, causing the Dutch to lose face among the Formosan villages. Encouraged by this Dutch failure, warriors from Mattau raided Sinkan, at this point, the Dutch returned to Wancan and this time were able to rout the pirates, restoring their reputation. Mattau was forced by the colonials to return the property stolen from Sinkan, the peace was short-lived, because in November 1626 the villagers of Sinkan attacked Mattau and Bakloan, before going to the Dutch to ask for protection from retribution.
Although the Dutch were able to force Sinkans enemies to back down in this case, frustrated by the inability of the Dutch to protect them, the Sinkan villagers turned to Japanese traders, who were not on friendly terms with the VOC. In 1627 a delegation from the village visited Japan in order to ask for Japanese protection, in 1629 however the Dutch were unable to defend either themselves or their allies. Governor Nuyts went to Mattau on a visit with a guard of sixty musketeers. After leaving the village the next morning, the musketeers were ambushed while crossing a stream and slaughtered to a man, the Governor had a lucky escape as he had returned to Fort Zeelandia the previous evening
Jacob Willekens or Wilckens was a Dutch admiral on a fleet to the Dutch Indies, and a herring seller, who went to sea again at the age of fifty for the Dutch West Indies Company. His most well-known success was undoubtedly the conquest of São Salvador da Bahia and his fleet, which included Dutch corsair Piet Hein as vice admiral, departed from Texel on December 22,1623 with between 26-36 ships and 3,300 sailors towards South America. At the beginning of June 1624, they began their attack from sea and this was the first major WIC privateering expedition to the region. He would participate in an attack on Rio de Janeiro with Hein in 1626, but after a dispute over who would be in command, Willekens joined the vroedschap in 1639 and the Admiralty of Amsterdam. He was buried in the Zuiderkerk in 1649
Second Battle of Guararapes
Contemporary accounts describe Dutch troops at the battle as pale and sickly. The Dutch army at Guararapes were armed with pikes, cannon and it is thought by historians that the use of short blades by the Dutch was an attempt to imitate previously successful Portuguese weaponry and tactics. The Portuguese force was made up of an assortment of natives and whites who knew, and had experience fighting in and they would weaken Dutch troops with fusillades of musketfire from behind trees, and charge with mêlée weapons. The Dutch had expected the enemy to march down the established coastal roads. However, the Portuguese force used a series of trails to reach Pernambuco, appearing out of the wetlands to the west and Guararapes Hills. After several hours of fighting, the Dutch retreated northwards to Recife, following the Dutch retreat, the Portuguese army marched into Pernambuco. Henrique Dias - Son of slaves, he was the governador da gente preta, filipe Camarão - Native Brazilian from the Potiguar tribe, leader of the forces from that tribe.
João Fernandes Vieira - Land owner from Funchal, commanded one infantry terço, andré Vidal de Negreiros - Commander of one infantry terço
Dutch expedition to Valdivia
With Spain and the Dutch Republic at war in 1643 a Dutch fleet sailed from Dutch Brazil to Southern Chile with the goal of establishing a base in the ruins of the abandoned Spanish city of Valdivia. The expedition led by Hendrik Brouwer sacked the Spanish settlements of Carelmapu, the Dutch arrived to Valdivia on August 24,1643 and named the colony Brouwershaven after Brouwer who had died several weeks earlier. The short-lived colony was abandoned on 28 October 1643, although contemporaries considered the possibility of a new incursion, the expedition was the last one undertaken by the Dutch on the west coast of the Americas. In the years following the Battle of Curalaba a general uprising developed among Mapuches and Huilliches, the Spanish cities of Angol, La Imperial, Santa Cruz de Oñez, Valdivia and Villarrica were either destroyed or abandoned. Only Chillán and Concepción resisted the Mapuche sieges and attacks, with the exception of Chiloé Archipelago all the Chilean territory south of Bío Bío River became free of Spanish rule.
The abandoned city of Valdivia turned into a site for Spains enemies to control since it would allow them to establish a base amidst Spains Chilean possessions. In 1600 local Huilliches joined the Dutch corsair Baltazar de Cordes to attack the Spanish settlement of Castro in Chiloé, while this was a sporadic attack the Spanish believed the Dutch could attempt to ally the Mapuches and establish a stronghold in southern Chile. The Spanish knew of the Dutch plans to establish themselves at the ruins of Valdivia so they attempted to re-establish Spanish rule there before the Dutch arrived again. The Spanish attempts were thwarted in the 1630s when Mapuches did not allow the Spanish to pass by their territory to reach the ruins of Valdivia. In 1642, the Dutch East India Company joined the Dutch West Indies Company in organizing an expedition to Chile to establish a base for trading gold at the ruins of Valdivia. The expedition, while compared to the Dutch forces that took over much of Brazil. Hendrik Brouwer and his left the Netherlands on November 6,1642 with 250 men on board.
The fleet sailed from Mauritsstad in Dutch Brazil where John Maurice of Nassau provided it with food, as the expedition was aimed at cold southern latitudes woolen clothes were rationed among the crew and passengers. The supply ship Orange Tree was lost near Cape Horn but managed to return to Recife with a broken mast, the loss of this ship strained the expeditions supplies. While rounding Cape Horn, the expedition established that Staten Island was not part of the unknown Southern land since it sailed east, in May 1643, the expedition arrived to Chiloé Archipelago. The Spanish at the settlement and fort of Carelmapu spotted the Dutch on May 20 and sent footmen. In face of this the Dutch had to land away from Carelmapu in Punta de la Arena. With a force of 200 musketeers and arquebusiers the Dutch advanced on Carelmapu, the Dutch started bushfires in their advance to clear their way
Recapture of Bahia
The recapture of Bahia was a Spanish-Portuguese military expedition in 1625 to retake the city of Salvador da Bahia in Brazil from the forces of the Dutch West India Company. In May 1624, Dutch WIC forces under Jacob Willekens captured Salvador Bahia from the Portuguese, philip IV, king of Spain and Portugal, ordered the assembly of a Spanish-Portuguese fleet with the objective of recovering the city. The town was besieged for weeks, after which it was recaptured. This resulted in the expulsion of the Dutch from the city, the city was a strategically important Portuguese base in the struggle against the Dutch for the control of Brazil. In addition they would control much of the production in the region. These intentions to invade Brazil were soon reported to the court of Madrid by the Spanish spies in the Netherlands, on May 8 the Dutch fleet appeared off Salvador. The port was protected by sea by two forts, Fort Santo António from the east and Fort São Filipe from the west, additionally a six-gun battery was erected on the beach and the streets were barricaded.
The Dutch fleet entered the bay divided into two squadrons, one sailed towards the beach of Santo António and disembarked the soldiers commanded by Colonel Johan van Dorth. The other anchored off the town and opened fire over the coastal defenses, at dawn the city was surrounded by more than 1,000 Dutch soldiers with 2 pieces of artillery. Intimidated, the Portuguese militia threw their weapons and fled, leaving Mendonça with 60 loyal soldiers, Salvador had been captured at a cost of 50 casualties among the attackers. Willekens and Heyn installed a garrison under the command of Dorth before departing on new missions, four ships were sent to Holland carrying booty and news back, and instructions to call for reinforcements to secure Salvador. However, the Dutch garrison soon began to be harassed by the local guerrilla organized by Bishop Dom Marcos Teixeira and he managed to assemble a force of 1,400 Portuguese and 250 Indians auxiliaries, who built fortifications and organized ambushes against the Dutch acting under woodland.
In an attempt to drive off the attackers from the outskirts, Dorth himself was killed and he was replaced by Albert Schoutens, who perished in another ambush, being replaced by his brother Willem. On November 22, the Portuguese fleet under Manuel de Menezes, with Francisco de Almeida as second in command and it was composed by 22 ships and about 4,000 men. The Spanish fleet left the port of Cadiz on January 14 after the delay caused by bad weather and it was composed by 38 ships belonging to the armadas of Castile, Biscay and Cuatro Villas, among them 21 galleons. It had 8,000 sailors and soldiers on board, being those latter divided in three Tercios, of one was Italian and the other two Spanish. Its commanding officers were the maestros de campo Pedro Osorio, Juan de Orellana and Carlos Carraciolo, the commander-in-chief of the joint army was Pedro Rodríguez de Sebastián, seconded by Sargento Mayor Diego Ruiz. After passing through the Canary Islands on January 28, the Spanish fleet arrived at Cape Verde on February 6 and this one had lost a ship and 140 men drowned in the shoals of the Isle of Maio
Brazil, officially the Federative Republic of Brazil, is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. As the worlds fifth-largest country by area and population, it is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language. Its Amazon River basin includes a vast tropical forest, home to wildlife, a variety of ecological systems. This unique environmental heritage makes Brazil one of 17 megadiverse countries, Brazil was inhabited by numerous tribal nations prior to the landing in 1500 of explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral, who claimed the area for the Portuguese Empire. Brazil remained a Portuguese colony until 1808, when the capital of the empire was transferred from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro, in 1815, the colony was elevated to the rank of kingdom upon the formation of the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves. Independence was achieved in 1822 with the creation of the Empire of Brazil, a state governed under a constitutional monarchy. The ratification of the first constitution in 1824 led to the formation of a bicameral legislature, the country became a presidential republic in 1889 following a military coup détat.
An authoritarian military junta came to power in 1964 and ruled until 1985, Brazils current constitution, formulated in 1988, defines it as a democratic federal republic. The federation is composed of the union of the Federal District, the 26 states, Brazils economy is the worlds ninth-largest by nominal GDP and seventh-largest by GDP as of 2015. A member of the BRICS group, Brazil until 2010 had one of the worlds fastest growing economies, with its economic reforms giving the country new international recognition. Brazils national development bank plays an important role for the economic growth. Brazil is a member of the United Nations, the G20, BRICS, Mercosul, Organization of American States, Organization of Ibero-American States, CPLP. Brazil is a power in Latin America and a middle power in international affairs. One of the worlds major breadbaskets, Brazil has been the largest producer of coffee for the last 150 years and it is likely that the word Brazil comes from the Portuguese word for brazilwood, a tree that once grew plentifully along the Brazilian coast.
In Portuguese, brazilwood is called pau-brasil, with the word brasil commonly given the etymology red like an ember, formed from Latin brasa and the suffix -il. As brazilwood produces a red dye, it was highly valued by the European cloth industry and was the earliest commercially exploited product from Brazil. The popular appellation eclipsed and eventually supplanted the official Portuguese name, early sailors sometimes called it the Land of Parrots. In the Guarani language, a language of Paraguay, Brazil is called Pindorama
It preceded the Batavian Republic, the Kingdom of Holland, the United Kingdom of the Netherlands, and ultimately the modern Kingdom of the Netherlands. Alternative names include the United Provinces, Seven Provinces, Federated Dutch Provinces, most of the Low Countries had come under the rule of the House of Burgundy and subsequently the House of Habsburg. In 1549 Holy Roman Emperor Charles V issued the Pragmatic Sanction, Charles was succeeded by his son, King Philip II of Spain. This was the start of the Eighty Years War, in 1579 a number of the northern provinces of the Low Countries signed the Union of Utrecht, in which they promised to support each other in their defence against the Spanish army. This was followed in 1581 by the Act of Abjuration, the declaration of independence of the provinces from Philip II. In 1582 the United Provinces invited Francis, Duke of Anjou to lead them, but after an attempt to take Antwerp in 1583. After the assassination of William of Orange, both Henry III of France and Elizabeth I of England declined the offer of sovereignty, the latter agreed to turn the United Provinces into a protectorate of England, and sent the Earl of Leicester as governor-general.
This was unsuccessful and in 1588 the provinces became a confederacy, the Union of Utrecht is regarded as the foundation of the Republic of the Seven United Provinces, which was not recognized by the Spanish Empire until the Peace of Westphalia in 1648. During the Anglo-French war, the territory was divided into groups, the Patriots, who were pro-French and pro-American and the Orangists. The Republic of the United Provinces faced a series of revolutions in 1783–1787. During this period, republican forces occupied several major Dutch cities, initially on the defence, the Orangist forces received aid from Prussian troops and retook the Netherlands in 1787. After the French Republic became the French Empire under Napoleon, the Batavian Republic was replaced by the Napoleonic Kingdom of Holland, the Netherlands regained independence from France in 1813. In the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814 the names United Provinces of the Netherlands, on 16 March 1815, the son of stadtholder William V crowned himself King William I of the Netherlands.
Between 1815 and 1890 the King of the Netherlands was in a union the Grand Duke of the sovereign Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. After Belgium gained its independence in 1830, the state became known as the Kingdom of the Netherlands. The County of Holland was the wealthiest and most urbanized region in the world, the free trade spirit of the time received a strong augmentation through the development of a modern, effective stock market in the Low Countries. The Netherlands has the oldest stock exchange in the world, founded in 1602 by the Dutch East India Company, while Rotterdam has the oldest bourse in the Netherlands, the worlds first stock exchange, that of the Dutch East-India Company, went public in six different cities. Later, a court ruled that the company had to reside legally in a city so Amsterdam is recognized as the oldest such institution based on modern trading principles