Russia, officially the Russian Federation, is a country in Eurasia. The European western part of the country is more populated and urbanised than the eastern. Russias capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world, other urban centers include Saint Petersburg, Yekaterinburg, Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a range of environments. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk, the East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, in 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus ultimately disintegrated into a number of states, most of the Rus lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion. The Soviet Union played a role in the Allied victory in World War II.
The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the worlds first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the second largest economy, largest standing military in the world. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic, the Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russias extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the producers of oil. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction, Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. The name Russia is derived from Rus, a state populated mostly by the East Slavs. However, this name became more prominent in the history, and the country typically was called by its inhabitants Русская Земля.
In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus by modern historiography, an old Latin version of the name Rus was Ruthenia, mostly applied to the western and southern regions of Rus that were adjacent to Catholic Europe. The current name of the country, Россия, comes from the Byzantine Greek designation of the Kievan Rus, the standard way to refer to citizens of Russia is Russians in English and rossiyane in Russian. There are two Russian words which are translated into English as Russians
The Nakhchivan Khanate was a khanate that was established in Safavid Persia in 1747. The territory of the khanate corresponded to most of the present-day Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic and it was named after its chief settlement, the town of Nakhchivan. Initially the territory of Nakhchivan was part of the Erivan Khanate, Persian rule was interrupted by Ottoman occupation between 1635-1636 and 1722-1736. It officially became a full functioning khanate during the Afsharid Dynasty, during the Russo-Persian War of 1804-1813, in 1808 Russian forces under general Gudovich briefly occupied Nakhchivan, but as a result of the Treaty of Gulistan it was returned to Persian control. During the Russo-Persian War of 1826-1828, in 1827 Abbas Mirza appointed Ehsan Khan Kangarlu as commander of Abbasabad, after heavy losses in an attempt to take the fortress by escalade on July 14, the Russians mounted a siege. Ehsan Khan secretly contacted the Russian commander, General Paskevich, in 1828 the khanates of Erivan and Nakhchivan were dissolved and their territories united to form the Armenian Oblast.
In 1840 that province was dissolved and its territory incorporated into a new province. In 1849 the Erivan Governorate was established, separate from the Tiflis Governorate and it included the territory of the former Nakhchivan khanate, which became the provinces Nakhchivan uyezd. After the dissolution, the khans of Nakhchivan took the Russified surname Khan Nakhchivanski, the family remained very wealthy, were the biggest landowners in the district, and continued to exercise enormous influence over the rest of the Muslim community. Six Khans Nakhchivanski became generals in the Russian tsarist, two sons of Ehsan khan - Ismail khan and Kalbali khan - were generals in the Russian army and were awarded orders of Saint-George IV degree for their actions in battle
Prince Roman Ivanovich Bagration was a Georgian nobleman and a general in the Imperial Russian Army. A scion of the Georgian royal family Bagrationi, he was a brother of Pyotr Bagration, son of Prince Ivan Aleksandrovich Bagration. Born in Kizlyar, Roman Bagration enrolled in the Chuguevsk Cossack regiment as an uryadnik at the age of 13 and he saw his first action during the Persian Expedition of 1796 under Count Zubov and took part in the capture of Derbent. In 1802, he was commissioned in the Leib Guard Hussar regiment as a poruchik, Bagration was promptly recalled from Georgia, and sent to the army operating against the French in Prussia. From 1809 to 1810, he volunteered in the Danube Army and took part in the war against the Ottoman Empire, during Napoleons invasion of Russia, he served in the 3rd Western Army and fought in the battles of Kobryn and Gorodechno. For his valor in the Battle of Bautzen, he received the rank of major general and he was present at the sieges of Dresden and Harburg.
In the 1820s, he served in the Caucasus and took part in the wars against Turkey and Persia. He played a prominent role in the storming of Erivan, a Persian-held city of Armenia, in 1827 during the Russo-Persian War, in 1832, Bagration was sent to Abkhazia where he became ill of fever and died in Tiflis. He is buried at St. David Church, Georgia, Prince Roman Bagration was married to Anna Semyonovna Ivanova. They had five children, Prince Pyotr, general, Princess Anna Princess Elizaveta, married to General Baron Aleksandr Belendorf
Abbas Mirza, was a Qajar crown prince of Persia. He is furthermore noted as a modernizer of Persias armed forces and institutions. Abbas was an intelligent prince, possessed some literary taste, and is noteworthy on account of the simplicity of his life. Abbas Mirza was born on in 1789 in the village of Nava in Mazandaran and he was a younger son of Fath Ali Shah, but on account of his mothers royal birth was destined by his father to succeed him. Considered the favorite son by his father, he was named governor of the Azerbaijan region of Persia, in approximately 1798, in 1799, the Russians marched into Tbilisi, two years after Agha Mohammad Khans assassination in Shusha and his resubjugation of Georgia and the wider Caucasus. As Georgia was traditionally since 1555 with the Peace of Amasya under Iranian suzerainty and his aid was eagerly solicited by both England and Napoleon, anxious to checkmate one another in the East, especially as Persia bordered a common rival, namely Imperial Russia.
Preferring the friendship of France, Abbas Mirza continued the war against Russias young General Kotlyarevsky, aged only twenty-nine, the tide started to decisively turn as Russia was sending more and more advanced weaponry and increasing numbers of soldiers. Commanding the southernmost Russian divisions during the war, Kotlyarevsky defeated the numerically superior Persian army in the Battle of Aslanduz and in early 1813 stormed. Christie and other British officers tried to rally an army retreating in panic, for days the Russians launched fierce assaults, but at last Christie fell, complacency cost 10,000 Persian lives, Mirza believing wrongly in the weight of superior numbers. In spite of the absence of leadership, The Persians at Lenkoran held out for weeks, until breaking through the Russians slaughtered the garrison of 4,000 officers and men. The only promise the Shah received in return was a lukewarm guarantee the Mirza would succeed to his throne, Persias dire losses attracted the attention of the British Empire, following the reversal of initial successes, the Russians now posed a serious threat from the Caucasus.
The drastic losses suffered by his forces made him realize that he needed to train Persias military in the European style of war, by introducing European-style regiments, Abbas Mirza believed it would enable Iran to gain the upper hand over Russia and to reclaim its lost territories. Influenced by Sultan Selim IIIs reforms, Abbas Mirza set out to create an Iranian version of the Ottoman Nizam-ı Cedid, and reduce the Qajar dependence on tribal and provincial forces. In 1811 and 1815, two groups were sent to Britain, and in 1812 a printing press was finished in Tabriz as a means to reproduce European military handbooks, Tabriz saw a gunpowder factory and a munitions depot. The training continued with constant drilling by British advisers, with a focus on the infantry and artillery and he received his opportunity to test his newly reformed military when the Ottoman–Persian War began, and they proved themselves adept with several victories. This resulted in a treaty signed in 1823 after the Battle of Erzurum.
The war was a victory for Persia, especially considering they were outnumbered, the eventual loss was due less to his and his armies skill and more to do with lack of reinforcements and overwhelming superiority in numbers. The irrevocable losses, which in total amounted up for all of Qajar Irans territories in the North Caucasus and he lost enthusiasm for any more military reform
History of Armenia
Armenia lies in the highlands surrounding the Biblical mountains of Ararat. The original Armenian name for the country was Hayk, translated as the land of Haik, and consisting of the name of the ancient Mesopotamian god Haya, the historical enemy of Hayk, was Bel, or in other words Baal. The word Bel is named in the Bible at Isaiah 46,1, the name Armenia was given to the country by the surrounding states, and it is traditionally derived from Armenak or Aram. In the Bronze Age, several states flourished in the area of Greater Armenia, including the Hittite Empire, soon after the Hayasa-Azzi were the Nairi and the Kingdom of Urartu, who successively established their sovereignty over the Armenian Highland. Each of the nations and tribes participated in the ethnogenesis of the Armenian people. Yerevan, the capital of Armenia, dates back to the 8th century BC. Erebuni has been described as designed as an administrative and religious centre. The Iron Age kingdom of Urartu was replaced by the Orontid dynasty, in 301, Arsacid Armenia was the first sovereign nation to accept Christianity as a state religion.
The Armenians fell under Byzantine, Sassanid Persian, and Islamic hegemony, after the fall of the kingdom in 1045, and the subsequent Seljuk conquest of Armenia in 1064, the Armenians established a kingdom in Cilicia, where they prolonged their sovereignty to 1375. By the 19th century, Eastern Armenia was conquered by Russia, from on corresponding to much of Eastern Armenia, regained independence in 1918, with the establishment of the First Republic of Armenia, and in 1991, the Republic of Armenia. Stone tools from 325,000 years ago have been found in Armenia which indicate the presence of humans at this time. The Armenian Highland shows traces of settlement from the Neolithic era, archaeological surveys in 2010 and 2011 have resulted in the discovery of the worlds earliest known leather shoe, straw skirt, and wine-making facility at the Areni-1 cave complex. The Shulaveri-Shomu culture of the central Transcaucasus region is one of the earliest known cultures in the area. An early Bronze-Age culture in the area is the Kura-Araxes culture, the earliest evidence for this culture is found on the Ararat plain, thence it spread to Georgia by 3000 BC, proceeding westward and to the south-east into an area below the Urmia basin and Lake Van.
Today, the Modern Assyrians refer to the Armenians by the name Armani, the word is speculated to be related to the Mannaeans, which may be identical to the biblical Minni. The earliest forms of the word Hayastan, an ethonym the Armenians use to designate their country, might come from Hittite sources of the Late Bronze Age. Another record mentioned by pharaoh Thutmose III of Egypt in the 33rd year of his reign as the people of Ermenen, what all these attestations refer to cannot be determined with certainty, and the earliest certain attestation of the name Armenia comes from the Behistun Inscription. Between 1500 and 1200 BC, the Hayasa-Azzi existed in the half of the Armenian Highland
The Russian Empire was a state that existed from 1721 until it was overthrown by the short-lived February Revolution in 1917. One of the largest empires in history, stretching over three continents, the Russian Empire was surpassed in landmass only by the British and Mongol empires. The rise of the Russian Empire happened in association with the decline of neighboring powers, the Swedish Empire, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Persia. It played a role in 1812–14 in defeating Napoleons ambitions to control Europe. The House of Romanov ruled the Russian Empire from 1721 until 1762, and its German-descended cadet branch, with 125.6 million subjects registered by the 1897 census, it had the third-largest population in the world at the time, after Qing China and India. Like all empires, it included a large disparity in terms of economics, there were numerous dissident elements, who launched numerous rebellions and assassination attempts, they were closely watched by the secret police, with thousands exiled to Siberia.
Economically, the empire had an agricultural base, with low productivity on large estates worked by serfs. The economy slowly industrialized with the help of foreign investments in railways, the land was ruled by a nobility from the 10th through the 17th centuries, and subsequently by an emperor. Tsar Ivan III laid the groundwork for the empire that emerged and he tripled the territory of his state, ended the dominance of the Golden Horde, renovated the Moscow Kremlin, and laid the foundations of the Russian state. Tsar Peter the Great fought numerous wars and expanded an already huge empire into a major European power, Catherine the Great presided over a golden age. She expanded the state by conquest and diplomacy, continuing Peter the Greats policy of modernisation along West European lines, Tsar Alexander II promoted numerous reforms, most dramatically the emancipation of all 23 million serfs in 1861. His policy in Eastern Europe involved protecting the Orthodox Christians under the rule of the Ottoman Empire and that connection by 1914 led to Russias entry into the First World War on the side of France and Serbia, against the German and Ottoman empires.
The Russian Empire functioned as a monarchy until the Revolution of 1905. The empire collapsed during the February Revolution of 1917, largely as a result of failures in its participation in the First World War. Perhaps the latter was done to make Europe recognize Russia as more of a European country, Poland was divided in the 1790-1815 era, with much of the land and population going to Russia. Most of the 19th century growth came from adding territory in Asia, Peter I the Great introduced autocracy in Russia and played a major role in introducing his country to the European state system. However, this vast land had a population of 14 million, grain yields trailed behind those of agriculture in the West, compelling nearly the entire population to farm. Only a small percentage lived in towns, the class of kholops, close to the one of slavery, remained a major institution in Russia until 1723, when Peter I converted household kholops into house serfs, thus including them in poll taxation
Treaty of Turkmenchay
The Treaty of Turkmenchay was an agreement between Persia and the Russian Empire, which concluded the Russo-Persian War. It was signed on 10 February 1828 in Torkamanchay, Iran, by the treaty, Persia ceded to Russia control of several areas in the South Caucasus, the Erivan Khanate, the Nakhchivan Khanate, and the remainder of the Talysh Khanate. The boundary between Russian and Persia was set at the Aras River and these territories comprise modern-day Armenia, the southern parts of the modern-day Republic of Azerbaijan, Nakhchivan, as well as Iğdır Province. The treaty was signed for Persia by Crown Prince Abbas Mirza and Allah-Yar Khan Asaf al-Daula, chancellor to Shah Fath Ali, like the 1813 Treaty of Gulistan, this treaty was imposed by Russia, following military victory over Persia. Paskievich threatened to occupy Tehran in five days unless the treaty was signed, out of the greater part of the territory, three separate nations would be formed through the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, namely Georgia and Armenia.
Lastly and equally important, as a result of Russias imposing of the two treaties, it decisively parted the Azerbaijanis and Talysh ever since between the two nations, article 6, Persia promised to pay Russia 10 korur in gold or 20 million silver rubles. Article 7, Russia promised to support Abbas Mirza as the heir to the throne of Persia on the death of Shah Fath Ali, article 8, Persian ships lost full rights to navigate all of the Caspian Sea and its coasts, henceforth given to Russia. Persia recognized capitulation rights for Russian subjects in Persia, article 10, Russia gained the right to send consular envoys anywhere in Persia. Article 10, Persia must accept commercial treaties with Russia as Russia specified, article 13, Prisoners of war were exchanged. Persia officially apologized for breaking its promises made in the Gulistan Treaty, in addition, all inhabitants of the aforementioned district were given the right to move from Persian districts to Russian districts if they wished to do so within one year.
The treaty stipulated the resettlement of Armenians from Iranian Azerbaijan to the Caucasus and this resettlement replaced the 20,000 Armenians who moved to Georgia between 1795 and 1827. Out of the part of the territory, three separate nations would be formed through the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, namely Georgia, Azerbaijan. In the aftermath of the war and signing of the treaty, on 11 February 1829, an angry mob stormed the Russian embassy in Tehran and slaughtered almost everyone inside. Among those killed in the massacre was the newly appointed ambassador to Persia, Aleksander Griboyedov, Griboyedov had previously played an active role in negotiating the terms of the treaty. Anglo-Russian Convention of 1907 Iran-Russia relations List of treaties Treaty of Akhal Treaty of Gulistan H. Pir Nia, Abbas Eghbal Ashtiani, ISBN 964-6895-16-6 Fisher, William Bayne, Avery, P. Hambly, G. R. G, Melville, C. Text of the Treaty of Turkmenchay
George A. Bournoutian is an Iranian-American professor and author of Armenian descent. He is a Senior Professor of History at Iona College and the author of over 28 books and he is currently the Visiting Professor of Armenian History at Columbia. Bournoutian is one of the 40 editors of the Encyclopaedia Iranica as well, George Bournoutian was born in Isfahan, Iran into an Armenian family. He grew up in Iran, and he received his High school diploma from the well-known Andisheh institution in Tehran and he immigrated to the United States in 1964. He received his M. A degree in 1971 and his Ph. D. in History in 1976 at UCLA, George Bournoutian is an avid world traveler. He is fluent in Armenian, Persian and Polish and he accompanies his senior and graduate students on annual trips to Armenia and Transcaucasia, the Middle East, Southeast Asia. A. History B. A. Thesis, “The Armenian Community of Isfahan in the 17th Century. ”Published in 2 parts in The Armenian Review in 1971-1972. M. A. Thesis, “The Rise of National and Political Consciousness among the Armenian and Turko-Tatar Peoples, Thesis, “Eastern Armenia on the Eve of the Russian Conquest.
”From Tabriz to St. Petersburg, Irans Mission of Apology to Russia in 1829. Mazda Pub, April 2014 A CONCISE HISTORY OF THE ARMENIAN PEOPLE - GEORGE A.2011, Russia, Azerbaijan, second edition,2012. Arabic translation of no.17 below, Cairo,2012 Hay Zhoghovrdi Hamarod Patmutyun, Armenian translation of no.17 below, Yerevan,2012 Ermeni Tarihi. Turkish Translation of no.17 below, Istanbul,2011, Arakel of Tabriz, Book of History, xiii+637 cloth. A Brief History of the Aghuank Region, 1702-1723, History of Ganje and Karabagh by Catholicos Esayi. Arakel of Tabriz, Book of History, revised version and second edition of no.12 below. History of the Armenian Church to 1780 by Catholicos Simeon of Erevan, the Travel Accounts of Simeon of Poland. Travel journal of an Armenianfrom Poland to Italy, Syria, Holy Land, xiv+373, paper. Topic, History/Ottoman Empire, Armenian Diaspora in the Middle East and Eastern Europe. Historia Sucinta del Pueblo Armenio Argentina. Spanish translation of no.17 below, english translation of H.
Manandyan’s classic work. Topic, History/Iran and Rome in the first century BC, the History of Vardapet Arakel of Tabriz, 2005-2006. The most important primary source on the political and socioeconomic conditions of the territory of Armenia in the 17th century - Critical Text. xix+1-280, xx+281-619, paper, OOP
Franz Alekseyevich Roubaud was a Russian painter who created some of the largest and best known panoramic paintings. He created circular paintings, exposed on a surface and viewed from the inside. In this way, the viewers were given a point from a high place. Franz Roubaud was born on 3/15 June 1856 in Odessa to Honoré Fortuné Alexis Roubaud, franz was the fourth of five children in a Catholic family, his father was a bookseller and stationer, originally from Marseille. He studied at the Odessa Drawing School, in 1877 Roubaud went to Munich and studied at the Munich Academy of Fine Arts. He settled in Saint Petersburg, working in the Imperial Academy of Arts, in 1904-12 Roubaud taught at the St. Petersburg Academy of Arts as a professor. During this time he painted the Siege of Sevastopol, a panorama painting, in the mid-19th century, the various panoramic paintings became a fashionable way to depict landscapes and historical events. The panorama was a 360-degree visual medium patented by the artist Robert Barker in 1787 and this was a new thing for the time and for the audiences in Europe of this period theses paintings were a sensation.
The paintings created a new illusion, transporting the viewer into a virtual reality, when standing in the middle of the 360 degree panorama this created the impression of standing in a new environment. He became renowned thanks to the giant panorama paintings he executed during his lifetime, roubauds works were so large that they required specially built pavilions to exhibit them. These paintings are one of the few still extant of a popular 19th century genre. The viewer stands in the centre of the panorama, and observes the various scenes whilst walking around. In 1913 Roubaud left Russia for Germany, settling in Munich and he died on 13 March 1928. The painting was exhibited in a rotunda, a specially built house in a circular form, the size of the painting is enormous, but it was a necessity for the realistic depiction of military scenes because of the huge amount of participants and the wide sweep of the scenery. Franz Roubaud worked on painting for almost three years, starting in 1901. He researched the events by traveling to Sevastopol, reading about the battle.
He talked to surviving participants, Roubaud made his first sketches in Saint Petersburg. He kept working on the at the Bavarian Academy of Fine Arts where he decided to use a canvas of the size 14 m by 115 m
Hossein Khan Sardar
Hossein Qoli Khan Sardar Qajar was the last Iranian governor of the Erivan Khanate. However, using tactics and weapons developed since their defeat of Napoleon. In addition to ceding further territories, the 1828 Treaty of Turkmenchay forced Iran to pay crippling reparations, the treaty banned Hosein Khan and his younger brother, Hasan Khan, from ever venturing north of the Aras River, the new border. Hosein Khan was a member of the Qajar dynasty, the son of Moḥammad Khan Qājār, as Bournoutian states, a member of the Qovānlu clan of the Qajars, who in the eighteenth century had governed Iravān. Foreign travelers call him one of the most powerful and wealthy chiefs in Persia with as much authority as ʿAbbās Mirzā. Ḥosaynqoli Khan did not have any members of his family as hostages in Tehran, had the right to mint coins and he encouraged trade and created a stable administration. Even Armenian and Russian sources, who have good to say about the Persian khans in Transcaucasia, praise Ḥosaynqoli for being kind, noble, conscientious.
Later, the Shah dispatched him to quell a rebellion in Khorasan province, in return for his loyalty, the Sardar was rewarded with the Khanate of Erevan, which he ruled until the last Russo-Persian War. Hosein Khan was granted estates encompassing some 62 villages near the city of Qazvin, generations of Sardars bequeathed their inheritance to religious endowments, or vaqf. The ab anbar sardar, an underground water reservoir in Qazvin, was named after Hosein Khan. Local legend has it that, at 3,000 cubic meters and 28.5 meters from base to ceiling, it took seven months to fill, fed by three qanats, it is the largest in Iran. Unlike other Transcaucasian khans, Ḥosaynqoli did not make a deal with the Russians, Sardar Iravani George Bournoutian The Khanate of Erevan Under Qajar Rule, 1795-1828, Mazda Publishers,1992
Iran, known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a sovereign state in Western Asia. Comprising a land area of 1,648,195 km2, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East, with 82.8 million inhabitants, Iran is the worlds 17th-most-populous country. It is the country with both a Caspian Sea and an Indian Ocean coastline. The countrys central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, Tehran is the countrys capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is the site of to one of the worlds oldest civilizations, the area was first unified by the Iranian Medes in 625 BC, who became the dominant cultural and political power in the region. The empire collapsed in 330 BC following the conquests of Alexander the Great, under the Sassanid Dynasty, Iran again became one of the leading powers in the world for the next four centuries. Beginning in 633 AD, Arabs conquered Iran and largely displaced the indigenous faiths of Manichaeism and Zoroastrianism by Islam, Iran became a major contributor to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential scientists, scholars and thinkers.
During the 18th century, Iran reached its greatest territorial extent since the Sassanid Empire, through the late 18th and 19th centuries, a series of conflicts with Russia led to significant territorial losses and the erosion of sovereignty. Popular unrest culminated in the Persian Constitutional Revolution of 1906, which established a monarchy and the countrys first legislative body. Following a coup instigated by the U. K. Growing dissent against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution, Irans rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 21 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and 11th-largest in the world. Iran is a member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC. Its political system is based on the 1979 Constitution which combines elements of a democracy with a theocracy governed by Islamic jurists under the concept of a Supreme Leadership. A multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, most inhabitants are Shia Muslims, the largest ethnic groups in Iran are the Persians, Azeris and Lurs.
Historically, Iran has been referred to as Persia by the West, due mainly to the writings of Greek historians who called Iran Persis, meaning land of the Persians. As the most extensive interactions the Ancient Greeks had with any outsider was with the Persians, Persis was originally referred to a region settled by Persians in the west shore of Lake Urmia, in the 9th century BC. The settlement was shifted to the end of the Zagros Mountains. In 1935, Reza Shah requested the international community to refer to the country by its native name, opposition to the name change led to the reversal of the decision, and Professor Ehsan Yarshater, editor of Encyclopædia Iranica, propagated a move to use Persia and Iran interchangeably