Fidenae, home of the Fidenates, was an ancient town of Latium, situated about 8 km north of Rome on the Via Salaria, which ran between Rome and the Tiber. As the Tiber was the border between Etruria and Latium, the settlement of Fidenae represented an extension of Etruscan presence into Latium. The village lay at the foot of the hill on the edge of the high-road. Remains of other buildings may be seen, originally a settlement of Etruscans, it was for some while the frontier of the Roman territory and from time to time changed hands between Rome and Veii. In the 8th century BC during the reign of Romes first king, the Fidenates and it may be that a colony was established there after the defeat as Livy afterwards describes Fidenae as a Roman colony. Fidenae and Veii were again defeated by Rome in the 7th century BC during the reign of Romes third king Tullus Hostilius. In the early Roman republic Fidenae made a decision that was to cost them much of their land in favor of the new Claudia gens, lucius Tarquinius Superbus, last king of Rome, having been expelled from it, at first looked for intervention from the Etruscans.
Lars Porsenna of Clusium, dissatisfied with Superbus conduct and ethics, the Tarquins were now interested in Latin intervention. After some minor conflicts in which Rome was victorious, the Sabines took a vote, the Tarquins brought in Fidenae and Cameria, formerly Roman allies. The total defeat of the Sabines in 505/504 BC was followed by the siege of Fidenae, when the city was taken only a few days the Romans assembled their prisoners and executing the senior officers before them, let the rest go with a stern warning. A garrison was placed in Fidenae, who were much of its land. The Claudii are not mentioned in connection with the battle, but they had given land north of the Anio river. They could only collect on that offer if Fidenae was defeated, Fidenae appears to have fallen permanently under Roman domination after its capture in 435 BC by the Romans, and is spoken of by classical authors as a place almost deserted in their time. It seems, however, to have had importance as a post station.
It is notable for being the site of a deadly amphitheater collapse, at the time of the incident, Tiberius was in Capreae, where he had a secure getaway, but rushed to Fidenae to assist the victims of this incident
Lucius Tarquinius Superbus
Lucius Tarquinius Superbus was the legendary seventh and final king of Rome, reigning from 535 BC until the popular uprising in 509 that led to the establishment of the Roman Republic. He is commonly known as Tarquin the Proud, from his cognomen Superbus, ancient accounts of the Regal period mingle history and legend. His reign is described as a tyranny that justified the abolition of the monarchy, Tarquin was the son or grandson of Lucius Tarquinius Priscus, the fifth king of Rome, and Tanaquil. According to an Etruscan tradition, the hero Macstarna, usually equated with Servius Tullius and killed a Roman named Gnaeus Tarquinius and this may recollect an otherwise forgotten attempt by the sons of Tarquin the elder to reclaim the throne. To forestall further dynastic strife, Tullius married his daughters, known to history as Tullia Major and Tullia Minor, to Lucius Tarquinius, the future king and their sister, married Marcus Junius Brutus, and was the mother of Lucius Junius Brutus. The elder Tullia was of mild disposition, yet married the ambitious Lucius Tarquinius, after the murder of their siblings and Tullia were married.
Together, they had three sons, Titus and Sextus, and a daughter, who married Octavius Mamilius, Tullia encouraged her husband to advance his own position, ultimately persuading him to usurp the throne. Tarquin solicited the support of the senators, especially those from families who had received their senatorial rank under Tarquin the Elder. He bestowed presents upon them, and spread criticism of Servius the king, in time, Tarquin felt ready to seize the throne. He went to the senate-house with a group of armed men, sat himself on the throne, and summoned the senators to attend upon King Tarquin. The kings retainers fled, and as he made his way and unattended, toward the palace, meanwhile, drove in her chariot to the senate-house, where she was the first to hail her husband as king. But Tarquin bade her return home, concerned that the crowd might do her violence, as she drove toward the Urbian Hill, her driver stopped suddenly, horrified at the sight of the kings body, lying in the street. But in a frenzy, Tullia herself seized the reins, the kings blood spattered against the chariot and stained Tullias clothes, so that she brought a gruesome relic of the murder back to her house.
The street where Tullia disgraced the dead king afterward became known as the Vicus Sceleratus, Tarquin commenced his reign by refusing to bury the dead Servius, and putting to death a number of leading senators, whom he suspected of remaining loyal to Servius. By not replacing the slain senators, and not consulting the senate on matters of government, in another break with tradition, Tarquin judged capital crimes without the advice of counselors, causing fear amongst those who might think to oppose him. He made an ally when he betrothed his daughter to Octavius Mamilius of Tusculum. Early in his reign, Tarquin called a meeting of the Latin leaders to discuss the bonds between Rome and the Latin towns, the meeting was held at a grove sacred to the goddess Ferentina. At the meeting, Turnus Herdonius inveighed against the Tarquins arrogance, Tarquin bribed Turnus servant to store a large number of swords in his masters lodging
Moving from the northern city-states of the Tuscanian Dodecapolis they swept into the Po valley through the Apennine passes. The Greek and Latin ancient writers tell us that an Etruscan expansion into Southern Italy, present day Campania region, the founder of these cities and of their League had been Ocnus, brother or son of Aulestes, according some authors, Tarchon according others. A First etruscan colonization, referred to the legendary Tarchon, can be traced to the early Iron Age and it was aimed to find new lands for agricultural uses, a Second colonization, dated to the mid-6th century BC, can be attributed to the as much legendary Ocnus. The latter colonization involved the reorganization of the entire Padanian region in order to increase its utility for the businesses and trades. During the 6th century BC Etruria experienced significant social, the protagonists of this process were people of the northern cities of Tuscany. The area around Bologna has been inhabited since the 9th century BC and this period, and up to the 6th century, is in fact generally referred to as villanovian, and had various nuclei of people spread out around this area.
In the 7-6th centuries BC, Etruria began to have an influence on area. Traces of a 12th-9th century BC settlement, supposed of Villanovan origin, have found in Verucchio. Later it was an Etruscan possession, the current town derives its name from Vero Occhio, referring to its privileged position offering a wide panorama of the surrounding countryside and the Romagna coast. A settlement existed as early as around 2000 BC on the banks of the Mincio, in the 6th century BC it was an Etruscan village which, in Etruscan tradition, was re-founded by Ocnus. The name derives from the Etruscan god Mantus, of Hades, after being conquered by the Cenomani, a Gallic tribe, the city was conquered between the first and second Punic wars by the Romans, who attributed its name to Manto, a daughter of Tiresias. The new territory was populated by soldiers of Augustus. Mantuas most famous ancient citizen is the poet Publius Vergilius Maro, the first settlements built on the area are of Venetic origin, during the 12-9th century BC.
At that time the stream of the Po, the Adria channel. The Villanovan culture, named for a site at the village of Villanova, near Bologna. The foundations of classical Atria are dated from 530 to 520 BC, the Etruscans built the port and settlement of Adria after the channel was not the main stream anymore. During the period of the 6th century BC the port continued to flourish, the Etruscan-controlled area of the Po Valley was generally known as Padanian Etruria, as opposed to their main concentration along the Tyrrhenian coast south of the Arno. Greeks from Aegina and from Syracuse by Dionysius I colonised the city making it into an emporion, Greeks had been trading with the Eneti from the sixth century BC
Servius Tullius was the legendary sixth king of Rome, and the second of its Etruscan dynasty. He reigned 575–535 BC. Roman and Greek sources describe his origins and marriage to a daughter of Lucius Tarquinius Priscus, Romes first Etruscan king. Several traditions describe Servius father as divine, Livy depicts Servius mother as a captured Latin princess enslaved by the Romans, her child is chosen as Romes future king after a ring of fire is seen around his head. The Emperor Claudius discounted such origins and described him as an originally Etruscan mercenary, named Mastarna, Servius was a popular king, and one of Romes most significant benefactors. He had military successes against Veii and the Etruscans, and expanded the city to include the Quirinal and Esquiline hills. He is traditionally credited with the institution of the Compitalia festivals, the building of temples to Fortuna and Diana and, less plausibly, despite the opposition of Romes patricians, he expanded the Roman franchise and improved the lot and fortune of Romes lowest classes of citizens and non-citizens.
According to Livy, he reigned for 44 years, until murdered by his daughter Tullia, in consequence of this tragic crime and his hubristic arrogance as king, Tarquinius was eventually removed. This cleared the way for the abolition of Romes monarchy and the founding of the Roman Republic, before its establishment as a Republic, Rome was ruled by kings. In Roman tradition, Romes founder Romulus was the first, Servius Tullius was the sixth, and his successor Tarquinius Superbus was the last. The nature of Roman kingship is unclear, most Roman kings were elected by the senate, as to a lifetime magistracy, some were native Romans, others were foreign. Later Romans had a complex relationship with this distant past. In Republican mores and institutions kingship was abhorrent, and remained so, in name at least, Servius Tullius has been described as Romes second founder, the most complex and enigmatic of all its kings, and a kind of proto-Republican magistrate. The oldest surviving source for the political developments of the Roman kingdom and Republic is Ciceros De republica.
Livys sources probably included at least some official state records, he excluded what seemed implausible or contradictory traditions, and arranged his material within an overarching chronology. Dionysius and Plutarch offer various alternatives not found in Livy, and Livys own pupil and she was given to Tanaquil, wife of king Tarquinius, and though slave, was treated with the respect due her former status. In one variant, she became wife to a client of Tarquinius. According to Tanaquil, this was a manifestation, either of the household Lar or Vulcan himself. Thus Servius was divinely fathered and already destined for greatness, despite his mothers status, for the time being, Tanaquil
Veii was, in ancient times, an important Etruscan city 16 km north-northwest of Rome, Italy. It now lies in Isola Farnese, in the comune of Rome, many other sites associated with and in the city-state of Veii are in Formello, immediately to the north. Formello is named after the channels that were first created by the Veians. Veii was the richest city of the Etruscan League and on the border of Etruria. It was alternately at war and in alliance with the Roman Republic for over 300 years and it eventually fell in the Battle of Veii to Roman general Camilluss army in 396 BC. Veii continued to be occupied after its capture by the Romans, the site of Veii is a tuff elevation of 190 hectares. The Valchetta flows a few miles eastward to join the Tiber River on the side of Labaro along the Via Flaminia. Veii might be considered to be on the bank of the Tiber. Its proximity to the Tiber and the route to the interior. The site is now an area, part of the Parco di Veio established by the regional authority of Lazio in 1997.
The largest visible monument is the temple of Apollo of 510 BC, also and tombs have been found cut into the rock. Tombs were cut into tuff. but tumuli were not, the most famous is the Grotta Campana, uncovered in 1843, a chamber tomb with the oldest known Etruscan frescoes. There are additionally long tunnels leading into the mound of the city, the walls of Veii, of which small sections remain, bordered the two intersecting streams using the streambeds as a ditch, with a wall across the plateau closing the triangle. Veii is well known for its statuary including the Apollo of Veii of 510 BC, every Etruscan stronghold was built on an elevation, and Veii was no exception. An archaeological site, Piazza dArmi, marks the location today, the settlement and the growth of the city by conurbation can be traced by demographic analysis of the cemeteries and settlements on and around the plateau. The earliest evidence of dates from the 10th century BC in the Late Bronze Age. Small settlements were scattered over an area than the plateau.
In the 9th century BC, the Early Iron Age, the finds are localized to the plateau but appear to be associated with independent settlements, each with its own cemetery
Etruscan history is the written record of Etruscan civilization compiled mainly by Greek and Roman authors. Remnants of Etruscan writings are almost exclusively concerned with religion, helmut Rixs classification of the Etruscan language in a proposed Tyrsenian language family reflects this ambiguity. The Etruscan language was of a different family from that of neighbouring Italic and Celtic peoples, modern archaeologists have come to suggest that the history of the Etruscans can be traced relatively accurately, based on the examination of burial sites and writing. Etruscan expansion was focused both to the north beyond the Apennines and south into Campania, some small towns in the 6th century BC have disappeared during this time, ostensibly consumed by greater, more powerful neighbors. However, there no doubt that the political structure of the Etruscan culture was similar, albeit more aristocratic. The mining and commerce of metal, especially copper and iron, led to an enrichment of the Etruscans and to the expansion of their influence in the Italian peninsula and the western Mediterranean sea.
Here their interests collided with those of the Greeks, especially in the 6th century BC and this led the Etruscans to ally themselves with the Carthaginians, whose interests collided with the Greeks. Around 540 BC, the Battle of Alalia led to a new distribution of power in the western Mediterranean Sea, though the battle had no clear winner, Carthage managed to expand its sphere of influence at the expense of both the Etruscans and the Greeks. Etruria saw itself relegated to the northern Tyrrhenian Sea, from the first half of the 5th century BC Campanian Etruria lost its Etruscan character, and the new international political situation meant the beginning of the Etruscan decline. In 480 BC, Etrurias ally Carthage was defeated by a coalition of Magna Graecia cities led by Syracuse, a few years later, in 474, Syracuses tyrant Hiero defeated the Etruscans at the Battle of Cumae. Etrurias influence over the cities of Latium and Campania weakened, and it was taken over by Romans, in the 4th century BC Padanian Etruria saw a Gallic invasion end its influence over the Po valley and the Adriatic coast.
BC Rome had started annexing Etruscan cities and by the beginning of the 1st century BC, the institution of kingship was general. When the last king was appointed, at Veii, the other Etruscan cities were alienated and it is presumed that Etruscan kings were military and religious leaders. In times of no emergency, the position of praetor Etruriae, as Roman inscriptions express it, was no doubt largely ceremonial, BC Tyrsenos Velsu fl. 8th century BC T. W. Potter, Roman Italy
Etruscan art was produced by the Etruscan civilization in central Italy between the 9th and 2nd centuries BC. From around 600 BC it was influenced by Greek art, which was imported by the Etruscans. Particularly strong in this tradition were figurative sculpture in terracotta, wall-painting and metalworking especially in bronze and engraved gems of high quality were produced. Etruscan sculpture in cast bronze was famous and widely exported, the great majority of survivals come from tombs, which were typically crammed with sarcophagi and grave goods, and terracotta fragments of architectural sculpture, mostly around temples. Tombs have produced all the fresco wall-paintings, which show scenes of feasting, Bucchero wares in black were the early and native styles of fine Etruscan pottery. There was a tradition of elaborate Etruscan vase painting, which sprung from its Greek equivalent, Etruscan temples were heavily decorated with colourfully painted terracotta antefixes and other fittings, which survive in large numbers where the wooden superstructure has vanished.
Etruscan art was connected to religion, the afterlife was of major importance in Etruscan art. The Etruscans emerged from the preceding Villanovan culture, due to the proximity and/or commercial contact to Etruria, other ancient cultures influenced Etruscan art, such as Greece, Egypt and the Middle East. The apparent simple character in the Hellenistic era conceals an innovative, the Romans would come to absorb the Etruscan culture into theirs but would be greatly influenced by them and their art. Etruscan art is divided into a number of periods,900 to 675 BC – Early Villanovan period. Already the emphasis on art is evident. Impasto pottery with decoration, or shaped as hut urns. Bronze objects, mostly small except for vessels, were decorated by moulding or by incised lines, small statuettes were mostly handles or other fittings for vessels. 675–575 BC – Oriental or Orientalising period, decoration adopted a Greek and Near Eastern vocabulary with palmettes and other motifs, and the foreign lion was a popular animal to depict.
The Etruscan upper class grew wealthy and began to fill their large tombs with grave goods, a native Bucchero pottery, now using the potters wheel, went alongside the start of a Greek-influenced tradition of painted vases, which until 600 drew more from Corinth than Athens. The period saw the emergence of the Etruscan temple, with its elaborate and brightly-painted terracotta decorations, figurative art, including human figures and narrative scenes, grew more prominent. The Etruscans adopted stories from Greek mythology enthusiastically, paintings in fresco begin to be found in tombs, and were perhaps made for some other buildings. The Persian conquest of Ionia in 546 saw a significant influx of Greek artist refugees, other earlier developments continued, and the period produced much of the finest and most distinctive Etruscan art
Plutarch was a Greek biographer and essayist, known primarily for his Parallel Lives and Moralia. He is classified as a Middle Platonist, Plutarchs surviving works were written in Greek, but intended for both Greek and Roman readers. Plutarch was born to a prominent family in the town of Chaeronea, about 80 km east of Delphi. The name of Plutarchs father has not been preserved, but based on the common Greek custom of repeating a name in alternate generations, the name of Plutarchs grandfather was Lamprias, as he attested in Moralia and in his Life of Antony. His brothers and Lamprias, are mentioned in his essays and dialogues. Rualdus, in his 1624 work Life of Plutarchus, recovered the name of Plutarchs wife, from internal evidence afforded by his writings. A letter is still extant, addressed by Plutarch to his wife, bidding her not to grieve too much at the death of their two-year-old daughter, interestingly, he hinted at a belief in reincarnation in that letter of consolation. The exact number of his sons is not certain, although two of them and the second Plutarch, are often mentioned.
Plutarchs treatise De animae procreatione in Timaeo is dedicated to them, another person, Soklarus, is spoken of in terms which seem to imply that he was Plutarchs son, but this is nowhere definitely stated. Plutarch studied mathematics and philosophy at the Academy of Athens under Ammonius from 66 to 67, at some point, Plutarch took Roman citizenship. He lived most of his life at Chaeronea, and was initiated into the mysteries of the Greek god Apollo. For many years Plutarch served as one of the two priests at the temple of Apollo at Delphi, the site of the famous Delphic Oracle, twenty miles from his home. By his writings and lectures Plutarch became a celebrity in the Roman Empire, yet he continued to reside where he was born, at his country estate, guests from all over the empire congregated for serious conversation, presided over by Plutarch in his marble chair. Many of these dialogues were recorded and published, and the 78 essays, Plutarch held the office of archon in his native municipality, probably only an annual one which he likely served more than once.
He busied himself with all the matters of the town. The Suda, a medieval Greek encyclopedia, states that Emperor Trajan made Plutarch procurator of Illyria, most historians consider this unlikely, since Illyria was not a procuratorial province, and Plutarch probably did not speak Illyrian. Plutarch spent the last thirty years of his serving as a priest in Delphi. He thus connected part of his work with the sanctuary of Apollo, the processes of oracle-giving
Founding of Rome
The most familiar of these myths, and perhaps the most famous of all Roman myths, is the story of Romulus and Remus, the twins who were suckled by a she-wolf. The national epic of mythical Rome, the Aeneid of Virgil, the Aeneid was written under Augustus, who claimed ancestry through Julius Caesar from the hero and his mother Venus. This started a series of armed conflicts with Turnus over the marriage of Lavinia, before the arrival of Aeneas, Turnus was betrothed to Lavinia, who married Aeneas, starting the war. Aeneas won the war and killed Turnus, the Trojans won the right to stay and to assimilate with the local peoples. Toward the end of line, King Procas was the father of Numitor. At Procas death, Numitor became king of Alba Longa, but Amulius captured him and sent him to prison, for many years, Amulius was the king. The tortuous nature of the chronology is indicated by Rhea Silvias ordination among the Vestals, the myth of Aeneas was of Greek origin and had to be reconciled with the Italian myth of Romulus and Remus, who would have been born around 771 BC if taken as historical figures.
They were purported to be sons of Rhea Silvia and either Mars and they were abandoned at birth, in the manner of many mythological heroes, because of a prophecy that they would overthrow their great-uncle Amulius, who had overthrown Silvias father Numitor. They were abandoned on the Tiber River by servants who took pity on the infants, the twins were nurtured by a she-wolf until a shepherd named Faustulus found the boys and took them as his sons. Faustulus and his wife Acca Larentia raised the children, when Remus and Romulus became adults, they killed Amulius and restored Numitor. They decided to establish a city, they quarreled, Rome began with a fratricide, a story that was taken to represent the citys history of internecine political strife and bloodshed. The ancient Romans were certain of the day Rome was founded, April 21, even the official Fasti Capitolini offers its own date,752 BC. Recent discoveries by Andrea Carandini on Romes Palatine Hill have yielded evidence of a series of walls on the north slope that can be dated to the middle of the 8th century BC.
According to the legend, Romulus plowed a furrow around the hill in order to mark the boundary of his new city, there is no consensus on the etymology of the citys name. Jean-Jacques Rousseau suggested Greek ῥώμη, meaning strength, vigor, a modern theory of etymology holds that the name of the city is of Etruscan origin, derived from rumon, river. There is archaeological evidence of occupation of the Rome area from about 14,000 years ago. Evidence of stone tools and stone weapons attests to about 10,000 years of human presence, several excavations support the view that Rome grew from pastoral settlements on the Palatine Hill built above the area of the future Roman Forum. Between the end of the Bronze Age and the beginning of the Iron age, in any case, the location that became the city of Rome was inhabited by Latin settlers from various regions and pastoralists, as evidenced by differences in pottery and burial techniques
Lars Porsena was an Etruscan king known for his war against the city of Rome. He ruled over the city of Clusium, there are no established dates for his rule, but Roman sources often place the war at around 508 BC. Lars Porsena came into conflict with Rome after the revolution that overthrew the monarchy there in 509 BC, resulting in the exile of the semi-legendary last king of Rome, Lucius Tarquinius Superbus. The deposed monarch, whose family was of Etruscan origin and failed to retake the throne a number of times before appealing to Porsena for assistance, at that time Clusium was said to be a very powerful Etruscan city. At this point, the histories diverge, other accounts, suggest that Lars Porsena actually succeeded in subduing the city, and that the Etruscans were only driven out some time afterwards. None of the accounts, suggests that Tarquinius Superbus was returned to the throne, thus, if Lars Porsena did indeed capture Rome, he may have done so with the intent of controlling it himself, not restoring the former dynasty.
Accounts of the war include a number of matters directly concerning Porsena, one story tells that, during his siege of Rome, a Roman youth named Gaius Mucius sneaked into the Etruscan camp with the approval of the Senate, intent on assassinating Porsena. However, when Mucius came into the presence, he could not distinguish Porsena from his secretary. Through misrecognition Mucius stabbed the secretary and tried to flee and he was immediately captured by the Etruscans and brought before Porsena, whereupon Mucius bluntly declared his identity and his intent. He advised Porsena that he was merely the first of 300 Roman youths who would attempt such a deed, to prove his valour, Mucius thrust his right hand into a sacrificial fire, thereby earning for himself and his descendants the cognomen Scaevola. Astonished and impressed by the mans courage, Porsena gave Mucius his freedom. According to Livy, Porsena sought peace by treaty immediately afterward, another tale of the war concerns the Roman hostages taken by Porsena as part of the treaty.
One of the hostages, a woman named Cloelia, fled the Etruscan camp. Porsena demanded that she be returned, and the Romans consented, on her return, Porsena was so impressed by her bravery that he asked her to choose half the remaining hostages to be freed. She selected all the youngest Roman boys, afterwards the Romans gave Cloelia the unusual honour of a statue at the top of the Via Sacra, showing Cloelia mounted on a horse—that is, as an eques. Livy concludes most likely it is because, when Porsena departed Rome, in 507 BC, Porsena once again sent ambassadors to the Roman senate, requesting the restoration of Tarquinius to the throne. Legates were sent back to Porsena, to him that the Romans would never re-admit Tarquinius. Porsena agreed, telling Tarquinius to continue his exile elsewhere than Clusium, Porsena restored to the Romans their hostages, and the lands of Veii that had been taken from Rome by treaty
This article refers to the jewelry of the Etruscan civilization and its differences in various eras. Very little jewelry from the Villanovan Era, an Early Iron Age culture dating c.1100 BC –700 BC, has discovered in modern times. The Villanovan Etruscans seem to have few items of luxury. Yet extant Villanovan jewelry confirms that in Etruria great effort was placed in the production of decorative arts, jewelry was a status symbol and indicated, as in present times and prosperity. Both pottery and jewelry from the Villanovan Era are decorated with swastikas, gold jewelry started spreading rapidly during the Orientalizing era. It allowed a deal more stylization and showed splendid workmanship. Geometric design was such a motif that archaeologists refer to this motif as the “Orientalizing geometric”. Etruscan gold jewelry especially flourished during the Orientalizing period due to the very affluent trading system which had evolved during this time, the Etruscans did not invent their decorative techniques.
Indeed, the Mediterranean influences had brought such techniques as granulation, syro-Phoenician jewelers settled in southern Etruria and taught local apprentices the art of granulation and filigree. These techniques first developed in the South of Etruria and it consisted of working designs onto a surface with tiny granules of gold. Care had to be not to melt the little granules onto the surface but instead. The various omissions and imperfections, made on purpose, gave the piece of jewelry the artistic character, soldering was done using arseniates and reducing the solder to an impalpable dust. The Syro-Phoenicians brought in other techniques of workmanship, many jewelers were influenced by their recurrent themes and symbols. Sacred emblems like the disc and the half moon were incorporated in the Etruscans’ fast-growing repertoire. Later Etruscans loosened up their very stern geometric standards and added in their designs floral, the finest jewelry was still mainly centered and focused in the southern city-states such as, Cerveteri and Vetulonia.
Gorgons, acorns, lotus flowers and palms were an indicator of Greek influence in Etruscan jewelry. The modelling of heads, which was a practice from the Greek severe period, was a technique that spread throughout the Etruscan territory. An even clearer evidence of new influences is the shape introduced in the Orientalizing era, a pear shaped vessel used to hold perfume