Montreal is the most populous municipality in the Canadian province of Quebec and the second-most populous municipality in Canada. Called Ville-Marie, or "City of Mary", it is named after Mount Royal, the triple-peaked hill in the heart of the city; the city is centred on the Island of Montreal, which took its name from the same source as the city, a few much smaller peripheral islands, the largest of, Île Bizard. It has a distinct four-season continental climate with cold, snowy winters. In 2016, the city had a population of 1,704,694, with a population of 1,942,044 in the urban agglomeration, including all of the other municipalities on the Island of Montreal; the broader metropolitan area had a population of 4,098,927. French is the city's official language and is the language spoken at home by 49.8% of the population of the city, followed by English at 22.8% and 18.3% other languages. In the larger Montreal Census Metropolitan Area, 65.8% of the population speaks French at home, compared to 15.3% who speak English.
The agglomeration Montreal is one of the most bilingual cities in Quebec and Canada, with over 59% of the population able to speak both English and French. Montreal is the second-largest French-speaking city in the world, after Paris, it is situated 258 kilometres south-west of Quebec City. The commercial capital of Canada, Montreal was surpassed in population and in economic strength by Toronto in the 1970s, it remains an important centre of commerce, transport, pharmaceuticals, design, art, tourism, fashion, gaming and world affairs. Montreal has the second-highest number of consulates in North America, serves as the location of the headquarters of the International Civil Aviation Organization, was named a UNESCO City of Design in 2006. In 2017, Montreal was ranked the 12th most liveable city in the world by the Economist Intelligence Unit in its annual Global Liveability Ranking, the best city in the world to be a university student in the QS World University Rankings. Montreal has hosted multiple international conferences and events, including the 1967 International and Universal Exposition and the 1976 Summer Olympics.
It is the only Canadian city to have held the Summer Olympics. In 2018, Montreal was ranked as an Alpha− world city; as of 2016 the city hosts the Canadian Grand Prix of Formula One, the Montreal International Jazz Festival and the Just for Laughs festival. In the Mohawk language, the island is called Tiohtià:ke Tsi, it is a name referring to the Lachine Rapids to the island's Ka-wé-no-te. It means "a place where nations and rivers unite and divide". In the Ojibwe language, the land is called Mooniyaang which means "the first stopping place" and is part of the seven fires prophecy; the city was first named Ville Marie by European settlers from La Flèche, or "City of Mary", named for the Virgin Mary. Its current name comes from the triple-peaked hill in the heart of the city. According to one theory, the name derives from mont Réal,. A possibility by the Government of Canada on its web site concerning Canadian place names, is that the name was adopted as it is written nowadays because an early map of 1556 used the Italian name of the mountain, Monte Real.
Archaeological evidence demonstrates that First Nations native people occupied the island of Montreal as early as 4,000 years ago. By the year AD 1000, they had started to cultivate maize. Within a few hundred years, they had built fortified villages; the Saint Lawrence Iroquoians, an ethnically and culturally distinct group from the Iroquois nations of the Haudenosaunee based in present-day New York, established the village of Hochelaga at the foot of Mount Royal two centuries before the French arrived. Archeologists have found evidence of their habitation there and at other locations in the valley since at least the 14th century; the French explorer Jacques Cartier visited Hochelaga on October 2, 1535, estimated the population of the native people at Hochelaga to be "over a thousand people". Evidence of earlier occupation of the island, such as those uncovered in 1642 during the construction of Fort Ville-Marie, have been removed. Seventy years the French explorer Samuel de Champlain reported that the St Lawrence Iroquoians and their settlements had disappeared altogether from the St Lawrence valley.
This is believed to be due to epidemics of European diseases, or intertribal wars. In 1611 Champlain established a fur trading post on the Island of Montreal, on a site named La Place Royale. At the confluence of Petite Riviere and St. Lawrence River, it is where present-day Pointe-à-Callière stands. On his 1616 map, Samuel de Champlain named the island Lille de Villemenon, in honour of the sieur de Villemenon, a French dignitary, seeking the viceroyship of New France. In 1639 Jérôme Le Royer de La Dauversière obtained the Seigneurial title to the Island of Montreal in the name of the Notre Dame Society of Montreal to establish a Roman Catholic mission to evangelize natives. Dauversiere hired Paul Chomedey de Maisonneuve 30, to lead a group of colonists to build a mission on his new seigneury; the colonists left France in 1641 for Quebec, arrived on the island the following year. On May 17, 1642, Ville-Marie was founded on the southern shore of Montreal is
Siege of Fort Erie
The Siege of Fort Erie was one of the last and most protracted engagements between British and American forces during the Niagara campaign of the American War of 1812. From 4 August to 21 September 1814, the Americans defended Fort Erie against a British army. During the siege, the British suffered heavy casualties in a failed storming attempt and suffered from sickness and exposure in their rough encampments. Unaware that the British were about to abandon the siege, the American garrison launched a sortie to destroy the British siege batteries, during which both sides again suffered heavy losses. After the British abandoned the siege, the reinforced American army followed up cautiously and forced a second retreat at Cook's Mills, but with the onset of winter and shortage of supplies they withdrew and demolished Fort Erie; the attempted siege ended as the last British offensive along the northern border. The Americans under Major General Jacob Brown had crossed the Niagara River and captured Fort Erie on 3 July 1814.
After defeating a British force at the Battle of Chippawa they advanced north but the British reinforced their troops in the Niagara peninsula. On 25 July, the bloody but indecisive Battle of Lundy's Lane was fought, during which Brown was wounded. Following the battle, the outnumbered American troops, now under the command of Brigadier General Eleazer Wheelock Ripley, withdrew to Fort Erie. Ripley advocated abandoning the Fort and retreating across the Niagara but Brown overruled him and summoned Brigadier General Edmund P. Gaines from Sackett's Harbor to assume command; the British, under the command of Lieutenant General Gordon Drummond, had themselves been hard hit at Lundy's Lane. Drummond claimed that the Americans had been forced to retreat in disorder and he intended to drive them from the Canadian side of the Niagara, his troops followed the Americans and reached the fort on 4 August. Drummond's division numbered 3,000 but Drummond himself complained about the quality of the troops and the degree to which the units were composed of mixed-up detachments and companies.
His slow advance gave the Americans vitally needed time to reorganise and to reinforce their defences. The original British fort consisted of two two-story barrack buildings with fortified cannon bastions connected to them; the barracks were connected by a thick stone curtain with the main gate located in the centre. The rear of the fort consisted of an open terreplein, raised 6 feet above the base of the dry ditch which surrounded the fort, with two redoubts located on the corner; the redoubts offered little protection. The front of the fort was protected by a large earth wall with a forward gun emplacement; the fort was divided in half by an earth wall and ditch, but this too was incomplete with at least a third of the rear defenses being makeshift wooden walls or earthworks, some of which were only 1 metre high. This was complemented by a gun emplacement in the centre redan; the fort contained a total of six guns. The dry ditch surrounding the fort had a 9 feet high wooden wall in the centre.
This wall was angled outwards and was sharpened to prevent any enemy from leaping into the ditch, which had sharpened sticks placed up and down the walls to help impale or wound enemy soldiers. The ditch was used as a garbage dump and a sewer by the defenders, creating a slippery and smelly swamp at the base that would slow enemy attacks and would encourage disease in any wounds; the Americans had made significant improvements to the defenses of the fort since its capture and now redoubled their efforts to entrench themselves. Since the fort was too small to hold the entire American force, they extended the earth wall to the south for an additional 800 metres to a rise made of sand, known as Snake Hill, where they constructed a gun battery. To protect the north end of the position, the Americans threw up an earth wall connecting the northeast bastion of the fort to the lake where there was another fortified gun emplacement known as the Douglass Battery from its commander, Lieutenant David Douglass of the U.
S. Corps of Engineers. Abatis were placed in front of the earth walls. By the close of the siege, the Americans had made the position stronger by building three log blockhouses in the rear of the fort and had strengthened the defences and redoubts; when the British force reached Fort Erie, Drummond's first move on 3 August was to send a force across the Niagara in batteaux to raid Buffalo and Black Rock, hoping to capture or destroy American supplies and provisions. The force consisted of two columns: one was composed of the two flank companies and four of the centre companies of the 41st Foot under Lieutenant Colonel Evans of the 41st. With some artillerymen, the force numbered 600 men in total; the force was under the overall command of Lieutenant Colonel John Tucker, the senior Lieutenant Colonel of the 41st Foot. The raid was a failure. On landing on the American side of the Niagara, Tucker found that the bridge over the unfordable Conjocta Creek had been destroyed, a detachment of 240 men of the 1st U.
S. Rifle Regiment under Major Lodowick Morgan with some volunteers were defending the creek to prevent the bridge being repaired; the British casualty return gave 17 wounded and 5 missing. The Americans took 6 prisoners, indicating that one of the British soldiers who
New York (state)
New York is a state in the Northeastern United States. New York was one of the original thirteen colonies. With an estimated 19.54 million residents in 2018, it is the fourth most populous state. To distinguish the state from the city with the same name, it is sometimes called New York State; the state's most populous city, New York City, makes up over 40% of the state's population. Two-thirds of the state's population lives in the New York metropolitan area, nearly 40% lives on Long Island; the state and city were both named for the 17th century Duke of York, the future King James II of England. With an estimated population of 8.62 million in 2017, New York City is the most populous city in the United States and the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. The New York metropolitan area is one of the most populous in the world. New York City is a global city, home to the United Nations Headquarters and has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, as well as the world's most economically powerful city.
The next four most populous cities in the state are Buffalo, Rochester and Syracuse, while the state capital is Albany. The 27th largest U. S. state in land area, New York has a diverse geography. The state is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south and Connecticut and Vermont to the east; the state has a maritime border with Rhode Island, east of Long Island, as well as an international border with the Canadian provinces of Quebec to the north and Ontario to the northwest. The southern part of the state is in the Atlantic coastal plain and includes Long Island and several smaller associated islands, as well as New York City and the lower Hudson River Valley; the large Upstate New York region comprises several ranges of the wider Appalachian Mountains, the Adirondack Mountains in the Northeastern lobe of the state. Two major river valleys – the north-south Hudson River Valley and the east-west Mohawk River Valley – bisect these more mountainous regions. Western New York is considered part of the Great Lakes region and borders Lake Ontario, Lake Erie, Niagara Falls.
The central part of the state is dominated by the Finger Lakes, a popular vacation and tourist destination. New York had been inhabited by tribes of Algonquian and Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans for several hundred years by the time the earliest Europeans came to New York. French colonists and Jesuit missionaries arrived southward from Montreal for trade and proselytizing. In 1609, the region was visited by Henry Hudson sailing for the Dutch East India Company; the Dutch built Fort Nassau in 1614 at the confluence of the Hudson and Mohawk rivers, where the present-day capital of Albany developed. The Dutch soon settled New Amsterdam and parts of the Hudson Valley, establishing the multicultural colony of New Netherland, a center of trade and immigration. England seized the colony from the Dutch in 1664. During the American Revolutionary War, a group of colonists of the Province of New York attempted to take control of the British colony and succeeded in establishing independence. In the 19th century, New York's development of access to the interior beginning with the Erie Canal, gave it incomparable advantages over other regions of the U.
S. built its political and cultural ascendancy. Many landmarks in New York are well known, including four of the world's ten most-visited tourist attractions in 2013: Times Square, Central Park, Niagara Falls, Grand Central Terminal. New York is home to the Statue of Liberty, a symbol of the United States and its ideals of freedom and opportunity. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability. New York's higher education network comprises 200 colleges and universities, including Columbia University, Cornell University, New York University, the United States Military Academy, the United States Merchant Marine Academy, University of Rochester, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 40 in the nation and world; the tribes in what is now New York were predominantly Algonquian. Long Island was divided in half between the Wampanoag and Lenape; the Lenape controlled most of the region surrounding New York Harbor.
North of the Lenape was the Mohicans. Starting north of them, from east to west, were three Iroquoian nations: the Mohawk, the original Iroquois and the Petun. South of them, divided along Appalachia, were the Susquehannock and the Erie. Many of the Wampanoag and Mohican peoples were caught up in King Philip's War, a joint effort of many New England tribes to push Europeans off their land. After the death of their leader, Chief Philip Metacomet, most of those peoples fled inland, splitting into the Abenaki and the Schaghticoke. Many of the Mohicans remained in the region until the 1800s, however, a small group known as the Ouabano migrated southwest into West Virginia at an earlier time, they may have merged with the Shawnee. The Mohawk and Susquehannock were the most militaristic. Trying to corner trade with the Europeans, they targeted other tribes; the Mohawk were known for refusing white settlement on their land and banishing any of their people who converted to Christianity. They posed a major threat to the Abenaki and Mohicans, while the Susquehannock conquered the Lenape in the 1600s.
The most devastating event of the century, was the Beaver Wars. From 1640–1680, Iroquoian peoples waged campaigns which extended from modern-day Michigan to Virginia against Algonquian and Siouan tribes, as well as each other; the ai
Kingston is a city in Eastern Ontario, Canada. It is on the eastern end of Lake Ontario, at the beginning of the St. Lawrence River and at the mouth of the Cataraqui River; the city is midway between Toronto and Montreal, Quebec. The Thousand Islands tourist region is nearby to the east. Kingston is nicknamed the "Limestone City" because of the many heritage buildings constructed using local limestone. Growing European exploration in the 17th century and the desire for the Europeans to establish a presence close to local Native occupants to control trade led to the founding of a French trading post and military fort at a site known as "Cataraqui" in 1673; this outpost, called Fort Cataraqui, Fort Frontenac, became a focus for settlement. Cataraqui would be renamed Kingston after the British took possession of the fort and Loyalists began settling the region in the 1780s. Kingston was named the first capital of the United Province of Canada on February 10, 1841. While its time as a capital city was short, the community has remained an important military installation.
Kingston was the county seat of Frontenac County until 1998. Kingston is now a separate municipality from the County of Frontenac. A number of origins of "Cataraqui", Kingston's original name, have been postulated. One is it is derived from the Iroquois word that means "the place where one hides"; the name may be derivations of Native words that mean "impregnable", "muddy river", "place of retreat", "clay bank rising out of the water", "where the rivers and lake meet", or "rocks standing in water". Cataraqui was referred to as "the King's Town" or "King's Town" by 1787 in honour of King George III; the name was shortened to "Kingston" in 1788. Cataraqui today refers to an area around the intersection of Princess Street and Sydenham Road, where a village which took that name was located. Cataraqui is the name of a municipal electoral district. Archaeological evidence suggests. Evidence of Late Woodland Period early Iroquois occupation exists; the first more permanent encampments by aboriginal people in the Kingston area began about 500 AD.
The group that first occupied the area before the arrival of the French was the Wyandot people, who were displaced by Iroquoian groups. At the time the French arrived in the Kingston area, Five Nations Iroquois had settled along the north shore of Lake Ontario. Although the area around the south end of the Cataraqui River was visited by Iroquois and other groups, Iroquois settlement at this location only began after the French established their outpost. By 1700, the north shore Iroquois had moved south, the area once occupied by the Iroquois became occupied by the Mississaugas who had moved south from the Lake Huron and Lake Simcoe regions. European commercial and military influence and activities centred on the fur trade developed and increased in North America in the 17th century. Fur trappers and traders were spreading out from their centres of operation in New France. French explorer Samuel de Champlain visited the Kingston area in 1615. To establish a presence on Lake Ontario for the purpose of controlling the fur trade with local indigenous people, Louis de Buade de Frontenac, Governor of New France established Fort Cataraqui to be called Fort Frontenac, at a location known as Cataraqui in 1673.
The fort served as a trading post and military base, attracted indigenous and European settlement. In 1674, René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle was appointed commandant of the fort. From this base, de La Salle explored south as far as the Gulf of Mexico; the fort was experienced periods of abandonment. The Iroquois siege of 1688 led to many deaths, after which the French destroyed the fort, but would rebuild it; the British destroyed the fort during the Battle of Fort Frontenac in 1758 and its ruins remained abandoned until the British took possession and reconstructed it in 1783. The fort was renamed Tête-de-Pont Barracks in 1787, it is still being used by the military. It was renamed Fort Frontenac in 1939. Reconstructed parts of the original fort can be seen today at the western end of the La Salle Causeway. In 1783, Frederick Haldimand, governor of the Province of Quebec directed Deputy Surveyor-General John Collins to lay out a settlement for displaced British colonists, or "Loyalists", who were fleeing north because of the American Revolutionary War and "minutely examine the situation and site of the Post occupied by the French, the land and country adjacent".
Haldimand had considered the site as a possible location to settle loyal Mohawks. The survey would determine whether Cataraqui was suitable as a navy base since nearby Carleton Island on which a British navy base was located had been ceded to the Americans after the war. Holland's report about the old French post mentioned "every part surpassed the favorable idea I had formed of it", that it had "advantageous Situations" and that "the harbour is in every respect Good and most conveniently situated to command Lake Ontario". Major John Ross, commanding officer of the King's Royal Regiment of New York at Oswego rebuilt Fort Frontenac in 1783; as commander, he played a significant role in establishing the Cataraqui settlement. To facilitate settlement, the British Crown entered into an agreement with the Mississaugas in October 1783 to purchase land east of the Bay of Quinte. Known as the Crawford Purchase, this agreement enabled se
The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of British Armed Forces. As of 2018, the British Army comprises just over 81,500 trained regular personnel and just over 27,000 trained reserve personnel; the modern British Army traces back to 1707, with an antecedent in the English Army, created during the Restoration in 1660. The term British Army was adopted in 1707 after the Acts of Union between Scotland. Although all members of the British Army are expected to swear allegiance to Elizabeth II as their commander-in-chief, the Bill of Rights of 1689 requires parliamentary consent for the Crown to maintain a peacetime standing army. Therefore, Parliament approves the army by passing an Armed Forces Act at least once every five years; the army is commanded by the Chief of the General Staff. The British Army has seen action in major wars between the world's great powers, including the Seven Years' War, the Napoleonic Wars, the Crimean War and the First and Second World Wars.
Britain's victories in these decisive wars allowed it to influence world events and establish itself as one of the world's leading military and economic powers. Since the end of the Cold War, the British Army has been deployed to a number of conflict zones as part of an expeditionary force, a coalition force or part of a United Nations peacekeeping operation; until the English Civil War, England never had a standing army with professional officers and careerist corporals and sergeants. It relied on militia organized by local officials, or private forces mobilized by the nobility, or on hired mercenaries from Europe. From the Middle Ages until the English Civil War, when a foreign expeditionary force was needed, such as the one that Henry V of England took to France and that fought at the Battle of Agincourt, the army, a professional one, was raised for the duration of the expedition. During the English Civil War, the members of the Long Parliament realised that the use of county militia organised into regional associations commanded by local members of parliament, while more than able to hold their own in the regions which Parliamentarians controlled, were unlikely to win the war.
So Parliament initiated two actions. The Self-denying Ordinance, with the notable exception of Oliver Cromwell, forbade members of parliament from serving as officers in the Parliamentary armies; this created a distinction between the civilians in Parliament, who tended to be Presbyterian and conciliatory to the Royalists in nature, a corps of professional officers, who tended to Independent politics, to whom they reported. The second action was legislation for the creation of a Parliamentary-funded army, commanded by Lord General Thomas Fairfax, which became known as the New Model Army. While this proved to be a war winning formula, the New Model Army, being organized and politically active, went on to dominate the politics of the Interregnum and by 1660 was disliked; the New Model Army was paid off and disbanded at the Restoration of the monarchy in 1660. For many decades the excesses of the New Model Army under the Protectorate of Oliver Cromwell was a horror story and the Whig element recoiled from allowing a standing army.
The militia acts of 1661 and 1662 prevented local authorities from calling up militia and oppressing their own local opponents. Calling up the militia was possible only if the king and local elites agreed to do so. Charles II and his Cavalier supporters favoured a new army under royal control; the first English Army regiments, including elements of the disbanded New Model Army, were formed between November 1660 and January 1661 and became a standing military force for Britain. The Royal Scots and Irish Armies were financed by the parliaments of Ireland. Parliamentary control was established by the Bill of Rights 1689 and Claim of Right Act 1689, although the monarch continued to influence aspects of army administration until at least the end of the nineteenth century. After the Restoration Charles II pulled together four regiments of infantry and cavalry, calling them his guards, at a cost of £122,000 from his general budget; this became the foundation of the permanent English Army. By 1685 it had grown to 7,500 soldiers in marching regiments, 1,400 men permanently stationed in garrisons.
A rebellion in 1685 allowed James II to raise the forces to 20,000 men. There were 37,000 in 1678. After William and Mary's accession to the throne England involved itself in the War of the Grand Alliance to prevent a French invasion restoring James II. In 1689, William III expanded the army to 74,000, to 94,000 in 1694. Parliament was nervous, reduced the cadre to 7000 in 1697. Scotland and Ireland had theoretically separate military establishments, but they were unofficially merged with the English force. By the time of the 1707 Acts of Union, many regiments of the English and Scottish armies were combined under one operational command and stationed in the Netherlands for the War of the Spanish Succession. Although all the regiments were now part of the new British military establishment, they remained under the old operational-command structure and retained much of the institutional ethos and traditions of the standing armies created shortly after the restoration of the monarchy 47 years earlier.
The order of seniority of the most-senior British Army line regiments is based on that of the English army
John Armstrong Jr.
John Armstrong Jr. was an American soldier and statesman, a delegate to the Continental Congress, U. S. Senator from New York, Secretary of War. Armstrong was born in Carlisle, the younger son of General John Armstrong and Rebecca Armstrong. John Armstrong Sr. was a renowned Pennsylvania soldier born in Ireland of Scottish descent. John Jr.'s older brother was James Armstrong, who became a physician and U. S. Congressman. After early education in Carlisle, John Jr. studied at the College of New Jersey. He broke off his studies in Princeton in 1775 to return to Pennsylvania and join the fight in the Revolutionary War; the young Armstrong joined a Pennsylvania militia regiment and the following year he was appointed as aide-de-camp to General Hugh Mercer of the Continental Army. In this role, he carried the wounded and dying General Mercer from the field at the Battle of Princeton. After the general died on January 12, 1777, Armstrong became an aide to General Horatio Gates, he stayed with Gates through the Battle of Saratoga resigned due to problems with his health.
In 1782 Gates asked him to return. Armstrong joined General Gates' staff as an aide with the rank of major, which he held through the rest of the war. While in camp with Gates at Newburgh, New York, Armstrong became involved in the Newburgh Conspiracy, he is acknowledged as the author of the two anonymous letters directed at the officers in the camp. The first, titled "An Address to the Officers", called for a meeting to discuss back pay and other grievances with the Congress and form a plan of action. After George Washington ordered the meeting canceled and called for a milder meeting on March 15, a second address appeared that claimed that this showed that Washington supported their actions. Washington defused this protest without a mutiny. While some of Armstrong's correspondence acknowledged his role, there was never any official action that connected him with the anonymous letters. In 1783 Armstrong returned home to Carlisle, he was named the Adjutant General of Pennsylvania's militia and served as Secretary of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania under Presidents Dickinson and Franklin.
In 1784, he led a military force of four hundred militiamen into a controversy with Connecticut settlers in the Wyoming Valley of Pennsylvania. His tactics enraged the nearby states of Vermont and Connecticut, which sent their own militia into the area. Timothy Pickering was dispatched to forge a solution to the difficulty, the settlers were able to keep title to the land they had tamed. In 1787 and 1788 Armstrong was sent as a delegate for Pennsylvania to the Congress of the Confederation; the Congress offered to make him chief justice of the Northwest Territory. He declined this, as well as all other public offices for the next dozen years. Armstrong resumed public life after the resignation of John Laurance as U. S. Senator from New York; as a Jeffersonian Republican he was elected in November 1800 to a term ending in March 1801. He took his seat on November 6, was re-elected on January 27 for a full term, but resigned on February 5, 1802. DeWitt Clinton was elected to fill the vacancy, but resigned in 1803, Armstrong was appointed temporarily to his old seat.
In February 1804, Armstrong was elected again to the U. S. Senate to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Theodorus Bailey, thus moving from the Class 3 to the Class 1 seat on February 25, but served only four months before President Jefferson appointed him U. S. Minister to France, he served in that post until 1810, represented the United States at the court of Spain in 1806. When the War of 1812 broke out, Armstrong was called to military service, he was commissioned as a Brigadier General, placed in charge of the defenses for the port of New York. In 1813 President Madison named him Secretary of War. Henry Adams wrote of him: In spite of Armstrong's services and experience, something in his character always created distrust, he had every advantage of education and political connection and self-confidence. So strong was the prejudice against him that he obtained only eighteen votes against fifteen in the Senate on his confirmation. Under such circumstances, nothing but military success of the first order could secure a fair field for Monroe's rival.
Armstrong made a number of valuable changes to the armed forces but was so convinced that the British would'not' attack Washington D. C. that he did nothing to defend the city when it became clear it was the objective of the invasion force. After the destruction of Washington, Madison a forgiving man, forced him to resign in September 1814. Armstrong resumed a quiet life, he published a number of histories and some works on agriculture. He died at La Bergerie, the farm estate he built in Red Hook, New York in 1843 and is buried in the cemetery in Rhinebeck. Following the death of Paine Wingate in 1838, he became the last surviving delegate to the Continental Congress, the only one to be photographed. In 1789, Armstrong married Alida Livingston, the youngest child of Judge Robert Livingston and Margaret Livingston. Alida was the sister of Chancellor Robert R. Livingston and Edward Livingston. Together they had seven children: Maj Horatio Robert Gates Armstrong Henry Beekman Armstrong, soldier in the War of 1812.
The Royal Scots, once known as the Royal Regiment of Foot, was the oldest and most senior infantry regiment of the line of the British Army, having been raised in 1633 during the reign of Charles I of Scotland. The regiment existed continuously until 2006, when it amalgamated with the King's Own Scottish Borderers to become the Royal Scots Borderers, which merged with the Royal Highland Fusiliers, the Black Watch, the Highlanders and the Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders to form the Royal Regiment of Scotland. In April 1633, Sir John Hepburn was granted a warrant by Charles I to recruit 1200 Scots for service with the French army in the 1618-1648 Thirty Years War; the nucleus came from Hepburn's previous regiment, which fought with the Swedes from 1625 until August 1632, when Hepburn quarrelled with Gustavus Adolphus. It absorbed other Scottish units in the Swedish army, as well as those with the French and by 1635 totalled around 8,000 men. Sir John was killed in 1636 and succeeded as Colonel by his brother George after his death in 1637, Lord James Douglas.
James died in a skirmish near Douai in 1645 and was replaced by his elder brother Archibald Douglas, Earl of Angus, who remained in Scotland and had little contact with the regiment, other than supplying recruits. In 1653, he assigned the Colonelcy to his younger half-brother, George Douglas Earl of Dumbarton. In 1660, Charles II was restored as king; the revolt was crushed and it returned to France, since the recently-elected Cavalier Parliament disbanded the New Model Army but refused to fund replacements. It remained in France until 1679, apart from a period during the 1664-67 Second Anglo-Dutch War when it was based at the naval dockyard of Chatham; the diarist Pepys met George Douglas in Rochester and recorded that "Here in the streets, I did hear the Scotch march beat by the drums before the soldiers, odde." In 1667, the regiment was ordered back to France. During the 1672-74 Third Anglo-Dutch War, Douglas' was part of British Brigade that fought with the French, commanded by the Duke of Monmouth.
It served in the Rhineland throughout the Franco-Dutch War after the Anglo-Dutch war ended in February 1674. The 1678 Treaties of Nijmegen required the repatriation of all English units from France. Dumbarton's was posted to the Dauphiné in Southern France before being disbanded and its men prevented from travelling for 30 days thereafter; the regiment was listed on the English military establishment as the First Foot or Royal Scots, a temporary measure during the 1679-1681 Exclusion Crisis. In 1680, it was sent to Ireland, with four of its twenty-one companies joining the Tangier Garrison in April 1680, with another twelve in September. While awarded a battle honour for'Tangier' in 1908, the colony and its garrison was evacuated in 1683, the unit being renamed His Majesty's Royal Regiment of Foot in June 1684. James II succeeded Charles in 1685, leading to the Monmouth Rebellion and the regiment fought at the decisive Battle of Sedgemoor, it was the only unit where the majority remained loyal to James during the November 1688 Glorious Revolution.
While awaiting transport from Ipswich to Flanders, it mutinied on 15 March 1689. At the start of the 1688-1697 Nine Years War, Lieutenant-Colonel Sir Robert Douglas commanded the first battalion at the Battle of Walcourt in 1689; the second battalion arrived from Scotland in 1690 and both fought at the Battle of Steenkerque in 1692, where Sir Robert was killed, the Battle of Landen in 1693 and the Siege of Namur. When the Treaty of Ryswick ended the war in 1697, it was transferred to Ireland. During the War of the Spanish Succession, the regiment fought at the Battles of Schellenberg and Blenheim, the Battle of Ramillies, the Battle of Oudenarde and the Battle of Malplaquet. Both battalions spent 1715 to 1742 on service in Ireland, but after this point the battalions were separated; the 1st saw service in the War of the Austrian Succession at the Battle of Fontenoy, whilst the 2nd was engaged in the Second Jacobite Rising, fighting at the Battle of Prestonpans, Battle of Falkirk and the Battle of Culloden, after which it returned to Ireland.
In 1751, the regiment was titled the 1st Regiment of Foot, ranked as the most senior of the line regiments of infantry. The 2nd Battalion was sent to Nova Scotia in 1757, saw service in the Seven Years' War, capturing Louisburg in 1758, Guadeloupe in 1762 and Havana in 1763, returning home in 1764. Both served as garrisons in the Mediterranean, the 1st in Gibraltar from 1768–75, the 2nd in Minorca from 1771–75; the 1st Battalion was sent to the West Indies in 1781, fought