The Geographica, or Geography, is an encyclopedia of geographical knowledge, consisting of 17'books', written in Greek by Strabo, an educated citizen of the Roman Empire of Greek descent. Work can have begun on it no earlier than 20 BC. A first edition was published in 7 BC followed by a gap, resumption of work and a final edition no than 23 AD in the last year of Strabo's life. Strabo worked on his Geography and now missing History concurrently, as the Geography contains a considerable amount of historical data. Except for parts of Book 7, the complete work is known. Strabo refers to his Geography within it by several names: geōgraphia, "description of the earth" chōrographia, "description of the land" periēgēsis, "an outline" periodos gēs, "circuit of the earth" periodeia tēs chōrās, "circuit of the land" Apart from the "outline", two words recur, "earth" and "country." Something of a theorist, Strabo explains what he means by Geography and Chorography:It is the sea more than anything else that defines the contours of the land and gives it its shape, by forming gulfs, deep seas and isthmuses, promontories.
It is through such natural features that we gain a clear conception of continents, favourable positions of cities and all the other diversified details with which our geographical map is filled. From this description it is clear that by geography Strabo means ancient physical geography and by chorography, political geography; the two are combined in this work, which makes a "circuit of the earth" detailing the physical and political features. Strabo uses the adjective geōgraphika with reference to the works of others and to geography in general, but not of his own work. In the Middle Ages it became the standard name used of his work; the date of Geographica is a large topic because Strabo worked on it along with his History for most of his adult life. He traveled extensively, undoubtedly gathering notes, made extended visits to Rome and Alexandria, where he is sure to have spent time in the famous library taking notes from his sources. Strabo visited Rome in 44 BC at age 19 or 20 for purposes of education.
He studied under various persons, including Tyrannion, a captive educated Greek and private tutor, who instructed Cicero's two sons. Cicero says:The geographical work I had planned is a big undertaking...if I take Tyrannion's views too... If one presumes that Strabo acquired the motivation for writing geography during his education, the latter must have been complete by the time of his next visit to Rome in 35 BC at 29 years old, he may have been gathering notes but the earliest indication that he must have been preparing them is his extended visit to Alexandria 25–20 BC. In 20 he was 44 years old, his "numerous excerpts" from "the works of his predecessors" are most to have been noted at the library there. Whether these hypothetical notes first found their way into his history and into his geography or were ported along as notes remains unknown. Most of the events of the life of Augustus mentioned by Strabo occurred 31–7 BC with a gap 6 BC – 14 AD, which can be interpreted as an interval after first publication in 7 BC.
In 19 AD a specific reference dates a passage: he said that the Carni and Norici had been at peace since they were "stopped... from their riotous incursions...." by Drusus 33 years ago, 15 BC, dating the passage 19 AD. The latest event mentioned is the death of Juba at no than 23 AD, when Strabo was in his 80's; these events can be interpreted as a second edition unless he saved all his notes and wrote the book after the age of 80. Strabo is his own best expounder of his principles of composition:In short, this book of mine should be... useful alike to the statesman and to the public at large – as was my work on History.... And so, after I had written my Historical Sketches... I determined to write the present treatise also. For it, too, is a colossal work, in that it deals with the facts about large things only, wholes.... An outline of the encyclopedia follows, with links to the appropriate Wikipedia article. Pages C1 through C67, Loeb Volume I pages 3–249; some thirty manuscripts of Geographica or parts of it have survived all of them medieval copies of copies, though there are fragments from papyrus rolls which were copied out c.
100–300 AD. Scholars have struggled for a century and a half to produce an accurate edition close to what Strabo wrote. A definitive one has been in publication since 2002. Bibliotheca historica Diodorus Siculus Codex Vaticanus 2061 Kramer, Gustav, ed. Strabonis Geographica, 3 vols, containing Books 1–17. Berlin: Friedericus Nicolaus, 1844–52. Strabo. Horace Leonard Jones, ed; the Loeb Classical Library: The Geography of Strabo: in Eight Volumes. Translated by Jones. Cambridge, Massachusetts/London: Harvard University Press/William Heinemann. ISBN 0-674-99055-2. Contains Books 1–17, Greek on the left page, English on the right. Sterrett translated Books I and II and wrote the introduction before dying in 1915. Jones finished the translation; the Introduction contains a major bibliography on all aspects of Strabo and a definitive presentation of the
Women of Trachis
Women of Trachis is an Athenian tragedy by Sophocles. Women of Trachis is considered to be less developed than Sophocles' other works, its dating has been a subject of disagreement among critics and scholars; the story begins with Deianeira, the wife of Heracles, relating the story of her early life and her plight adjusting to married life. She is now distraught over her husband's neglect of her family. Involved in some adventure, he visits them, she sends their son Hyllus to find him, as she is concerned over prophecies about Heracles and the land he is in. After Hyllus sets off, a messenger arrives with word that Heracles, victorious in his recent battle, is making offerings on Cape Cenaeum and coming home soon to Trachis. Lichas, a herald of Heracles, brings in a procession of captives, he tells Deianeira a false story of. He claimed Eurytus, the city's king, was responsible for Heracles being enslaved, therefore Heracles vowed revenge against him and his people. Among the captured girls is Iole, daughter of Eurytus.
Deianeira soon learns that in truth Heracles laid siege to the city just to obtain Iole, whom he has taken as a lover. Unable to cope with the thought of her husband falling for this younger woman, she decides to use a love charm on him, a magic potion that will win him back; when she was younger, she had been carried across a river by Nessus. Halfway through he made a grab at her, but Heracles came to her rescue and shot him with an arrow; as he died, he told her his blood, now mixed with the poison of the Lernaean Hydra in which Heracles' arrow had been dipped, would keep Heracles from loving any other woman more than her, if she follows his instructions. Deianeira dyes a robe with the blood and has Lichas carry it to Heracles with strict instructions that no one else is to wear it, it is to be kept in the dark until he puts it on. After the gift is sent, she begins to have a bad feeling about it, she throws some of the left-over material into sunlight and it reacts like boiling acid. Nessus had lied about the love charm.
Hyllus soon arrives to inform her. He was in such pain and fury that he killed Lichas, the deliverer of the gift: "he made the white brain to ooze from the hair, as the skull was dashed to splinters, blood scattered therewith". Deianeira feels enormous shame for what she has done, amplified by her son's harsh words, kills herself. Hyllus discovers soon after that it wasn't her intention to kill her husband; the dying Heracles is carried to his home in horrible pain and furious over what he believes was a murder attempt by his wife. Hyllus explains the truth, Heracles realizes that the prophecies about his death have come to pass: He was to be killed by someone, dead, it turned out to be Nessus. In the end, he is in so much pain. In this weakened state, he says, he makes a final wish. The play concludes with Heracles being carried off to be burned alive, as an ending to his suffering; the date of the first performance of Women of Trachis is unknown, scholars have speculated a wide range of dates for its initial performance.
Scholars such as T. F. Hoey believe the play was written early in Sophocles' career, around 450 BC. Cited as evidence for an early date is the fact that the dramatic form of Women of Trachis is not as developed as those of Sophocles' other surviving works, advancing the belief that the play comes from a younger and less skilled Sophocles. Additionally, the plot of the play is similar to a story related by Bacchylides in Bacchylides XVI, but in some respects different from earlier known versions of Bacchylides' story. From this and others have argued that Sophocles' interpretation was more to have influenced Bacchylides than vice versa. Serving as further evidence is the relationship between the character of Deianeira and that of Clytemnestra in Aeschylus' Oresteia, first produced in 458. In earlier known versions of this story, Deianeira has several masculine qualities, similar to those of Clytemnestra – who, in the Oresteia, purposely kills her husband Agamemnon. In Women of Trachis, Deianeira's character is softer and more feminine, she is only inadvertently responsible for her husband's death.
According to some scholars, Deianeira's character in Women of Trachis is intended as a commentary on Aeschylus' treatment of Clytemnestra. Hoey sees echoes of Aeschylus' Prometheus Bound in the relevance of Women of Trachis to debates that were occurring during the 450s on the "relationship between knowledge and responsibility."Other scholars, such as Cedric H. Whitman, argue for a production date during the 430s, close to but before Oedipus Rex. Evidence for a date near Oedipus Rex include a thematic similarity between the two plays. Whitman believes the two plays represent "another large step in the metaphysics of evil, to which Sophocles devoted his life." Thomas B. L. Webster estimates a date in the 430s, close to 431, for a variety of reasons. One reason Webster gives for this dating is that there are a number of similarities between Women of Trachis and plays by Euripides that were known to be written between 438 and 417, so may help narrow the range of dates, although it is unknow
Lichas can refer to Lichas the Spartan, who discovered the bones of Orestes, or a genus of trilobite In Greek mythology, Lichas was Heracles' servant, who brought the poisoned shirt from Deianira to Hercules because of Deianira's jealousy of Iole, which killed him. Lichas brought to his master the deadly garment, as a punishment, was thrown by him into the sea, where the Lichadian islands, between Euboea and the coast of Locris, were believed to have derived their name from him; the story is recounted in Ovid's Metamorphoses. Cape Lichada is said to be where Hercules flung Lichas into the sea: So, in his frenzy, as he wandered there,he chanced upon the trembling Lichas, crouchedin the close covert of a hollow rock. In a savage fury he cried out,“Was it you, brought this fatal gift? Shall you be called the author of my death?”Lichas, in terror, groveled at his feet,and begged for mercy--“Only let me live!”But seizing on him, the crazed Hero whirledhim thrice and once again about his head,and hurled him, shot as by a catapult,into the waves of the Euboic Sea.
Lichas was innocent but due to a big misunderstandingHercules threw in him the sea. While he was hanging in the air, his formwas hardened. No moisture left in him, he was transformedinto a flint-rock. To this day,a low crag rising from the waves is seenout of the deep Euboean Sea, holdsthe certain outline of a human form,so traced, the wary sailors fearto tread upon it, thinking it has life,and they have called it Lichas since.- Ovid. Metamorphoses, IX:211
Medea is an ancient Greek tragedy written by Euripides, based upon the myth of Jason and Medea and first produced in 431 BC. The plot centers on the actions of Medea, a former princess of the "barbarian" kingdom of Colchis, the wife of Jason. Medea takes vengeance on Jason by murdering Jason's new wife as well as her own children, after which she escapes to Athens to start a new life. Medea and the suite of plays that it accompanied in the City Dionysia was not well received at its original performance; the play was re-discovered in Augustan drama, again in 16th-century Europe, from which time it remained part of the tragedic repertoire, became a classic of the Western canon and has remained the most performed Greek tragedy through the 20th century. It experienced renewed interest in the feminist movement of the late 20th century, being interpreted as a nuanced and sympathetic portrayal of Medea's struggle to take charge of her own life in a male-dominated world; the play holds the American Tony award record for most wins for the same female lead character, with Judith Anderson winning in 1948, Zoe Caldwell in 1982, Diana Rigg in 1994.
Medea was first performed in 431 BC at the City Dionysia festival. Here every year three playwrights competed against each other, each writing a tetralogy of three tragedies and a satyr play. In 431 the competition was among Euphorion and Euripides. Euphorion won, Euripides placed last. While Medea is considered one of the great plays of the Western canon, the Athenian audience did not react so favorably, it placed third out of the three competing plays at the Dionysia festival of 431 BC. A possible explanation is found in a scholium to line 264 of the play, which asserts that Medea's children were traditionally killed by the Corinthians after her escape; that Euripides and others took liberties with Medea's story may be inferred from the 1st century BC historian Diodorus Siculus: "Speaking it is because of the desire of the tragic poets for the marvellous that so varied and inconsistent an account of Medea has been given out." A common urban legend claimed that Euripides put the blame on Medea because the Corinthians had bribed him with a sum of five talents.
In the 4th century BC, South-Italian vase painting offers a number of Medea-representations that are connected to Euripides' play — the most famous is a krater in Munich. However, these representations always differ from the plots of the play or are too general to support any direct link to the play of Euripides – this might reflect the judgement on the play. However, the violent and powerful character of princess Medea, her double nature — both loving and destructive — became a standard for the periods of antiquity and seems to have inspired numerous adaptations. With the rediscovery of the text in 1st-century Rome, again in 16th-century Europe. In 20th-century modern literary criticism and its "universal themes of revenge and justice in an unjust society" have provoked differing reactions from differing critics and writers; the form of the play differs from many other Greek tragedies by its simplicity: All scenes involve only two actors and someone else. The Chorus would usually be involved along with those two, representing the women of Corinth.
These encounters serve to highlight Medea's skill and determination in manipulating powerful male figures to achieve her own ends. The play is the only Greek tragedy in which a kin-killer makes it unpunished to the end of the play, the only one about child-killing in which the deed is performed in cold blood as opposed to in a state of temporary madness. Euripides' characterization of Medea exhibits the inner emotions of passion and vengeance; the character of Medea has variously been interpreted as either fulfilling her role of "mother and wife" and as acting as a "proto-feminist". Feminist readings have interpreted the play as either a "sympathetic exploration" of the "disadvantages of being a woman in a patriarchal society", or as an expression of misogynist attitudes. In conflict with this sympathetic undertone is Medea's barbarian identity, which would antagonize a 5th-century Greek audience. Medea is centered on a wife's calculated desire for revenge against her unfaithful husband; the play is set in Corinth some time after Jason's quest for the Golden Fleece.
The play begins with Medea in a blind rage towards Jason for arranging to marry Glauce, the daughter of Creon. The nurse, overhearing Medea's grief, fears what she might do to her children. Creon, in anticipation of Medea's wrath and reveals his plans to send her into exile. Medea pleads for one day's delay and Creon acquiesces. In the next scene Jason arrives to explain his rationale for his apparent betrayal, he explains that he couldn't pass up the opportunity to marry a royal princess, as Medea is only a barbarian woman, but hopes to someday join the two families and keep Medea as his mistress. Medea, the chorus of Corinthian women, do not believe him, she reminds him that she left her own people for him, that she s
Deianira, Deïanira, or Deianeira known as Dejanira, was a Calydonian princess in Greek mythology whose name translated as "man-destroyer" or "destroyer of her husband". She was the wife of Heracles and, in late Classical accounts, his unwitting murderer, killing him with the poisoned Shirt of Nessus, she is the main character in Sophocles' play Women of Trachis. Deianira was the daughter of Althaea and her husband Oeneus, the king of Calydon, the half-sister of Meleager, her other siblings were Toxeus, Periphas, Thyreus, Gorge and Melanippe. In some accounts, Deianira was the daughter of King Dexamenus of Olenus and thus, sister to Eurypylus and Theraephon. Others called this daughter of Dexamenus as Hippolyte. Deianira became the mother of Hyllus, Onites and Macaria who saved the Athenians from defeat by Eurystheus. In Sophocles' account of Deianira's marriage, she was courted by the river god Achelous but saved from having to marry him by Heracles, who defeated Achelous in a wrestling contest for her hand in marriage.
In another version of the tale where she was described as the daughter of Dexamenus, Heracles raped her and promised to come back and marry her. While he was away, the centaur Eurytion demanded her as his wife, her father being afraid, agreed but Heracles returning before the marriage had slayed the centaur and claimed his bride. Deianira was associated with combat, was described as someone who "drove a chariot and practiced the art of war." Robert Graves interpreted the association with war as a relationship with the pre-Olympian war goddess, an orgiastic bride in many local sacred marriages to kings who may have been sacrificed. The central story about Deianira concerns the Tunic of Nessus. A wild centaur named Nessus attempted to kidnap or rape Deianira as he was ferrying her across the river Euenos, but she was rescued by Heracles, who shot the centaur with a poisoned arrow; as he lay dying, Nessus persuaded Deianira to take a sample of his blood, telling her that a potion of it mixed with olive oil would ensure that Heracles would never again be unfaithful.
Deianira kept a little of the potion by her. Heracles fathered illegitimate children all across Greece and fell in love with Iole; when Deianira thus feared that her husband would leave her forever, she smeared some of the blood on Heracles' famous lionskin shirt. Heracles' servant, brought him the shirt and he put it on; the centaur's toxic blood burned Heracles and he threw himself into a funeral pyre. In despair, Deianira committed suicide with a sword. Hesiod, Catalogue of Women fr. 2 5 Ovid, Heroides 9 Ovid, Metamorphoses 9.101-238 Harry Thurston Peck, Harper's Dictionary of Classical Antiquities, 1898 Graves, The Greek Myths, 1955, 142.ff, 142.2,3,5
Euboea or Evia. The narrow Euripus Strait separates it from Boeotia in mainland Greece. In general outline it is a narrow island, its geographic orientation is from northwest to southeast, it is traversed throughout its length by a mountain range, which forms part of the chain that bounds Thessaly on the east, is continued south of Euboea in the lofty islands of Andros and Mykonos. It forms most of the regional unit of Euboea, which includes Skyros and a small area of the Greek mainland. Like most of the Greek islands, Euboea was known under other names in Antiquity, such as Macris and Doliche from its elongated shape, or Ellopia and Abantis from the tribes inhabiting it, its ancient and current name, Εὔβοια, derives from the words εὖ "good", βοῦς "ox", meaning " the well oxen". In the Middle Ages, the island was referred to by Byzantine authors by the name of its capital, Chalcis or Euripos, although the ancient name Euboea remained in use by classicizing authors until the 15th century; the phrase στὸν Εὔριπον'to Evripos', rebracketed as στὸ Νεὔριπον'to Nevripos', became Negroponte in Italian by folk etymology, the ponte'bridge' being interpreted as the bridge of Chalcis.
This name was most relevant. That name entered common use in the West in the 13th century, with other variants being Egripons and Negropont. Under Ottoman rule, the island and its capital were known as Eğriboz or Ağriboz, again after the Euripos strait. Euboea was believed to have formed part of the mainland, to have been separated from it by an earthquake; this is probable, because it lies in the neighbourhood of a fault line, both Thucydides and Strabo write that the northern part of the island had been shaken at different periods. In the neighbourhood of Chalcis, both to the north and the south, the bays are so confined as to make plausible the story of Agamemnon's fleet having been detained there by contrary winds. At Chalcis itself, where the strait is narrowest at only 40 m, it is called the Euripus Strait; the extraordinary changes of tide that take place in this passage have been a subject of note since classical times. At one moment the current runs like a river in one direction, shortly afterwards with equal velocity in the other.
A bridge was first constructed here in the twenty-first year of the Peloponnesian War. Geography and nature divide the island itself into three distinct parts: the fertile and forested north, the mountainous centre, with agriculture limited to the coastal valleys, the barren south; the main mountains include Pyxaria in the northeast and Ochi. The neighboring gulfs are the Pagasetic Gulf in the north, Malian Gulf, North Euboean Gulf in the west, the Euboic Sea and the Petalion Gulf. At the 2001 census the island had a population of 198,130, a total land area of 3,684 square kilometres; the history of the island of Euboea is that of its two principal cities and Eretria, both mentioned in the Catalogue of Ships. Both cities were settled by Ionian Greeks from Attica, would settle numerous colonies in Magna Graecia and Sicily, such as Cumae and Rhegium, on the coast of Macedonia; this opened new trade routes to the Greeks, extended the reach of Western Civilization. The commercial influence of these city-states is evident in the fact that the Euboic scale of weights and measures was used among the Ionic cities and in Athens until the end of the 7th century BC, during the time of Solon.
The classicist Barry B. Powell has proposed that Euboea may have been where the Greek alphabet was first employed, c. 775-750 BC, that Homer may have spent part of his life on the island. Chalcis and Eretria were rival cities, appear to have been powerful for a while. One of the earliest major military conflicts in Greek history took place between them, known as the Lelantine War, in which many other Greek city-states took part. Following the infamous battles of Thermopylae and Artemisium, Persian forces captured and sacked Athens, took Euboea and Attica, allowing them to overrun all of Greece. In 490 BC, Eretria was utterly ruined and its inhabitants were transported to Persia. Though it was restored nearby its original site after the Battle of Marathon, the city never regained its former eminence. Both cities lost influence to Athens, which saw Euboea as a strategic territory. Euboea was an important source of grain and cattle, controlling the island meant Athens could prevent invasion and better protect its trade routes from piracy.
Athens settled 4,000 Attic Greeks on their lands. After this conflict, the whole of the island was reduced to an Athenian dependency. Another struggle between Euboea and Athens broke out in 446. Led by Pericles, the Athenians subdued the revolt, captured Histiaea in the north of the island for their own settlement. By 410 BC, the island succeeded in regaining its independence. Euboea participated in Greek affairs until falling under the control of Philip II of Macedon after the Battle of Chaeronea in 338 BC, being incorporated into the Roman Republic in the second century BC. Aristotle died on the island in 322 BC
An epigram is a brief, interesting and sometimes surprising or satirical statement. The word is derived from the Greek: ἐπίγραμμα epigramma "inscription" from ἐπιγράφειν epigraphein "to write on, to inscribe", the literary device has been employed for over two millennia; the presence of wit or sarcasm tends to distinguish non-poetic epigrams from aphorisms and adages, which may lack them. The Greek tradition of epigrams began as poems inscribed on votive offerings at sanctuaries – including statues of athletes – and on funerary monuments, for example "Go tell it to the Spartans, passersby...". These original epigrams did the same job, but in verse. Epigram became a literary genre in the Hellenistic period developing out of scholarly collections of inscriptional epigrams. Though modern epigrams are thought of as short, Greek literary epigram was not always as short as examples, the divide between "epigram" and "elegy" is sometimes indistinct. In the classical period, the clear distinction between them was that epigrams were inscribed and meant to be read, while elegies were recited and meant to be heard.
Some elegies could be quite short. All the same, the origin of epigram in inscription exerted a residual pressure to keep things concise when they were recited in Hellenistic times. Many of the characteristic types of literary epigram look back to inscriptional contexts funerary epigram, which in the Hellenistic era becomes a literary exercise. Many "sympotic" epigrams combine sympotic and funerary elements – they tell their readers to drink and live for today because life is short. Any theme found in classical elegies could be and were adapted for literary epigrams. Hellenistic epigrams are thought of as having a "point" – that is, the poem ends in a punchline or satirical twist. By no means do all Greek epigrams behave this way. Since their collections helped form knowledge of the genre in Rome and later throughout Europe, Epigram came to be associated with'point,' because the European epigram tradition takes the Latin poet Martial as its principal model. Greek epigram was much more diverse, as the Milan Papyrus now indicates.
A major source for Greek literary epigram is the Greek Anthology, a compilation from the 10th century AD based on older collections, including those of Meleager and Philippus. It contains epigrams ranging from the Hellenistic period through the Imperial period and Late Antiquity into the compiler's own Byzantine era – a thousand years of short elegiac texts on every topic under the sun; the Anthology includes one book of Christian epigrams as well as one book of erotic and amorous homosexual epigrams called the Μοῦσα Παιδικἠ. Roman epigrams owe much to their Greek contemporaries. Roman epigrams, were more satirical than Greek ones, at times used obscene language for effect. Latin epigrams could be composed as inscriptions or graffiti, such as this one from Pompeii, which exists in several versions and seems from its inexact meter to have been composed by a less educated person, its content makes it clear how popular such poems were: Admiror, O paries, te non cecidisse ruinis qui tot scriptorum taedia sustineas.
I'm astonished, that you haven't collapsed into ruins, since you're holding up the weary verse of so many poets. However, in the literary world, epigrams were most gifts to patrons or entertaining verse to be published, not inscriptions. Many Roman writers seem to have composed epigrams, including Domitius Marsus, whose collection Cicuta was named after the poisonous plant Cicuta for its biting wit, Lucan, more famous for his epic Pharsalia. Authors whose epigrams survive include Catullus, who wrote both invectives and love epigrams – his poem 85 is one of the latter. Odi et amo. Quare id faciam fortasse requires. Nescio, sed fieri sentio, et excrucior. I hate and I love. Maybe you'd like to know why I do? I don't know, but I feel it happening, I am tormented. Martial, however, is considered to be the master of the Latin epigram, his technique relies on the satirical poem with a joke in the last line, thus drawing him closer to the modern idea of epigram as a genre. Here he defines his genre against a critic: Disce quod ignoras: Marsi doctique Pedonis saepe duplex unum pagina tractat opus.
Non sunt longa quibus nihil est quod demere possis, sed tu, disticha longa facis. Learn what you don't know: one work of Marsus or learned Pedo stretches out over a doublesided page. A work isn't long if you can't take anything out of it, but you, write a couplet too long. Poets known for their epigrams whose work has been lost include Cornificia. In early English literature the short couplet poem was dominated by the poetic epigram and proverb in the translations of the Bible and the Greek and Roman poets. Since 1600, two successive lines of verse that rhyme with each other, known as a couplet featured as a part of the longer sonnet form, most notably in William Shakespeare's sonnets. Sonnet 76 is an excellent example; the two line poetic form as a closed cou