3rd Spanish Armada
The 3rd Spanish Armada known as the Spanish Armada of 1597 was a major naval event that took place between October and November 1597 as part of the Anglo–Spanish War. When this was achieved the armada would go on to either the important port of Falmouth or Milford Haven. When the Spanish arrived in the English channel however they were dispersed by a storm which scattered their fleet, as a result, some ships did push on, and troops were even landed on the English and Welsh coasts. The English fleet, which had been scattered by the storm, were unaware that the Spanish had come to intercept them. The English fleet arrived safely in England with loss of one ship. As a result, Padilla finally ordered a retreat back to Spain, a number of Spanish ships were captured in action by returning English ships from which valuable information was given about the Armada. Panic in England ensued partly because the English fleet had been out to sea with the English coast virtually undefended, any remaining Spanish ships were rounded up and captured along with their soldiers and crew.
Philip took much of the blame for the failure by the Armada commanders particularly Padilla, the Armada was the last of its kind that the Spanish would execute under Philip II before his death. The war with Spain and England had been going on for twelve years. These bases had a strategic value because they allowed England to be threatened by the Spanish fleet. Meanwhile, England intervened in France, but in support of King Henry IV of France, the Spaniards had captured Calais in 1596 which meant that an invasion of England could be more achievable. As a result, after desperate French demands to keep her from signing peace with Spain, England had sent an armada the next year under the Earl of Essex and Charles Howard to Cadiz which was captured and sacked. An angered Philip soon after took into consideration the defence of the peninsula, in a wave of revenge after the defeat at Cadiz, Philip II sent out orders for a large armada to do the same to England by way of taking the French port of Brest.
Just after they set off however the fleet was obliterated in autumn storms off Cape Finisterre causing severe losses in ships, supplies, the cost was ruinous, the two ships carrying the pay-chests disappeared below the waves. The Spanish King not to be disheartened ordered another invasion despite the Cortes Generales claiming funds would not be available in time, as a result, the Cortes was asked to be dissolved by Philip and a financial crisis loomed. The Cadiz defeat, the failure of the Armada as well as the war in France and the Netherlands that year meant that Philips nation went into bankruptcy, adding to the kings and Spains woes, a poor harvest began to take effect in Spain, thousands were affected. This caused many to protest as they were unable to pay their taxes, the formation of the triple alliance meant that grain from abroad was harder to obtain. Despite this, the fleet albeit with difficulty was mustered
The governments and legal traditions of each kingdom remained independent of each other. Alien laws determined that the national of one kingdom was a foreigner in all the other Iberian kingdoms, the unification of the peninsula had long been a goal of the regions monarchs with the intent of restoring the Visigothic monarchy. Sebastians successor, the Cardinal Henry of Portugal, was 70 years old at the time. Henrys death was followed by a crisis, with three grandchildren of Manuel I claiming the throne, Infanta Catarina, Duchess of Braganza, António, Prior of Crato. António had been acclaimed King of Portugal by the people of Santarém on July 24,1580, some members of the Council of Governors of Portugal who had supported Philip escaped to Spain and declared him to be the legal successor of Henry. Philip II of Spain marched into Portugal and defeated the troops loyal to the Prior of Crato in the Battle of Alcântara, the troops occupying the countryside commanded by the 3rd Duke of Alba arrived in Lisbon.
Philip II of Spain was crowned Philip I of Portugal in 1581, when Philip left in 1583 to Madrid, he made his nephew Albert of Austria his viceroy in Lisbon. In Madrid he established a Council of Portugal to advise him on Portuguese affairs, both monarchs gave excellent positions to Portuguese nobles in the Spanish courts, and Portugal maintained an independent law and government. It was even proposed to move the Royal capital to Lisbon, the history of Portugal from the dynastic crisis in 1578 to the first Braganza Dynasty monarchs was a period of transition. The Portuguese Empires spice trade was peaking at the start of this period and it continued to enjoy widespread influence after Vasco da Gama had finally reached the East by sailing around Africa in 1497–98. Vasco da Gamas achievement completed the exploratory efforts inaugurated by Henry the Navigator, after that, the Council answered afterwards a session to treat the issue and to raise the formal consultation to the monarch. The secretary raise the consultation to the king, and was returned to the Council with his response to be executed, the meetings of the Councils took place in the royal palace, and they did not count on the presence of the king habitually.
In this polisynodial system, Consejo de Estado stood out for its importance, the Council of War exercised its jurisdiction on the troops placed in the Castilian strongholds established on the Portuguese littoral. Any decision of the king who concerning his Kingdom must do the object of a consultation to the Council before being transmitted to the chancellery of Lisbon and to the concerned courts. The Council of Portugal knows two eclipses, in 1619, for the presence of the King in Lisbon, and between 1639–1658, replaced with the Junta of Portugal, relating to the particular government of the kingdom of Portugal itself. Public offices were reserved for Portuguese subjects at home and overseas, the king was represented at Lisbon sometimes by a governor and sometimes by a viceroy. So, Spain left the administration of Portugal and its empire largely to the Portuguese themselves, important matters, were referred to Madrid, where they came before the Council of Portugal. In the kingdom of Portugal, the system is reinforced
2nd Spanish Armada
In an attempt at revenge for the English sack of Cadiz in 1596 Philip immediately ordered a counter strike in the hope of assisting the Irish rebels in rebellion against the English crown. The strategy was to open up a new front in the war, forcing English troops away from France, the Armada under the command of the Adelantado, Martín de Padilla was gathered at Lisbon and Seville and set off in October. Before it had left Spanish waters storms struck the fleet off Cape Finisterre, the storms shattered the Armada causing heavy damage which forced the ships to return to their home ports. Nearly 5,000 men died either from the storm or disease, in addition, significant material and financial losses added to the bankruptcy of the Spanish Kingdom during the Autumn of 1596. Spain and England had been at war for twelve years with neither side gaining the upper hand. These bases had a strategic value because they allowed England to be threatened by the Spanish fleet. England on the hand had intervened in France, but in support of King Henry IV of France.
The Spanish had captured Calais in 1596 which meant that a strike against England was potentially more achievable, after desperate French demands to keep her from signing peace with Spain, the English signed the Triple Alliance with the Dutch republic and France. England had sent an armada under Robert Devereux and Charles Howard to Cadiz which was captured, Philip soon after took into consideration the defence of the peninsula but most of all sought revenge even if it meant selling everything he had. The leading English Jesuit exile in Spain, Robert Persons, went to an audience with Philip hoping to take advantage of the situation in trying to get the King to act, Persons argued for a winter attack when the Queen would least expect it. This meant an army of moderate size rather than a vast Armada that would give away the element of surprise in which Persons referenced the failed armada in 1588. Persons noted that the point of entry for the Spanish would have been from Scotland, Kent, or Milford Haven in Wales, here it was believed the Spaniards would find a vast reservoir of Catholic support.
Detailed charts on the ports of England and Wales had been drawn up, a number of the Kings advisers however saw an invasion of Ireland as a better way to destabilize England. The use of Ireland as a springboard for a new invasion was nothing new, Marquis of Santa Cruz, the plan was only scrapped because of the delays caused by Drakes raid on Cadiz the following year. As early as 1595 ONeill and Hugh Roe ODonnell wrote to Philip for help and he proposed that his cousin Archduke Albert be made Prince of Ireland, but nothing came of this. Philip replied encouraging them in January 1596 to keep their faith in their Catholic religion, Spanish intervention, in Spains eyes, the English fighting on this new front was one they could not afford to do. Philip II placed great hope in the new Grand Armada that was being organised in Lisbon, there were fifteen galleons from Castile and nine from Portugal,53 Flemish and German boats which had been impounded, six pinnaces and one caravel, with 10,790 men.
From Seville 2,500 troops would depart in 30 flyboats to join the fleet in Lisbon, in the north, at Vigo, a further 41 vessels of various tonnage were waiting, with around 6,000 men
Gillis Peeters the Elder
Gillis Peeters, was a Flemish painter and engraver who contributed to the development of marine art and landscape painting in Flanders. He was the brother of the marine painters Catharina, Jan I. He is recorded in 1631 as the pupil of the Dutch flower painter Anthony Claesz the Younger who had left his country in 1629. In 1634 Gillis became together with his brother Bonaventura a master in the Antwerp Guild of Saint Luke, initially the two brothers shared a studio in Antwerp until in 1641 Bonaventura moved to Hoboken where he worked in a studio with his siblings and pupils Catharina and Jan Peeters. It is believed that Gillis travelled to Brazil, possibly on two occasions, the first time would have been in 1636 when he travelled probably in the company of Johan Maurits van Nassau-Siegen who had been appointed the governor of the Dutch possessions in Brazil. He arrived in Brazil in 1637 but only stayed until the next year and he possible returned to Brazil in 1640. During his stay in Brazil he produced four paintings of views of Brazil and numerous drawings that were used by himself.
He was the father of Willem, Gillis the Younger and Bonaventura the Younger, Bonaventura the Younger was a sailor and marine artist. There are known by Gillis the Younger. Although Gillis Peeters, like most of the members of his artist family, is best known as a marine artist, one of the earliest recorded work is the Landscape with Watermill dated 1633. In its blue-green hues it resembles the work of his contemporary Flemish landscape artists such as Lucas van Uden and his earlier landscapes representing mountains with spruce of the 1630s are characterised by their tonal palette and small figures. In the 1640s his horizons become deeper and his colours richer, a Wooded rocky landscape with a couple tending sheep of 1652 is a typical example of his small-scale working style. Unlike contemporary Dutch landscapes, which strived for realism, the landscapes of Peeters are artificial, with their candy-like colours, picturesque buildings and feathery trees they seem to anticipate the Rococo idyllic visions of a François Boucher hundred years later.
Some of his landscapes such as those he made in Brazil are more topographical in nature. His marine paintings cover the range of seas, battle scenes, river scenes and harbour scenes and are similar to the early work of his brother in their muted tones. Gillis collaborated with family members and artists in Antwerp. For instance, he collaborated with his brother Bonaventura on a painting of the Battle of Kallo, there is a collaboration with David Teniers the Younger on A Scene in a Flemish Village for which Teniers painted the figures and Peeters the landscape. Gillis was trained as an etcher and made engravings of hunting scenes after designs by Frans Snyders
The population of the city proper was 1,625,583 in 2016. The city is located at the confluence of the Beberibe and Capibaribe rivers before they flow into the Atlantic Ocean and it is a major port on the Atlantic Ocean. Its name is an allusion to the reefs that are present by the citys shores. The many rivers, small islands and over 50 bridges found in Recife city centre characterise its geography, as of 2010, it is the capital city with the highest HDI in Northeast Brazil and second highest HDI in the entire North and Northeast Brazil. The Metropolitan Region of Recife is the industrial zone of the State of Pernambuco, major products are those derived from cane, oil platforms, software. With fiscal incentives by the government, many companies were started in the 1970s and 1980s. Recife stands out as a major tourist attraction of the Northeast, the beach of Porto de Galinhas,60 kilometers south of the city, has been repeatedly awarded the title of best beach in Brazil and has drawn many tourists.
The Historic Centre of Olinda,7 kilometers north of the city, was declared a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1982, the city is an education hub, and home to the Federal University of Pernambuco, the largest university in Pernambuco. Several Brazilian historical figures, such as the poet and abolitionist Castro Alves and Natal are the only Brazilian cities with direct flights to the islands of Fernando de Noronha, a World Heritage Site. The city was one of the host cities of the 2014 FIFA World Cup, Recife hosted the 2013 FIFA Confederations Cup and the 1950 FIFA World Cup. It was a settlement of fishermen and way station for Portuguese sailors. Olinda had been settled in 1536 by captain General Duarte Coelho, the city is named for the long reef recife running parallel to the shoreline which encloses its harbour. The reef is not as sometimes stated, a coral reef, at that time the banks of the Capibaribe River were covered by sugarcane. Recife was capital of the 17th century Dutch Brazil and was called Mauritsstad, the Mascate War of 1710-1711 pitted merchants of Recife against those of nearby Olinda.
Due to the proximity to the equator, Recife weather is generally warm. Recife has a number of islands, rivers and bridges that crisscross the city, Recife is located amidst tropical forests which are distinguished by high rainfall levels resulting in poor soil quality as the rainfall washes away the nutrients. There is an absence of extreme temperatures and a cool breeze due to the winds from the Atlantic Ocean. Recife has a climate, with warm to hot temperatures
Raid on St. Augustine
This was part of Francis Drakes Great Expedition and was the last engagement on the Spanish main before Drake headed north for the Roanoke Colony. The expedition forced the Spanish to abandon any settlements and forts in present-day South Carolina, war had already been unofficially declared by Philip II of Spain after the Treaty of Nonsuch in which Elizabeth I had offered her support to the rebellious Protestant Dutch rebels. The Queen through Francis Walsingham ordered Sir Francis Drake to lead an expedition to attack the Spanish New World in a kind of preemptive strike. Drake wanted to strike at another Spanish city on the Main before finally visiting and replenishing Sir Walter Raleighs new colony of Roanoke Colony on the American East Coast, after this he hoped to make the Transatlantic crossing back to England. The fleet traveled north within sight of land on the Florida peninsula sailing past the West coast, on 27 May 1586 as they approached further north a small fort was spotted on the shore, with a small inlet close by.
This was the location of St Augustine, the most northerly town in Spains New World Empire, and the oldest permanent colonial settlement in North America. Drake knew of the place and was aware of the fact that the Spanish under Pedro Menéndez de Avilés had ordered all of the French Huguenot colonists that had tried to settle in the area executed. Drake decided on one final opportunity to raid and plunder, the English attacked and bombarded a small wooden fort in the sand dunes, the Spanish there fired only a few shots and fled. Drake sent a party to investigate, while Carleill and a few volunteers rowed a ships boat into the inlet. It sat on a strip of sand, separated from the mainland by a band of water, a French Huguenot Nicholas Borgoignon, who had been taken prisoner by the Spanish six years before was found in a boat and agreed to guide the English to the Spanish settlement. The Spanish settlers withdrew inland and hoped to make surprise raids against the English gradually and his men occupied the area of the small fort but during the night Indians attacked, launched by native allies of the Spanish garrison.
After a few shots by the Spanish the English landed and took the fort with only a few losses and they found it deserted as the Spanish had fled but found intact a gun platform with fourteen bronze artillery pieces. They found a chest containing the garrisons pay, about 2,000 gold ducats which was left behind in the retreat. Drake knowing the Spanish had fled, began to plunder what he could, he took the guns, soon the English came upon the main settlement of St. Augustine itself, this time they found it deserted. The Spanish however were just beyond the settlement in the outskirts, when Drakes men arrived, anthony Powell one of Carleills deputies was killed in the opening shots as he tried to assault the outskirts. Carleills men charged all the way to the outskirts of the town into the forcing the Spanish to retreat leaving Drake in control of the settlement. The English garrisoned it overnight and the following day razed the whole of St. Augustine to the ground, all buildings were torched, crops were destroyed and anything of value was either taken or destroyed.
The fort of San Juan was burnt and all the pieces were carried by the English among other booty
Battle of Santo Domingo (1586)
The English were led by Francis Drake and was part of his Great Expedition to the raid the Spanish New World in a kind of preemptive strike. The English soldiers occupied the city for over a month, war had already been unofficially declared by Philip II of Spain after the Treaty of Nonsuch in which Elizabeth I had offered her support to the rebellious Protestant Dutch rebels. The Queen through Francis Walsingham ordered Sir Francis Drake to lead an expedition to attack the Spanish New World in a kind of preemptive strike, Drake arrived in the Caribbean in December to the uninhabited island of Saint Kitts, where he landed his sick and sought supplies. Whilst there he sent a reconnaissance squadron to the Spanish city of Santo Domingo on the island of Hispaniola. The governor, Cristóbal de Ovalle, was provided with artillery batteries covering both land and sea and had nearly 1,500 men of which 100 were cavalry. The naval defenses of the city consisted of one galley and although it was largely unseaworthy was still capable of posing a threat, Drake had the fortune of knowing that surprise would be on his side since the Spanish had no idea the English fleet were in the area.
Just after midnight on 1 January 1586 Drake arrived off the Bajos de Haina, the path through the jungle that led towards the city was defenseless and the English advanced forward. The main fleet under Drake meanwhile sailed ten miles along the coast to Santo Domingo, the Spanish soon saw the threat, troops were mustered, work began on building earthworks to defend the shore, whilst many of the townspeople began slipping out of the city. At the mouth of the harbor, three ships were sunk to prevent any attempt to force the entrance but it was too late. On New Years Day Drakes ships lay off the mouth of the harbor, just within range and as English ships took up their stations, Drake ran out his guns. The Spanish fire soon replied and one shot hit the Elizabeth Bonaventure. Drake ordered his ships in closer, and soon began firing at the castle and the earthworks. Carleill and 800 soldiers approached the city through the jungle, Drake sent men in boats to make a show of attempting a landing by way of a diversion.
Carleill however placed his pikemen and musketeers on every side, so that the Spanish were driven back, with both columns still advancing they received the fire of the Spanish guns at very close quarters. An ambuscade of Spanish musketeers beside the road had no success as these were quickly driven back by English fire. Within half an hour, the party had reached the western walls of Santo Domingo. The western defenses were pierced by two gates, the Lenba and a one, closer to the beach. By that stage there were scarcely 300 Spaniards left, most of which had no fireams, Carleill ordered Sergeant-Major Powell to assault the secondary gate with a storming party, while the lieutenant-general led the rest of his men towards the Lenba
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic, is a country on the Iberian Peninsula in Southwestern Europe. It is the westernmost country of mainland Europe, to the west and south it is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and to the east and north by Spain. The Portugal–Spain border is 1,214 kilometres long and considered the longest uninterrupted border within the European Union, the republic includes the Atlantic archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira, both autonomous regions with their own regional governments. The territory of modern Portugal has been settled, invaded. The Pre-Celts, Celts and the Romans were followed by the invasions of the Visigothic, in 711 the Iberian Peninsula was invaded by the Moors, making Portugal part of Muslim Al Andalus. Portugal was born as result of the Christian Reconquista, and in 1139, Afonso Henriques was proclaimed King of Portugal, in the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal established the first global empire, becoming one of the worlds major economic and military powers.
Portugal monopolized the trade during this time, and the Portuguese Empire expanded with military campaigns led in Asia. After the 1910 revolution deposed the monarchy, the democratic but unstable Portuguese First Republic was established, democracy was restored after the Portuguese Colonial War and the Carnation Revolution in 1974. Shortly after, independence was granted to almost all its overseas territories, Portugal has left a profound cultural and architectural influence across the globe and a legacy of over 250 million Portuguese speakers today. Portugal is a country with a high-income advanced economy and a high living standard. It is the 5th most peaceful country in the world, maintaining a unitary semi-presidential republican form of government and it has the 18th highest Social Progress in the world, putting it ahead of other Western European countries like France and Italy. Portugal is a pioneer when it comes to drug decriminalization, as the nation decriminalized the possession of all drugs for use in 2001.
The early history of Portugal is shared with the rest of the Iberian Peninsula located in South Western Europe, the name of Portugal derives from the joined Romano-Celtic name Portus Cale. Other influences include some 5th-century vestiges of Alan settlements, which were found in Alenquer, the region of present-day Portugal was inhabited by Neanderthals and by Homo sapiens, who roamed the border-less region of the northern Iberian peninsula. These were subsistence societies that, although they did not establish prosperous settlements, neolithic Portugal experimented with domestication of herding animals, the raising of some cereal crops and fluvial or marine fishing. Chief among these tribes were the Calaicians or Gallaeci of Northern Portugal, the Lusitanians of central Portugal, the Celtici of Alentejo, a few small, semi-permanent, commercial coastal settlements were founded in the Algarve region by Phoenicians-Carthaginians. Romans first invaded the Iberian Peninsula in 219 BC, during the last days of Julius Caesar, almost the entire peninsula had been annexed to the Roman Republic.
The Carthaginians, Romes adversary in the Punic Wars, were expelled from their coastal colonies and it suffered a severe setback in 150 BC, when a rebellion began in the north
Action of Faial
The carrack, which was reputedly one of the richest ever to set sail from the Indies, was lost in an explosion which denied the English, as well as the Portuguese and Spanish, the riches. There was a support pinnace, the Violet, on 6 April 1594 they set sail from Plymouth, heading for the Azores. En route they roamed the coast of Portugal and Spain, capturing a number of ships, off Viana do Castelo, Portugal, a 28 tonne barque was captured as it headed towards Portuguese Angola. Near the islands of Berlengas another three Portuguese and Spanish caravels, were taken, one of which had twelve butts of Spanish wine and these were sent back to England under prize crews aboard the Violet while the rest of the fleet continued towards the Azores. They were hoping to avoid Alonso de Bazáns Spanish fleet which was on the lookout for Cumberland, on the 22 June 1594, as they approached Faial island, the Mayflower soon saw a great sail approach them and realized this was a huge Portuguese carrack. Constructed in Goa by the Viceroy Dom Constantino de Braganza in 1559-60, the rest of the fleet had consisted of the Santo Alberto, and Nossa Senhora da Nazareth.
However the Santo Alberto and Nazareth had sprung leaks and were beached on Mozambiques coast. The Cinco Chagas took aboard such cargo in diamonds and other precious gems as had been salvaged from the two lost ships, as well their 400 passengers and crew members, of which 230 were slaves. Among them were two VIPs, Nuno Velho Pereira, the colonial governor of Mozambique, and Dom Braz Correia. The Chagas called in at Luanda, in Portuguese Angola, for supplies, the carrack attempted to reach the island of Corvo in order to replenish these lost provisions, but contrary winds forbade this, and so she tacked towards Faial. Soon afterwards however, the lookouts on Chagas spotted the English ships, at noon all four ships exchanged broadsides and musket volleys in a battle that lasted for nearly a whole day. The English ships tried to board the Cinco Chagas but were repelled by the larger Portuguese numbers, as casualties mounted on both sides the decks of the carrack were cluttered with dead and wounded.
The battle went on with the English trying to board the three times. All three attempts however were repelled by the Portuguese - putting up a brave fight knowing the riches were too great to lose, the captain of the Mayflower George Cave was killed which discouraged his men from attacking. The crew of Sampson was repulsed with losses and fighting continued for hours with the four ships moored to each other. Shortly after, the two ships, having lost hope of mastering Chagas drifted off and Nicholas Downton was severely wounded. However, on having noticed that Cinco Chagas had no guns aft, the Royal Exchange made another boarding attack this time succeeding in carrying the ship after bitter fighting. Whilst heavy hand-to-hand fighting was ongoing a fire had started on a tarpaulin during the exchange of fire and further to the rigging
Battle of the Narrow Seas
The English were soon joined by a Dutch fleet under Jan Adriaanszoon Cant and they completed the destruction. Buoyed by this achievement he had indulged Philip III of Spain, however the council brought him down to a mere eight galleys, provided at Spinolas expense. He was on his way from San Lucar to Lisbon but he was defeated by Sir Richard Leveson at Sezimbra Bay which cost him two galleys, after this defeat Spinola took his remaining six galleys back to Lisbon and filled his vessels with pay chests for Flanders. During the sailing to Flanders he took an English ship, which he left at A Coruña, at Santander he took on a further 400 troops to complete the Tercio complement of 1,600 men. In England word had spread that Spinola was on his way in an attempt to run the English channel again. His heading was for Sluis with the six galleys, of whose approach was well informed by Robert Cecil even when they arrived at Blavet in Brittany at the beginning of October. Queen Elizabeth decided to act, so she appointed Sir Robert Mansell to join with the States fleet before Dunkirk and Sluis, to see what they could do to impeach them.
Van Duyvenvoorde, coping with an outbreak of smallpox by which he was afflicted himself, sent four of his ships back north under Jan Adriaanszoon Cant, with three ships departed and patrolled about Dungeness. Mansells flag captain came up with the strategy on how to tackle Spinola, on the 3rd Mansell was soon joined by two Dutch flyboats and the Moon to improve communication and now Spinola was effectively sailing into a trap. In the moonlight of 3 October just before midnight Mansell was on the lookout for Spinolas galleys and were soon sighted, Mansell ordered an attack and off Dungeness, Moon and the Answer charged at the galleys. On the other hand, it is claimed that Spinolas galleys succeeded in passing almost unscathed between the English ships by rowing at full strength. By the time they reached Goodwin Sands the Spanish galleys started to retreat in desperation for the Flemish coast. A gale was now blowing strongly from the West which hampered Spanish attempts and they were pursued by the English ships.
The action continued across the Narrow Seas towards Dunkirk, Gravelines, the Dutch Admiral Jan Cant soon cut off the Spanish and the English waited outside of the Flemish road stead in case any tried to escape elsewhere. The States ship Mackerel, came in sight and attacked the already damaged San Felipe, drawing off from this assailant, the galley found herself close to Vice-Admiral Cants Half Moon. The galley tried to evade discovery by remaining immobile in the darkness, the Halve Maene bore straight down upon the galley and struck at her amidships carrying off her mainmast and her poop. Whilst extricating himself with difficulty from the wreck Half Moon sent a volley of cannon fire straight into the waist. Another States galliot bore down to complete the work, San Felipe sunk quickly carrying with her all the slaves, sailors