Deployable Operations Group
Upon decommissioning, the units previously assigned to the DOG were split between Coast Guard Pacific and Atlantic Area commands. From 2007-2013, the DOG and DSF deployed throughout the world in support of interests and requirements as tailored and integrated force packages. The DOG managed Coast Guard personnel assigned to the Navy Expeditionary Combat Command and it was involved in the selection of Coast Guard candidates to attend United States Naval Special Warfare training and serve with Navy SEAL Teams. While the program is currently suspended there are still several Coast Guardsmen serving on SEAL Teams, DOG deployable specialized forces was composed of approximately 3,000 Coast Guard personnel, including the following unit types, Port Security Units are deployable expeditionary force protection. They can be deployed domestically, or abroad in support of various Department of Defense operations, Tactical Law Enforcement Teams provide specialized Law Enforcement Detachments to conduct counter-narcotics law enforcement and maritime interdiction operations from U. S. and allied naval vessels.
There are currently two units, Tactical Law Enforcement Team South based in Opa-locka and the Pacific Area Tactical Law Enforcement Team based in San Diego, California. Maritime Safety and Security Teams are Anti-terrorism units created under the Maritime Transportation Security Act of 2002 in response to the terrorist attacks of September 11,2001. The eleven MSSTs provide waterborne anti-terrorism and shoreside Anti-terrorism, force protection for shipping, high interest vessels. Multi-mission capability facilitates augmentation for other selected Coast Guard missions, other federal agencies that MSSTs train with are U. S. Navy VBSS Teams, FBI, and their local SWAT Teams. Although the MSRTs focus is primarily on the safety and security of homeland defense, it is capable of rapidly deploying worldwide in response to incidents. Other specialized units and federal agencies that MSRT routinely train with are U. S. Navy SEAL teams, U. S. Navy HSC Squadrons, Navy EOD, Special Mission Units, Border Patrols BORTAC, and US Customs and Border Protection SRT.
Their motto, as seen on their unit patch, is Nox Noctis est Nostri and these assault force teams train extensively in advanced close quarters combat and advanced combat marksmanship. The Tactical Delivery Team, boat assault force, are trained in advanced vessel delivery tactics, the National Strike Force was established in 1973 as a direct result of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972. The National Strike Force includes five units with over 200 active duty, reserve and it is commanded by a captain. The National Strike Force Coordination Center provides support and standardization guidance to the three strike teams, each Strike Team is a highly trained cadre of Coast Guardsmen who maintain and rapidly deploy with specialized equipment and incident management skills wherever needed. There are three teams within the NSF. The Public Information Assistance Team provides emergency public information services to Federal On-Scene Coordinators primarily during oil spills and it is located at the National Strike Force Coordination Center.
Regional Dive Locker East is located at Portsmouth and Regional Dive Locker West is located at San Diego, helicopter Interdiction Tactical Squadron Joint Maritime Training Center Naval Expeditionary Combat Command Patrol Forces Southwest Asia U. S
United States Revenue Cutter Service
As time passed, the service gradually gained missions either voluntarily or by legislation, including those of a military nature. It was generally referred to as the Revenue-Marine until July 1894, the Revenue Cutter Service operated under the authority of the U. S. Department of the Treasury. On 28 January 1915, the service was merged by an act of Congress with the United States Life-Saving Service to form the United States Coast Guard, immediately after the American Revolutionary War the new United States was struggling to stay afloat financially. National income was desperately needed, and the government determined that a deal of this income would come from import tariffs. Under the enabling legislation that authorized the Revenue-Marine, the System of Cutters, on 21 March 1791 the first seven masters were commissioned by President George Washington. William Cooke of North Carolina was commissioned on 25 April 1791, Robert Cochrane of South Carolina on 8 May 1791, and 20 May 1791 John Howell of Georgia.
Each cutter was constructed where it was to be assigned, a move by Hamilton to satisfy members of Congress and gain their votes for the establishment of the service. Hamiltons cost restrictions proved unrealistic for three of the new cutters, Massachusetts cost US$2,050, Scammel cost US$1,255, the same legislation that established the ten original cutters provided for the complement and pay scales of the crew of each vessel. Each vessel was provided with a master with pay set at $30 per month, in addition each cutter was allowed four mariners at $8 apiece and two boys at $4. Between 1790 and 1798, the Revenue-Marine was the only armed service of the United States. Each cutter master was answerable to and received his orders directly from the Collector of Customs of the port to which his ship was assigned. All crew pay, requests for supplies, arrangements for repairs to the cutter, after the Slave Trade Act of 1794 was enacted, the Revenue-Marine began intercepting slave ships illegally importing slaves into the United States.
This was the case from 1791 to 1871, except for the period 1843-49, standing orders for individual cutters were stated in general terms, allowing captains to exercise their discretion and judgment to the fullest. They will endeavor to overcome difficulties, if any are experienced, by a cool and temperate perseverance in their duty – by address and moderation, rather than by vehemence or violence. During the Quasi-War with France from 1798 to 1801, the U. S. Navy was formed, ten of these were captured by the USRC Pickering. Revenue cutters were assigned to enforce the very unpopular Embargo Act of 1807, the Act was enforced until it was repealed in 1808. In wartime, the Revenue Marine was placed under the command of the U. S. Navy, USRC Jefferson made the first American capture of an enemy ship in the War of 1812, the brig Patriot, in June 1812. Then on 22 August 1812, HMS Barbadoes, under the command of Captain Thomas Huskisson, the cutter was pierced for fourteen guns but had only ten mounted, two of which she threw overboard to lighten her during the chase
Missions of the United States Coast Guard
The United States Coast Guard carries out three basic roles, which are further subdivided into eleven statutory missions. A given unit within the Coast Guard may be carrying out several missions at once, for example, a 25-foot RHIB assigned to maritime security may watch for out-of-place or missing aids to navigation and unsafe boating practices. See National Search and Rescue Committee Search and Rescue is one of the Coast Guards oldest missions, both agencies maintain Rescue Coordination Centers to coordinate this effort. Inshore rescues are performed by 25-foot, 27-foot, and 41-foot boats. HH-60 and HH-65 helicopters serve on both the high seas and inshore and rescue operations are numerous and varied. A helicopter rescued two recreational snowmobilers in Anchor Bay, whose vehicle crashed through the ice, boats from CGS Point Allerton in Hull came to the assistance of the fishing vessel Lady Lorraine, which was on fire off Scituate, Massachusetts. Aircraft from Coast Guard Air Station Humboldt Bay, searched waters off Oregon for a light aircraft.
Large-scale search and rescue operations occur less frequently, but often involve many Coast Guard vessels, two rescue swimmers were awarded the Coast Guard Medal for their extraordinary efforts to keep the rescued mariners alive. Another large-scale operation took place in December 2004 in the Aleutian Islands, the Selendang Ayu carried soybeans,424,000 gallons of fuel oil, and 18,000 gallons of diesel. The operation saved 12 of the ships 18 crew members and prevented harm to nearby wildlife, six of the ships crew members died when a Coast Guard HH-60 Jayhawk helicopter crashed during the rescue. Occasionally, Coast Guard rescuers are used in non-maritime situations, on January 11,2007, the Toledo Blade reported that a worker who was dangling from a 110-foot grain elevator in Ottawa Lake, was rescued by a Coast Guard helicopter. Coast Guard personnel inspect commercial vessels, respond to pollution, investigate marine casualties and merchant mariners, manage waterways, Coast Guard officials draft recommendations for the transit of hazardous cargo by ship, such as liquid natural gas.
The Coast Guard carries out investigations to determine the cause of accidents on American-flagged ships or foreign ships in American waters, among the activities of the Coast Guard is inspection of commercial boats carrying passengers for hire. The two main components are Flag State responsibility and Port State responsibility, the four basic categories of vessels subject to inspection are Passenger, Tanker and Special use vessels. There are two kinds of inspections and Security, Marine investigation, Marine casualty investigation and personnel actions. Waterways Management, Provides marine safety information to the public, and conducts marine event permitting, bridge administration, Port safety, Prevent accidental damage to ports. Merchant mariner credentialing, The Coast Guard is responsible for evaluating, the Coast Guard, through the United States Coast Guard Auxiliary, along with the United States Power Squadrons, perform Vessel Safety Checks on recreational boaters throughout the country.
See National Ice Center See International Ice Patrol Icebergs off the Grand Banks have always posed a problem for shipping, in 1833, the Lady of the Lake struck an iceberg and sank with the loss of 70 lives
USS Peacock (1813)
USS Peacock was a sloop-of-war in the United States Navy during the War of 1812. Peacock was authorized by Act of Congress 3 March 1813, laid down 9 July 1813 by Adam and Noah Brown at the New York Navy Yard and she served in the War of 1812, capturing twenty ships. Subsequently, she served in the Mediterranean Squadron, and in the Mosquito Fleet suppressing Caribbean piracy and she patrolled the South American coast during the colonial wars of independence. She was decommissioned in 1827 and broken up in 1828 to be rebuilt as USS Peacock and she sailed as part of the United States Exploring Expedition in 1838. Peacock ran aground and broke up on the Columbia Bar without loss of life in 1841, during the War of 1812, Peacock made three cruises under the command of Master Commandant Lewis Warrington. Departing New York 12 March 1814, she sailed with supplies to the station at St. Marys. Peacock departed Savannah on 4 June on her cruise, proceeding to the Grand Banks and along the coasts of Ireland and Spain.
She captured 14 enemy vessels of various sizes during this journey, on 14 August Peacock captured the William, master, of Bristol, and scuttled her. Peacock departed New York 23 January 1815 with Hornet and Tom Bowline and rounded the Cape of Good Hope into the Indian Ocean, Boyce informed Warrington that the war had ended. Warrington suspected a ruse and ordered Boyce to surrender, American casualties amounted to some four or five men wounded. Peacock returned to New York on 30 October, a court of inquiry in Boston a year exonerated Warrington of all blame. In his report on the incident, Warrington reported that the British casualties had only been lascars, Peacock left New York on 13 June 1816, bound for France, with the Honorable Albert Gallatin and party aboard. After pulling into Havre de Grâce 2 July, she proceeded to join the Mediterranean Squadron, pirates were ravaging West Indian shipping in the 1820s and on 3 June 1822, Peacock became flagship of Commodore David Porter’s West India Squadron, that rooted out the pirates.
Eighteen of the pirate crew members were sent to New Orleans for trial. Peacock captured the schooner Pilot 10 April 1823 and another sloop 16 April, in September, malignant fever necessitated a recess from activities, and Peacock pulled into Norfolk, Virginia 28 November. In July 1823, the sloop was involved in the Battle of Lake Maracaibo and Mr. Peter Storms decided to join the Independentist cause, who won their independence on 3 August. Later, in March 1824, the sloop proceeded to the Pacific and for some months cruised along the west coast of South America, where the colonies were struggling for independence. In September 1825, Peacock under the command of Commodore Thomas ap Catesby Jones, sailed to the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi, from 24 July 1826 until 6 January 1827, the sloop visited other Pacific islands to protect American commerce and the whaling industry
A sister ship is a ship of the same class as or of virtually identical design to another ship. Such vessels share an identical hull and superstructure layout, similar displacement. Often, sisters become more differentiated during their service as their equipment are separately altered, for instance, the U. S. warships USS Iowa, USS New Jersey, USS Missouri, and USS Wisconsin are all sister ships, each being an Iowa-class battleship. The most famous ships were the White Star Lines RMS Olympic, RMS Titanic. As with some other liners, the sisters worked as running mates, other sister ships include the Royal Caribbean Internationals Explorer of the Seas and Adventure of the Seas. Half-sister refers to a ship of the class but with some significant differences. Another example is the American Essex-class aircraft carriers of the Second World War that came in long-hull and short-hull versions, for example, the popular TESS-57 standard design built by Tsunishi Shipbuilding are built in Japan and the Philippines.
All the ships of this design are classed as sister ships, the International Maritime Organization defined sister ship in IMO resolution MSC/Circ.1158 in 2006. Criteria included these, A sister ship is a built by the same yard from the same plans. The acceptable deviation of lightship displacement should be between 1 and 2% of the displacement of the lead ship, depending on the length of the ship
Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos. Cuba is located in the northern Caribbean where the Caribbean Sea, the Gulf of Mexico, and it is south of both the U. S. state of Florida and the Bahamas, west of Haiti, and north of Jamaica. Havana is the largest city and capital, other cities include Santiago de Cuba. Cuba is the largest island in the Caribbean, with an area of 109,884 square kilometres, prior to Spanish colonization in the late 15th century, Cuba was inhabited by Amerindian tribes. It remained a colony of Spain until the Spanish–American War of 1898, as a fragile republic, Cuba attempted to strengthen its democratic system, but mounting political radicalization and social strife culminated in the dictatorship of Fulgencio Batista in 1952. Further unrest and instability led to Batistas ousting in January 1959 by the July 26 Movement, since 1965, the state has been governed by the Communist Party of Cuba.
A point of contention during the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States, a nuclear war broke out during the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962. Culturally, Cuba is considered part of Latin America, Cuba is a Marxist–Leninist one-party republic, where the role of the vanguard Communist Party is enshrined in the Constitution. Independent observers have accused the Cuban government of human rights abuses. It is one of the worlds last planned economies and its economy is dominated by the exports of sugar, coffee, according to the Human Development Index, Cuba is described as a country with high human development and is ranked the eighth highest in North America. It ranks highly in some metrics of national performance, including health care, the name Cuba comes from the Taíno language. The exact meaning of the name is unclear but it may be translated either as where fertile land is abundant, authors who believe that Christopher Columbus was Portuguese state that Cuba was named by Columbus for the town of Cuba in the district of Beja in Portugal.
Before the arrival of the Spanish, Cuba was inhabited by three distinct tribes of indigenous peoples of the Americas, the Taíno, the Guanajatabey, and the Ciboney people. The ancestors of the Ciboney migrated from the mainland of South America, the Taíno arrived from Hispanola sometime in the 3rd century A. D. When Columbus arrived they were the dominant culture in Cuba, having a population of 150,000. The name Cuba comes from the native Taíno language and it is derived from either coabana meaning great place, or from cubao meaning where fertile land is abundant. The Taíno were farmers, while the Ciboney were farmers as well as fishers and hunter-gatherers, Columbus claimed the island for the new Kingdom of Spain and named it Isla Juana after Juan, Prince of Asturias. In 1511, the first Spanish settlement was founded by Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar at Baracoa, other towns soon followed, including San Cristobal de la Habana, founded in 1515, which became the capital
William H. Crawford
William Harris Crawford was an American politician and judge during the early 19th century. He served as United States Secretary of War from 1815 to 1816 and United States Secretary of the Treasury from 1816 to 1825 and he moved with his family to Edgefield County, South Carolina in 1779, and to Columbia County, Georgia in 1783. Crawford was educated at schools in Georgia and at Richmond Academy in Augusta. After his fathers death, Crawford became the main financial provider. He studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1799, in 1799, Crawford was appointed by the state legislature to prepare a digest of Georgias statutes. William H. Crawford influenced Georgia politics for decades, in 1803, Crawford was elected to the Georgia House of Representatives as a member of the Democratic-Republican Party, and he served until 1807. He allied himself with senator James Jackson and their enemies were the Clarkites, led by John Clark. In 1802, he shot and killed Peter Lawrence Van Alen, four years on December 16,1806, Crawford faced Clark himself in a duel, resulting in Crawfords left wrist being shattered by a shot from Clark, but he eventually recovered.
In 1807, Crawford joined the 10th United States Congress mid-term as the junior U. S, senator from Georgia when the Georgia legislature elected him to replace George Jones, an appointee who had held the office for a few months after the death of Abraham Baldwin. Crawford was elected President pro tempore in 1811, when Vice President George Clinton died on April 20,1812, Crawford, as President pro tempore, became the first Acting Vice President until March 4,1813. In 1811, Crawford declined to serve as Secretary of War in the Madison administration, in the Senate, he voted for several acts leading up to the War of 1812, and he supported the United States entry into the war, but was ready for peace. Crawford said, Let it be the wisdom of this nation to remain at peace, upon Crawfords return, Madison appointed him as Secretary of War. After slightly more than a year of service in that post. He remained in position through the rest of Madisons term and Monroes entire administration. Crawford was again a candidate for the Democratic-Republican presidential nomination in 1824.
However, Crawford was put out of the running because of a stroke he suffered in 1823 that was brought on by a prescription given to him by his physician. The Democratic-Republican Party split around this time and one of the splinter groups nominated Crawford, despite Crawfords improved health, he finished third in the electoral vote, behind New Orleans war hero Andrew Jackson and Secretary of State John Quincy Adams. Refusing Adamss request that he remain at the Treasury, Crawford returned to Georgia, Crawford remained an active judge until his death a decade later
Jean Lafitte was a French pirate and privateer in the Gulf of Mexico in the early 19th century. He and his brother, spelled their last name Laffite. The latter has become the common spelling in the United States, Lafitte is believed to have been born either in Basque-France or the French colony of Saint-Domingue. By 1805, he operated a warehouse in New Orleans to help disperse the goods smuggled by his brother Pierre Lafitte, after the United States government passed the Embargo Act of 1807, the Lafittes moved their operations to an island in Barataria Bay, Louisiana. By 1810, their new port was successful, the Lafittes pursued a successful smuggling operation. Later, in return for a pardon for the smugglers, Lafitte. The Lafittes became spies for the Spanish during the Mexican War of Independence and moved to Galveston Island, Lafitte continued attacking merchant ships as a pirate around Central American ports until he died circa 1823, trying to capture Spanish vessels. Speculation about his life and death continues among historians, a number of details about Jean Lafittes early life remain obscure - often they contradict each other.
He and his brother Pierre alternately claimed to have born in Bayonne. Ramsay says, this was a convenient time to be a native of France, other contemporary accounts claim that Lafitte was born in Orduna, Spain or in Westchester, New York. Ramsay speculates that Lafitte was born in the French colony of Saint-Domingue, in the late 18th century, adult children of the French planters in Saint-Domingue often resettled along the Mississippi River in La Louisiane, especially in its largest city of New Orleans. He has found families with the surname Lafitte in Louisiana documents dating as early as 1765, according to Ramsay, his elder brother Pierre, and his widowed mother migrated from Saint-Domingue to New Orleans in the 1780s. In approximately 1784, his mother married Pedro Aubry - a New Orleans merchant -, Pierre was raised by extended family elsewhere in Louisiana. According to Ramsay, as a man, Lafitte likely spent much time exploring the wetlands. In years, he was described as having an accurate knowledge of every inlet from the Gulf than any other man.
His elder brother Pierre became a privateer, he may have operated from Saint-Domingue, Lafitte likely helped his brother to sell or trade the captured merchandise. By 1805 he was thought to be running a warehouse in New Orleans, the biographer William C. Davis reports a different childhood for Lafitte. According to his book, Lafitte was born in or near Pauillac, the couple had six children, including at least three daughters
Action of 9 November 1822
Fifteen leagues from Matanzas, Cuba, a large band of pirates captured several vessels and held them for ransom. Upon hearing of the attacks, Alligator under Lieutenant William Howard Allen rushed to the scene to rescue the vessels. Upon arriving at the bay where the pirates were said to be, Alligator dispatched boats to engage the enemy vessels, with Allen personally commanding one of the boats, the Americans assaulted the schooner Revenge. Although the Navy was able to force the pirates into abandoning Revenge, with their commander mortally wounded, the boats ceased pursuit of the pirates but managed to recover the vessels that had been held in the bay. Upon arriving at the port, Allen discovered two Americans attempting to raise $7,000 in order to pay a ransom to a band of pirates that had captured their vessels. If the ransom was not delivered, the pirates threatened to destroy the ships, learning from these men that the pirates were holed up some 15 leagues away, Allen took the civilians aboard and decided to make an attempt at recovering their ship from the buccaneers.
The band of pirates was relatively large, consisting of around 125 men, in addition to their armed vessels, the pirates had in their possession five American prizes. These were the ship rigged vessel William Henry from New York, the brigs Iris and Sarah Morril from Boston, and a pair of merchant schooners with one hailing from Rochester and the other Salem. Allens force of 100 was outnumbered by the pirates and outgunned, despite being outnumbered and her crew were experienced veterans, having taken the Portuguese brig Marianna Flora the year before in a bloody action. Allen himself was a commander who had taken command of USS Argus during her engagement with HMS Pelican in the War of 1812. Though Alligators draft was too deep to chase pirate craft inshore, if need be, she could send her cutter, gig, as Revenge was the nearest of the three pirate vessels to the Americans, Allen ordered Alligators boats lowered to run inshore and attack her. Some 40 men armed with small arms were put into the boats, with Allen personally taking command of the launch, Lieutenant Dale the cutter, and Midshipman Henley the gig.
Revenge was already underway by the time it was sighted and attempted to escape the Americans despite the lack of wind, after the American boats had rowed about 10 miles, the piratical schooner made an about-face and raised a red flag. Upon approaching the piratical schooner, the American craft were fired on with both grape and roundshot, the American boats returned fire with small arms and moved in to board the vessel. Rather than try to fight off the attempt, the pirates abandoned Revenge while another schooner covered their escape. Alligators gig manned by Henley and four men was sent off to take Revenge as a prize, Allen set off with the other two boats in an attempt to seize the schooner which had helped Revenges crew escape. This second schooner maintained a fire upon the advancing American boats. Allen attempted to rally his men by standing up and waving them forward, in doing so Allen exposed himself and was struck by musket fire, taking a round first in the head and in the chest
United States Coast Guard
The United States Coast Guard is a branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the countrys seven uniformed services. This has happened twice, in 1917, during World War I, created by Congress on 4 August 1790 at the request of Alexander Hamilton as the Revenue Marine, it is the oldest continuous seagoing service of the United States. As Secretary of the Treasury, Hamilton headed the Revenue Marine, by the 1860s, the service was known as the U. S. Revenue Cutter Service and the term Revenue Marine gradually fell into disuse, the modern Coast Guard was formed by a merger of the Revenue Cutter Service and the U. S. Life-Saving Service on 28 January 1915, under the U. S. Department of the Treasury. As one of the five armed services, the Coast Guard has been involved in every U. S. war from 1790 to the Iraq War. As of 2014 the Coast Guard had over 36,000 men and women on duty,7,350 reservists,29,620 auxiliarists. In terms of size, the U. S. Coast Guard by itself is the worlds 12th largest naval force.
Because of its authority, the Coast Guard can conduct military operations under the U. S. Department of Defense or directly for the President in accordance with Title 14 USC 1–3. The Coast Guards enduring roles are maritime safety, security, to carry out those roles, it has 11 statutory missions as defined in 6 U. S. C. §468, which include enforcing U. S. law in the worlds largest exclusive economic zone of 3.4 million square miles, the Coast Guards motto is the Latin phrase, Semper Paratus. In a 2005 article in Time magazine following Hurricane Katrina, the author wrote, the Coast Guards most valuable contribution to may be as a model of flexibility, and most of all, spirit. Wil Milam, a swimmer from Alaska told the magazine, In the Navy. Practicing for war, training for war, in the Coast Guard, it was, take care of our people and the mission will take care of itself. The Coast Guard carries out three basic roles, which are subdivided into eleven statutory missions. Both agencies maintain rescue coordination centers to coordinate this effort, and have responsibility for military and civilian search and rescue.
The two services jointly provide instructor staff for the National Search and Rescue School that trains SAR mission planners and coordinators, previously located on Governors Island, New York, the school is now located at Coast Guard Training Center Yorktown at Yorktown, Virginia. The NRC takes Maritime Suspicious Activity and Security Breach Reports, details on the NRC organization and specific responsibilities can be found in the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan. The Marine Information for Safety and Law Enforcement database system is managed and used by the Coast Guard for tracking pollution, the five uniformed services that make up the U. S
Gulf of Mexico
The Gulf of Mexico is an ocean basin largely surrounded by the North American continent. It is bounded on the northeast and northwest by the Gulf Coast of the United States, on the southwest and south by Mexico, and on the southeast by Cuba. The U. S. states of Alabama, Louisiana and Texas border the Gulf on the north and Pacific coasts, or sometimes the south coast, in juxtaposition to the Great Lakes region being the north coast. One of the seven main areas is the Gulf of Mexico basin. The Gulf of Mexico formed approximately 300 million years ago as a result of plate tectonics, the Gulfs basin is roughly oval and is approximately 810 nautical miles wide and floored by sedimentary rocks and recent sediments. It is connected to part of the Atlantic Ocean through the Florida Straits between the U. S. and Cuba, and with the Caribbean Sea via the Yucatan Channel between Mexico and Cuba, with the narrow connection to the Atlantic, the Gulf experiences very small tidal ranges. The size of the Gulf basin is approximately 1.6 million km2, almost half of the basin is shallow continental shelf waters.
The basin contains a volume of roughly 2,500 quadrillion liters, the consensus among geologists who have studied the geology of the Gulf of Mexico, is that prior to the Late Triassic, the Gulf of Mexico did not exist. It was created by the collision of plates that formed Pangea. As interpreted by Roy Van Arsdale and Randel T. Cox and other Earth scientists agree in general that the present Gulf of Mexico basin originated in Late Triassic time as the result of rifting within Pangea. The rifting was associated with zones of weakness within Pangea, including sutures where the Laurentia, South American, there was a Late Triassic-Early Jurassic phase of rifting during which rift valleys formed and filled with continental red beds. Second, as rifting progressed through Early and Middle Jurassic time and it was at this time that tectonics first created a connection to the Pacific Ocean across central Mexico and eastward to the Atlantic Ocean. This flooded the basin created by rifting and crustal thinning to create the Gulf of Mexico.
While the Gulf of Mexico was a basin, the subsiding transitional crust was blanketed by the widespread deposition of Louann Salt. Initially, during the Late Jurassic, continued rifting widened the Gulf of Mexico and progressed to the point that sea-floor spreading, at this point, sufficient circulation with the Atlantic Ocean was established that the deposition of Louann Salt ceased. During the Late Jurassic through Early Cretaceous, the occupied by the Gulf of Mexico experienced a period of cooling. The subsidence was the result of a combination of stretching, cooling. Initially, the combination of stretching and cooling caused about 5–7 km of tectonic subsidence of the central thin transitional