University of Dublin
The University of Dublin, corporately designated the Chancellor and Masters of the University of Dublin, is a university located in Dublin, Ireland. It is the degree awarding body for Trinity College Dublin, it was founded in 1592 when Queen Elizabeth I issued a charter for Trinity College as "the mother of a university", thereby making it Ireland's oldest operating university. It was modelled after the collegiate universities of Oxford and of Cambridge, but unlike these other ancient universities, only one college was established; the University of Dublin is one of the seven ancient universities of Ireland. It is a member of the Irish Universities Association, Universities Ireland, the Coimbra Group; the University of Dublin was modelled on the University of Oxford and the University of Cambridge as a collegiate university, Trinity College being named by the Queen as the mater universitatis. The founding Charter conferred a general power on the College to make provision for university functions to be carried out.
So, for example, the Charter while naming the first Provost of the College, the first fellows and the first scholars, in addition named William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley to be the first Chancellor of the University. No other college has been established, Trinity remains the sole constituent college of the university; the project of establishing another college within the University was considered on at least two occasions, but the required finance or endowment was never available. The most recent authoritative statement of the position is in the Universities Act, 1997. In the section relating to interpretation it specifies that:- "3.— In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires— "Trinity College” means the College of the Holy and Undivided Trinity of Queen Elizabeth near Dublin established by charter dated the 3rd day of March, 1592, shall be held to include the University of Dublin save where the context otherwise requires in accordance with the charters and letters patent relating to Trinity College.
Subsequently, in a remarkable High Court case of 1898, the Provost and Scholars of Trinity were the claimants and the Chancellor and Masters of the University of Dublin were among the defendants, the court held that Trinity College and the University of Dublin "are one body". The judge noted pointedly that "he advisers of Queen Victoria knew how to incorporate a University when they meant to do so" and that the letters patent dealt with "not the incorporation of the University of Dublin but of its Senate merely". Notwithstanding, the statutes of the university and the college grant the university separate corporate legal rights to own property, borrow money, employ staff, enable it to sue and be sued as occurred in the case referred to above. To date the other rights have not been exercised. Current Officers of the University are either unpaid and purely honorary, or have duties relating to the college for which they are paid, but by the College; some of the legal definitions and differences between college and university were discussed in the reform of the University and College in The Charters and Letters Patent Amendment Bill, which became law, but many of the College contributions to this were unclear or not comprehensive because it concerned an internal dispute within College as to outside interference and as misconduct by College Authorities in overseeing voting which led to a visitors enquiry which in turn found problems with the voting procedures and ordered a repeat ballot.
Further contributions on the relationship between College and University can be found in submissions to the Oireachtas on reform of Seanad Éireann, the upper house of the Irish Oireachtas, since the University elects members to that body), in particular the verbal submission of the Provost. Traditionally, sport clubs use the name "University", rather than "College"; the university is governed by the university senate, chaired by the chancellor or their pro-chancellor. While the Senate was formally constituted by the Letters Patent of 1857 as a body corporate under the name and title of "The Chancellor and Masters of the University of Dublin", it had existed since soon after the foundation of Trinity College being brought into being by the enabling powers contained in the founding Charter; the Letters Patent had the effect of converting a preexisting non-incorporated body relying on custom and precedent to establish its authority into a corporate body and explicitly established in law. The Letters Patent empowered the university senate by stating:- "It shall be and shall continue to be a body corporate with a common seal, shall have power under the said seal to do all such acts as may be lawful for it to do in conformity with the laws and statutes of the State and with the Charters and Statutes of the College."
The Letters Patent defined the composition of the Senate:- " It shall consist of the Chancellor, the Pro-Chancellors, such Doctors and Masters of the University as s
Arachnology is the scientific study of spiders and related animals such as scorpions and harvestmen, collectively called arachnids. Those who study spiders and other arachnids are arachnologists; the word "arachnology" derives from Greek ἀράχνη, arachnē, "spider". Arachnologists are responsible for classifying arachnids and studying aspects of their biology. In the popular imagination, they are sometimes referred to as spider experts. Disciplines within arachnology include naming species and determining their evolutionary relationships to one another, studying how they interact with other members of their species and/or their environment, or how they are distributed in different regions and habitats. Other arachnologists perform research on the anatomy or physiology of arachnids, including the venom of spiders and scorpions. Others study the impact of spiders in agricultural ecosystems and whether they can be used as biological control agents. Arachnology can be broken down into several specialties.
These topics include: acarology – the study of ticks and mites araneology – the study of spiders scorpiology – the study of scorpions Arachnologists are served by a number of scientific societies, both national and international in scope. Their main roles are to encourage the exchange of ideas between researchers, to organise meetings and congresses, in a number of cases, to publish academic journals; some are involved in science outreach programs, such as the European spider of the year, which raise awareness of these animals among the general public. International International Society of Arachnology websiteAfrica African Arachnological Society websiteAsia Arachnological Society of Japan website Asian Society of Arachnology website Indian Society of Arachnology website Iranian Arachnological Society websiteAustralasia Australasian Arachnological Society websiteEurope Aracnofilia – Associazione Italiana di Aracnologia website Arachnologia Belgica – Belgian Arachnological Society website Arachnologische Gesellschaft website Association Francaise d'Arachnologie website British Arachnological Society website Czech Arachnological Society website European Society of Arachnology website Grupo Ibérico de Aracnologia website Magyar Arachnolgia – Hungarian ArachnologyNorth America American Arachnological Society website In the 1970s, arachnids – tarantulas – started to become popular as exotic pets.
Many tarantulas thus become more known by their common names such as the Mexican redknee tarantula. Various societies now focus on the husbandry, care and captive breeding of tarantulas, other arachnids, they typically produce journals or newsletters with articles and advice on these subjects. British Tarantula Society website Deutsche Arachnologische Gesellschaft website The American Tarantula Society website Cultural depictions of spiders Entomology Category:Arachnologists International Society of Arachnology Spider Myths: Spiders are Easy to Identify
Melisma is the singing of a single syllable of text while moving between several different notes in succession. Music sung in this style is referred to as melismatic, as opposed to syllabic, in which each syllable of text is matched to a single note. Music of ancient cultures used melismatic techniques to induce a hypnotic trance in the listener, useful for early mystical initiation rites and religious worship; this quality is still found in Arabic music where the scale consists of "quarter tones". Orthodox Christian chanting bears a slight resemblance to this. Middle Eastern melismatic music was developed further in the Torah chanting, as well as by the Masoretes in the seventh or eighth centuries, it appeared in some genres of Gregorian chant, where it was used in certain sections of the Mass, with the earliest written appearance around AD 900. The gradual and the alleluia, in particular, were characteristically melismatic, for example, while the tract is not, repetitive melodic patterns were deliberately avoided in the style.
The Byzantine Rite used melismatic elements in its music, which developed concurrently with the Gregorian chant. In Western music, the term "melisma" most refers to Gregorian chant. However, the term melisma may be used to describe music of any genre, including baroque singing and gospel. Within Jewish liturgical tradition, melisma is still used in the chanting of Torah, readings from the Prophets, in the body of a service. For an examination of the evolution of this tradition, see Idelsohn. Today, melisma is used in Middle Eastern, African and African American music, Fado and various Asian folk and popular musical genres. Melisma is commonly featured in Western popular music. Early in their careers, Ray Charles, Aretha Franklin, Stevie Wonder used it sparingly. Melisma is used by countless pop artists such as Michael Jackson, although this form involves improvising melismata over a simpler melody. During the fadeout of the Beatles' 1966 track "I Want to Tell You", bassist Paul McCartney can be heard singing a high-pitched melisma in the style of classical Indian music.
The use of melisma is a common feature of artists such as Deniece Williams, Stevie Wonder, Luther Vandross, Whitney Houston, Mariah Carey, Beyoncé, Christina Aguilera, among others. The use of melismatic vocals in pop music grew in the 1980s. Deniece Williams topped the Billboard Hot 100 chart in May 1984, with Let's Hear It for the Boy with her melismatic vocals. Although other artists used melisma before, Houston's rendition of Dolly Parton's love song "I Will Always Love You" pushed the technique into the mainstream in the'90s; the trend in R&B singers is considered to have been popularized by Mariah Carey's song "Vision of Love", released and topped the charts at number one in 1990, went on to be certified gold. As late as 2007, melismatic singers such as Leona Lewis were still scoring big hits, but around 2008–2009, this trend reverted to how it was prior to Carey and Houston's success – singers with less showy styles such as Kesha and Cheryl Cole began to outsell new releases by Carey and Christina Aguilera, ending nearly two decades of the style's dominance of pop-music vocals.
The French carol tune "Gloria" arranged by Edward Shippen Barnes in 1937, to which the hymn "Angels We Have Heard on High" is sung, contains one of the most melismatic sequences in popular Christian hymn music, on the "o" of the word "Gloria", held through 16 different notes. "Ding Dong Merrily on High", arranged by George Ratcliffe Woodward, contains an longer melisma of 31 notes on the "o" of "Gloria". George Frideric Handel's Messiah contains numerous examples of melisma, as in the following excerpt from the chorus "For Unto Us a Child Is Born"; the soprano and alto lines engage in a 57-note melisma on the word "born". Play Melisma is used, though and in the music of Jethro Tull: examples include the eponymous track of the album Songs From the Wood and the song "Skating Away". One of the most striking instances in recent pop music occurs in Bruce Springsteen's "The Ties that Bind", in which the "I" in "bind" is iterated 13 times. A striking example is found in Bohemian Rhapsody by Queen, in which melisma on the syllables'-co' and'go' forms part of the dramatic structure of the song.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart uses melisma in his Requiem Mass in D minor in the Kyrie sequence, with the "e" in "eleison" being elaborately sung in various notes. Arabic maqam American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language entry on "melisma" Virginia Tech Multimedia Music Dictionary entry on melisma
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the Italian city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire. The civilization began as an Italic settlement in the Italian Peninsula, conventionally founded in 753 BC, that grew into the city of Rome and which subsequently gave its name to the empire over which it ruled and to the widespread civilisation the empire developed; the Roman Empire expanded to become one of the largest empires in the ancient world, though still ruled from the city, with an estimated 50 to 90 million inhabitants and covering 5.0 million square kilometres at its height in AD 117. In its many centuries of existence, the Roman state evolved from a monarchy to a classical republic and to an autocratic semi-elective empire. Through conquest and assimilation, it dominated the North African coast and most of Western Europe, the Balkans and much of the Middle East.
It is grouped into classical antiquity together with ancient Greece, their similar cultures and societies are known as the Greco-Roman world. Ancient Roman civilisation has contributed to modern language, society, law, government, art, literature and engineering. Rome professionalised and expanded its military and created a system of government called res publica, the inspiration for modern republics such as the United States and France, it achieved impressive technological and architectural feats, such as the construction of an extensive system of aqueducts and roads, as well as the construction of large monuments and public facilities. The Punic Wars with Carthage were decisive in establishing Rome as a world power. In this series of wars Rome gained control of the strategic islands of Corsica and Sicily. By the end of the Republic, Rome had conquered the lands around the Mediterranean and beyond: its domain extended from the Atlantic to Arabia and from the mouth of the Rhine to North Africa.
The Roman Empire emerged with the dictatorship of Augustus Caesar. 721 years of Roman–Persian Wars started in 92 BC with their first war against Parthia. It would become the longest conflict in human history, have major lasting effects and consequences for both empires. Under Trajan, the Empire reached its territorial peak, it stretched from the entire Mediterranean Basin to the beaches of the North Sea in the north, to the shores of the Red and Caspian Seas in the East. Republican mores and traditions started to decline during the imperial period, with civil wars becoming a prelude common to the rise of a new emperor. Splinter states, such as the Palmyrene Empire, would temporarily divide the Empire during the crisis of the 3rd century. Plagued by internal instability and attacked by various migrating peoples, the western part of the empire broke up into independent "barbarian" kingdoms in the 5th century; this splintering is a landmark historians use to divide the ancient period of universal history from the pre-medieval "Dark Ages" of Europe.
The eastern part of the empire endured through the 5th century and remained a power throughout the "Dark Ages" and medieval times until its fall in 1453 AD. Although the citizens of the empire made no distinction, the empire is most referred to as the "Byzantine Empire" by modern historians during the Middle Ages to differentiate between the state of antiquity and the nation it grew into. According to the founding myth of Rome, the city was founded on 21 April 753 BC on the banks of the river Tiber in central Italy, by the twin brothers Romulus and Remus, who descended from the Trojan prince Aeneas, who were grandsons of the Latin King Numitor of Alba Longa. King Numitor was deposed by his brother, while Numitor's daughter, Rhea Silvia, gave birth to the twins. Since Rhea Silvia had been raped and impregnated by Mars, the Roman god of war, the twins were considered half-divine; the new king, feared Romulus and Remus would take back the throne, so he ordered them to be drowned. A she-wolf saved and raised them, when they were old enough, they returned the throne of Alba Longa to Numitor.
The twins founded their own city, but Romulus killed Remus in a quarrel over the location of the Roman Kingdom, though some sources state the quarrel was about, going to rule or give his name to the city. Romulus became the source of the city's name. In order to attract people to the city, Rome became a sanctuary for the indigent and unwanted; this caused a problem, in that Rome was bereft of women. Romulus visited neighboring towns and tribes and attempted to secure marriage rights, but as Rome was so full of undesirables he was refused. Legend says that the Latins invited the Sabines to a festival and stole their unmarried maidens, leading to the integration of the Latins with the Sabines. Another legend, recorded by Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus, says that Prince Aeneas led a group of Trojans on a sea voyage to found a new Troy, since the original was destroyed at the end of the Trojan War. After a long time in rough seas, they landed on the banks of the Tiber River. Not long after they landed, the men wanted to take to the sea again, but the women who were traveling with them did not want to leave.
One woman, named Roma, suggested that the women burn the ships out at sea to prevent their leaving
Cyclopædia, or an Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences
Cyclopædia: or, An Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences was an encyclopedia published by Ephraim Chambers in London in 1728, reprinted in numerous editions in the eighteenth century. The Cyclopaedia was one of the first general encyclopedias to be produced in English; the 1728 subtitle gives a summary of the aims of the author: Cyclopædia, or, an Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences: Containing the Definitions of the Terms, Accounts of the Things Signify'd Thereby, in the Several Arts, both Liberal and Mechanical, the Several Sciences and Divine: the Figures, Properties, Productions and Uses, of Things Natural and Artificial. The first edition included numerous cross-references meant to connect articles scattered by the use of alphabetical order, a dedication to the King, George II, a philosophical preface at the beginning of Volume 1. Among other things, the preface gives an analysis of forty-seven divisions of knowledge, with classed lists of the articles belonging to each, intended to serve as a table of contents and as a directory indicating the order in which the articles should be read.
A second edition appeared in 1738 with 2,466 pages. This edition was retouched and amended in a thousand places, with a few added articles and some enlarged articles. Chambers was prevented from doing more because the booksellers were alarmed by a bill in Parliament containing a clause to oblige the publishers of all improved editions of books to print their improvements separately; the bill, after passing the House of Commons, was unexpectedly thrown out by the House of Lords. Five other editions were published in London from 1739 to 1751–1752. An edition was published in Dublin in 1742. An Italian translation appearing in Venice, 1748–1749, 4to, 9 vols. was the first complete Italian encyclopaedia. When Chambers was in France in 1739, he rejected favorable proposals to publish an edition there dedicated to Louis XV. Chambers' work was done, popular. However, it had omissions, as he was well aware. George Lewis Scott was employed by the booksellers to select articles for the press and to supply others, but he left before the job was finished.
The job was given to Dr. John Hill; the Supplement was published in London in 1753 in two folio volumes with 12 plates. Hill was a botanist, the botanical part, weak in the Cyclopaedia, was the best. Abraham Rees, a nonconformist minister, published a revised and enlarged edition in 1778–1788, with the supplement and improvements incorporated, it was published as a folio of 5 vols. 5010 pages, 159 plates. It was published in 418 numbers at 6d. Each. Rees claimed to have added more than 4,400 new articles. At the end, he gave an index of articles, classed under 100.heads, numbering about 57,000 and filling 80 pages. The heads, with 39 cross references, were arranged alphabetically. Among the precursors of Chambers's Cyclopaedia was John Harris's Lexicon Technicum, of 1704. By its title and content, it was "An Universal English Dictionary of Arts and Sciences: Explaining not only the Terms of Art, but the Arts Themselves." While Harris's work is classified as a technical dictionary, it took material from Newton and Halley, among others.
Chambers's Cyclopaedia in turn became the inspiration for the landmark Encyclopédie of Denis Diderot and Jean le Rond d'Alembert, which owed its inception to a proposed French translation of Chambers' work begun in 1744 by John Mills, assisted by Gottfried Sellius Bocast, Alexander. Chambers on Definition. McLean: Berkeley Bridge Press, 2016.. Bradshaw, Lael Ely. "Ephraim Chambers’ Cyclopedia." Notable Encyclopedias of the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries: Nine Predecessors of the Encyclopédie. Ed. Frank Kafker. Oxford: The Voltaire Foundation, 1981. 123–137.. Collison, Robert. Encyclopædias: Their History Throughout the Ages. New York: Hafner, 1966. OCLC 368968 Kafker, Frank. A. Notable Encyclopedias of the Late Eighteenth Century: Eleven Successors of the Encyclopédie. Oxford: Voltaire Foundation at the Taylor Institution, 1994. Kolb, Gwin J. and James H. Sledd. “Johnson’s ‘Dictionary’ and Lexicographical Tradition.” Modern Philology 50.3: 171–194. Mack, Ruth. “The Historicity of Johnson’s Lexicographer.”
Representations 76: 61–87. Shorr, Phillip. Science and Superstition in the Eighteenth Century: A Study of the Treatment of Science in Two Encyclopedias of 1725–1750. New York: Columbia, 1932. OCLC 3633346 Walsh, S. Patraig. "Cyclopaedia." Anglo-American General Encyclopedias: A Historical Bibliography, 1703–1967. New York: R. R. Bowker, 1968. 38–39. OCLC 577541 Yeo, Richard. "The Best Book in the Universe": Ephraim Chambers’ Cyclopedia. In Encyclopædic Visions: Scientific Dictionaries and Enlightenment Culture. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2001. 120–169. Yeo, Richard R. "A Solution to the Multitude of Books: Ephraim Chambers's Cyclopaedia as "the Best Book in the Universe."" Journal of the History of Ideas, v. 64, 2003. Pp. 61–72. Chambers' Cyclopaedia, 1728, 2 volumes
University of Cambridge
The University of Cambridge is a collegiate public research university in Cambridge, United Kingdom. Founded in 1209 and granted a Royal Charter by King Henry III in 1231, Cambridge is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and the world's fourth-oldest surviving university; the university grew out of an association of scholars who left the University of Oxford after a dispute with the townspeople. The two'ancient universities' share many common features and are referred to jointly as'Oxbridge'; the history and influence of the University of Cambridge has made it one of the most prestigious universities in the world. Cambridge is formed from a variety of institutions which include 31 constituent Colleges and over 100 academic departments organised into six schools. Cambridge University Press, a department of the university, is the world's oldest publishing house and the second-largest university press in the world; the university operates eight cultural and scientific museums, including the Fitzwilliam Museum, as well as a botanic garden.
Cambridge's libraries hold a total of around 15 million books, eight million of which are in Cambridge University Library, a legal deposit library. In the fiscal year ending 31 July 2018, the university had a total income of £1.965 billion, of which £515.5 million was from research grants and contracts. In the financial year ending 2017, the central university and colleges had combined net assets of around £11.8 billion, the largest of any university in the country. However, the true extent of Cambridge's wealth is much higher as many colleges hold their historic main sites, which date as far back as the 13th century, at depreceated valuations. Furthermore, many of the wealthiest colleges do not account for “heritage assets” such as works of art, libraries or artefacts, whose value many college accounts describe as “immaterial”; the university is linked with the development of the high-tech business cluster known as'Silicon Fen'. It is a member of numerous associations and forms part of the'golden triangle' of English universities and Cambridge University Health Partners, an academic health science centre.
As of 2018, Cambridge is the top-ranked university in the United Kingdom according to all major league tables. As of September 2017, Cambridge is ranked the world's second best university by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings, is ranked 3rd worldwide by Academic Ranking of World Universities, 6th by QS, 7th by US News. According to the Times Higher Education ranking, no other institution in the world ranks in the top 10 for as many subjects; the university has educated many notable alumni, including eminent mathematicians, politicians, philosophers, writers and foreign Heads of State. As of March 2019, 118 Nobel Laureates, 11 Fields Medalists, 7 Turing Award winners and 15 British Prime Ministers have been affiliated with Cambridge as students, faculty or research staff. By the late 12th century, the Cambridge area had a scholarly and ecclesiastical reputation, due to monks from the nearby bishopric church of Ely. However, it was an incident at Oxford, most to have led to the establishment of the university: two Oxford scholars were hanged by the town authorities for the death of a woman, without consulting the ecclesiastical authorities, who would take precedence in such a case, but were at that time in conflict with King John.
The University of Oxford went into suspension in protest, most scholars moved to cities such as Paris and Cambridge. After the University of Oxford reformed several years enough scholars remained in Cambridge to form the nucleus of the new university. In order to claim precedence, it is common for Cambridge to trace its founding to the 1231 charter from King Henry III granting it the right to discipline its own members and an exemption from some taxes. A bull in 1233 from Pope Gregory IX gave graduates from Cambridge the right to teach "everywhere in Christendom". After Cambridge was described as a studium generale in a letter from Pope Nicholas IV in 1290, confirmed as such in a bull by Pope John XXII in 1318, it became common for researchers from other European medieval universities to visit Cambridge to study or to give lecture courses; the colleges at the University of Cambridge were an incidental feature of the system. No college is as old as the university itself; the colleges were endowed fellowships of scholars.
There were institutions without endowments, called hostels. The hostels were absorbed by the colleges over the centuries, but they have left some traces, such as the name of Garret Hostel Lane. Hugh Balsham, Bishop of Ely, founded Peterhouse, Cambridge's first college, in 1284. Many colleges were founded during the 14th and 15th centuries, but colleges continued to be established until modern times, although there was a gap of 204 years between the founding of Sidney Sussex in 1596 and that of Downing in 1800; the most established college is Robinson, built in the late 1970s. However, Homerton College only achieved full university college status in March 2010, making it the newest full college. In medieval times, many colleges were founded so that their members would pray for the souls of the founders, were associated with chapels or abbeys; the colleges' focus changed in 1536 with the Dissolution of the Monasteries. King Henry VIII ordered the university to disband its Faculty of Canon Law and to stop teaching "scholastic philosophy".
In response, colleges changed
Scotland is a country, part of the United Kingdom. Sharing a border with England to the southeast, Scotland is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, by the North Sea to the northeast and by the Irish Sea to the south. In addition to the mainland, situated on the northern third of the island of Great Britain, Scotland has over 790 islands, including the Northern Isles and the Hebrides; the Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707. By inheritance in 1603, James VI, King of Scots, became King of England and King of Ireland, thus forming a personal union of the three kingdoms. Scotland subsequently entered into a political union with the Kingdom of England on 1 May 1707 to create the new Kingdom of Great Britain; the union created a new Parliament of Great Britain, which succeeded both the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of England. In 1801, the Kingdom of Great Britain and Kingdom of Ireland enacted a political union to create a United Kingdom.
The majority of Ireland subsequently seceded from the UK in 1922. Within Scotland, the monarchy of the United Kingdom has continued to use a variety of styles and other royal symbols of statehood specific to the pre-union Kingdom of Scotland; the legal system within Scotland has remained separate from those of England and Wales and Northern Ireland. The continued existence of legal, educational and other institutions distinct from those in the remainder of the UK have all contributed to the continuation of Scottish culture and national identity since the 1707 union with England; the Scottish Parliament, a unicameral legislature comprising 129 members, was established in 1999 and has authority over those areas of domestic policy which have been devolved by the United Kingdom Parliament. The head of the Scottish Government, the executive of the devolved legislature, is the First Minister of Scotland. Scotland is represented in the UK House of Commons by 59 MPs and in the European Parliament by 6 MEPs.
Scotland is a member of the British–Irish Council, sends five members of the Scottish Parliament to the British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly. Scotland is divided into councils. Glasgow City is the largest subdivision in Scotland in terms of population, with Highland being the largest in terms of area. "Scotland" comes from the Latin name for the Gaels. From the ninth century, the meaning of Scotia shifted to designate Gaelic Scotland and by the eleventh century the name was being used to refer to the core territory of the Kingdom of Alba in what is now east-central Scotland; the use of the words Scots and Scotland to encompass most of what is now Scotland became common in the Late Middle Ages, as the Kingdom of Alba expanded and came to encompass various peoples of diverse origins. Repeated glaciations, which covered the entire land mass of modern Scotland, destroyed any traces of human habitation that may have existed before the Mesolithic period, it is believed the first post-glacial groups of hunter-gatherers arrived in Scotland around 12,800 years ago, as the ice sheet retreated after the last glaciation.
At the time, Scotland was covered in forests, had more bog-land, the main form of transport was by water. These settlers began building the first known permanent houses on Scottish soil around 9,500 years ago, the first villages around 6,000 years ago; the well-preserved village of Skara Brae on the mainland of Orkney dates from this period. Neolithic habitation and ritual sites are common and well preserved in the Northern Isles and Western Isles, where a lack of trees led to most structures being built of local stone. Evidence of sophisticated pre-Christian belief systems is demonstrated by sites such as the Callanish Stones on Lewis and the Maes Howe on Orkney, which were built in the third millennium BCE; the first written reference to Scotland was in 320 BC by Greek sailor Pytheas, who called the northern tip of Britain "Orcas", the source of the name of the Orkney islands. During the first millennium BCE, the society changed to a chiefdom model, as consolidation of settlement led to the concentration of wealth and underground stores of surplus food.
The first Roman incursion into Scotland occurred in 79 AD. After the Roman victory, Roman forts were set along the Gask Ridge close to the Highland line, but by three years after the battle, the Roman armies had withdrawn to the Southern Uplands; the Romans erected Hadrian's Wall in northern England and the Limes Britannicus became the northern border of the Roman Empire. The Roman influence on the southern part of the country was considerable, they introduced Christianity to Scotland. Beginning in the sixth century, the area, now Scotland was divided into three areas: Pictland, a patchwork of small lordships in central Scotland; these societies were based on the family unit and had sharp divisions in wealth, although the vast majority were poor and worked full-time in subsistence agriculture. The Picts kept slaves through the ninth century. Gaelic influence over Pictland and Northumbria was facilitated by the large number of Gaelic-speaking clerics working as missionaries. Operating in the sixth ce