Saab Automobile AB was a manufacturer of automobiles, founded in Sweden in 1945 when its parent company, SAAB AB, began a project to design a small automobile. The first production model, the Saab 92, was launched in 1949. In 1968 the parent company merged with Scania-Vabis, ten years the Saab 900 was launched, in time becoming Saab's best-selling model. In the mid-1980s the new Saab 9000 model appeared. In 1989, the automobile division of Saab-Scania was restructured into an independent company, Saab Automobile AB; the American manufacturer General Motors took 50 percent ownership with an investment of US$600 million. Two well-known models to come out of this period were the Saab 9-3 and the Saab 9-5. In 2000, GM exercised its option to acquire the remaining 50 percent for a further US$125 million. In 2010 GM sold Saab Automobile AB to the Dutch automobile manufacturer Spyker Cars N. V. After struggling to avoid insolvency throughout 2011, the company petitioned for bankruptcy following the failure of a Chinese consortium to complete a purchase of the company.
On 13 June 2012, it was announced that a newly formed company called National Electric Vehicle Sweden had bought Saab Automobile's bankrupt estate. According to "Saab United", the first NEVS Saab 9-3 drove off its pre-production line on 19 September 2013. Full production restarted on 2 December 2013 the same gasoline-powered 9-3 Aero sedans that were built before Saab went bankrupt, intended to get the automaker’s supply chain reestablished as it attempted development of a new line of NEVS-Saab products. NEVS lost its license to manufacture automobiles under the Saab name in the summer of 2014 and now produces electric cars based on the Saab 9-3 but under its own new car designation "NEVS". Saab AB, "Svenska Aeroplan Aktiebolaget", a Swedish aerospace and defence company, was created in 1937 in Linköping; the company had been established in 1937 for the express purpose of building aircraft for the Swedish Air Force to protect the country's neutrality as Europe moved closer to World War II. As the war drew to a close and the market for fighter planes seemed to weaken, the company began looking for new markets in which to diversify.
An automobile design project was started in 1945 with the internal name "X9248". The design project became formally known as "Project 92". In 1948, a company site in Trollhättan was converted to allow automobile assembly and the project moved there, along with the car manufacturing headquarters, which has remained there since; the company made four prototypes named "Ursaab" or "original Saab", numbered 92001 through to 92004, before designing the production model, the Saab 92, in 1949. The Saab 92 went into production in December 1949; the 92 was redesigned and re-engineered in 1955, was renamed the "Saab 93". The car's engine gained a cylinder, going from two to three and its front fascia became the first to sport the first incarnation of Saab's trademark trapezoidal radiator grill. A wagon variant, the Saab 95, was added in 1959; the decade saw Saab's first performance car, the Saab 94, the first of the Saab Sonetts. 1960 saw the third major revision to the 92's platform in the Saab 96. The 96 was an important model for Saab: it was the first Saab to be exported out of Sweden.
The unusual vehicle proved popular, selling nearly 550,000 examples. Unlike American cars of the day, the 93, 95 and 96 all featured the 3-cylinder 2-cycle engine, which required adding oil to the gasoline tank, front-wheel drive, freewheeling, which allowed the driver to downshift the on-the-column manual shifter without using the clutch. Front seat shoulder belts were an early feature. More important to the company's fortunes was 1968's Saab 99; the 99 was the first all-new Saab in 19 years and a clean break from the 92. The 99 had many innovations and features that would come to define Saabs for decades: wraparound windscreen, self-repairing bumpers, headlamp washers and side-impact door beams; the design by Sixten Sason was no less revolutionary than the underlying technology, elements like the Saab hockey stick profile graphic continue to influence Saab design. In 1969, Saab AB merged with the Swedish commercial vehicle manufacturer Scania-Vabis AB to form Saab-Scania AB, under the Wallenberg family umbrella.
The 99 range was expanded in 1973 with the addition of a combi coupe model, a body style which became synonymous with Saab. The millionth Saab was produced in 1976. Saab entered into an agreement with Fiat in 1978 to sell a rebadged Lancia Delta as the Saab 600 and jointly develop a new platform; the agreement yielded sister to the Alfa Romeo 164, Fiat Croma and Lancia Thema. The 9000 was Saab's first proper luxury car. 1978 was the first year for the 99's replacement: the Saab 900. Nearly one million 900s would be produced, making it most iconic model. A popular convertible version followed in 1986, all of which were made at the Saab-Valmet factory in Finland, making up nearly 20% of 900 sales. Today, the "classic 900" retains a cult following. In 1989, the Saab car division of Saab-Scania was restructured into an independent company, Saab Automobile AB, headquartered in Sweden. GM's investment o
An ignition system generates a spark or heats an electrode to a high temperature to ignite a fuel-air mixture in spark ignition internal combustion engines, oil-fired and gas-fired boilers, rocket engines, etc. The widest application for spark ignition internal combustion engines is in petrol road vehicles: cars and motorcycles. Compression ignition Diesel engines ignite the fuel-air mixture by the heat of compression and do not need a spark, they have glowplugs that preheat the combustion chamber to allow starting in cold weather. Other engines may use a heated tube, for ignition. While this was common for early engines it is now rare; the first electric spark ignition was Alessandro Volta's toy electric pistol from the 1780s. Siegfried Marcus patented his "Electrical igniting device for gas engines" on 7 October 1884; the simplest form of spark ignition is. The engine spins a magnet inside a coil, or, in the earlier designs, a coil inside a fixed magnet, operates a contact breaker, interrupting the current and causing the voltage to be increased sufficiently to jump a small gap.
The spark plugs are connected directly from the magneto output. Early magnetos had one coil, with the contact breaker inside the combustion chamber. In about 1902, Bosch introduced a double-coil magneto, with a fixed sparking plug, the contact breaker outside the cylinder. Magnetos are not used in modern cars, but because they generate their own electricity they are found on small engines such as those found in mopeds, snowblowers, etc. where a battery-based electrical system is not present for any combination of necessity, weight and reliability reasons. They are used on piston-engined aircraft engines. Although an electrical supply is available, magneto systems are used because of their higher reliability. Magnetos were used on the small engine's ancestor, the stationary "hit and miss" engine, used in the early twentieth century, on older gasoline or distillate farm tractors before battery starting and lighting became common, on aircraft piston engines. Magnetos were used in these engines because their simplicity and self-contained operation was more reliable, because magnetos weighed less than having a battery and dynamo or alternator.
Aircraft engines have dual magnetos to provide redundancy in the event of a failure, to increase efficiency by and burning the fuel air mix from both sides towards the center. The Wright brothers used a magneto invented in 1902 and built for them in 1903 by Dayton, Ohio inventor, Vincent Groby Apple; some older automobiles had both a magneto system and a battery actuated system running to ensure proper ignition under all conditions with the limited performance each system provided at the time. This gave the benefits of easy starting with reliable sparking at speed. Many modern magneto systems have removed the second coil from the magneto itself and placed it in an external coil assembly similar to the ignition coil described below. In this development, the induced current in the coil in the magneto flows through the primary of the external coil, generating a high voltage in the secondary as a result; such a system is referred to as an'energy transfer system'. Energy transfer systems provide the ultimate in ignition reliability.
The output of a magneto depends on the speed of the engine, therefore starting can be problematic. Some magnetos include an impulse system, which spins the magnet at the proper moment, making easier starting at slow cranking speeds; some engines, such as aircraft but the Ford Model T, used a system which relied on non rechargeable dry cells, to start the engine or for starting and running at low speed. The operator would manually switch the ignition over to magneto operation for high speed operation. To provide high voltage for the spark from the low voltage batteries, a'tickler' was used, a larger version of the once widespread electric buzzer. With this apparatus, the direct current passes through an electromagnetic coil which pulls open a pair of contact points, interrupting the current; the collapsing magnetic field, induces a high voltage across the coil which can only relieve itself by arcing across the contact points. In this mode of operation, the coil would "buzz" continuously, producing a constant train of sparks.
The entire apparatus was known as the'Model T spark coil'. Long after the demise of the Model T as transportation they remained a popular self-contained source of high voltage for electrical home experimenters, appearing in articles in magazines such as Popular Mechanics and projects for school science fairs as late as the early 1960s. In the UK these devices were known as trembler coils and were popular in cars pre-1910, in commercial vehicles with large engines until around 1925 to ease starting; the Model T magneto differed from modern implementations by not providing high voltage directly at the output.
Chrysler is one of the "Big Three" automobile manufacturers in the United States, headquartered in Auburn Hills, Michigan. The original Chrysler Corporation was founded in 1925 by Walter Chrysler from the remains of the Maxwell Motor Company. In 1998, it was acquired by Daimler-Benz, the holding company was renamed DaimlerChrysler. After Daimler divested Chrysler in 2007, the company existed as Chrysler LLC and Chrysler Group LLC before merging in 2014 with Fiat S.p. A. and becoming a subsidiary of its successor Fiat Chrysler Automobiles. In addition to the Chrysler brand, FCA sells vehicles worldwide under the Dodge and Ram nameplates. Furthermore, the subsidiary includes Mopar, its automotive parts and accessories division, SRT, its performance automobile division. After founding the company, Walter Chrysler used the General Motors brand diversification and hierarchy strategy that he had seen working for Buick, acquired Fargo Trucks and Dodge Brothers, created the Plymouth and DeSoto brands in 1928.
Facing postwar declines in market share and profitability, as GM and Ford were growing, Chrysler borrowed $250 million in 1954 from Prudential Insurance to pay for expansion and updated car designs. Chrysler expanded into Europe by taking control of French and Spanish auto companies in the 1960s; the company struggled to adapt to changing markets, increased U. S. import competition, safety and environmental regulation in the 1970s. It began an engineering partnership with Mitsubishi Motors, began selling Mitsubishi vehicles branded as Dodge and Plymouth in North America. On the verge of bankruptcy in the late 1970s, it was saved by $1.5 billion in loan guarantees from the U. S. government. New CEO Lee Iacocca was credited with returning the company to profitability in the 1980s. In 1985, Diamond-Star Motors was created. In 1987, Chrysler acquired American Motors Corporation, which brought the profitable Jeep brand under the Chrysler umbrella. In 1998, Chrysler merged with German automaker Daimler-Benz to form DaimlerChrysler AG.
As a result, Chrysler was sold to Cerberus Capital Management and renamed Chrysler LLC in 2007. Like the other Big Three automobile manufacturers, Chrysler was impacted by the automotive industry crisis of 2008–2010; the company remained in business through a combination of negotiations with creditors, filing for Chapter 11 bankruptcy reorganization on April 30, 2009, participating in a bailout from the U. S. government through the Troubled Asset Relief Program. On June 10, 2009, Chrysler emerged from the bankruptcy proceedings with the United Auto Workers pension fund, Fiat S.p. A. and the U. S. and Canadian governments as principal owners. The bankruptcy resulted in Chrysler defaulting on over $4 billion in debts. By May 24, 2011, Chrysler finished repaying its obligations to the U. S. government five years early, although the cost to the American taxpayer was $1.3 billion. Over the next few years, Fiat acquired the other parties' shares while removing much of the weight of the loans in a short period.
On January 1, 2014, Fiat S.p. A announced a deal to purchase the rest of Chrysler from the United Auto Workers retiree health trust; the deal was completed on January 2014, making Chrysler Group a subsidiary of Fiat S.p.. A. In May 2014, Fiat Chrysler Automobiles was established by merging Fiat S.p. A. into the company. This was completed in August 2014. Chrysler Group LLC remained a subsidiary until December 15, 2014, when it was renamed FCA US LLC, to reflect the Fiat-Chrysler merger; the Chrysler company was founded by Walter Chrysler on June 6, 1925, when the Maxwell Motor Company was re-organized into the Chrysler Corporation. Chrysler had arrived at the ailing Maxwell-Chalmers company in the early 1920s, hired to overhaul the company's troubled operations. In late 1923 production of the Chalmers automobile was ended. In January 1924, Walter Chrysler launched the well-received Chrysler automobile; the 6-cylinder Chrysler was designed to provide customers with an advanced, well-engineered car, was an automobile at an affordable price.
Elements of this car are traceable to a prototype, under development at Willys during Chrysler's tenure The original 1924 Chrysler included a carburetor air filter, high compression engine, full pressure lubrication, an oil filter, features absent from most autos at the time. Among the innovations in its early years were the first practical mass-produced four-wheel hydraulic brakes, a system nearly engineered by Chrysler with patents assigned to Lockheed, rubber engine mounts to reduce vibration. Chrysler developed a wheel with a ridged rim, designed to keep a deflated tire from flying off the wheel; this wheel was adopted by the auto industry worldwide. The Maxwell brand was dropped after the 1925 model year, with the new, lower-priced four-cylinder Chryslers introduced for the 1926 year being badge-engineered Maxwells; the advanced engineering and testing that went into Chrysler Corporation cars helped to push the company to the second-place position in U. S. sales by 1936, which it held until 1949.
In 1928, the Chrysler Corporation began dividing its vehicle offerings by price function. The Plymouth brand was introduced at the low-priced end of the market. At the same time, the DeSoto brand was introduced in the medium-price field. In 1928, Chrysler bought the Dodge Brothers automobile and
Infrared radiation, sometimes called infrared light, is electromagnetic radiation with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, is therefore invisible to the human eye, although IR at wavelengths up to 1050 nanometers s from specially pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions. IR wavelengths extend from the nominal red edge of the visible spectrum at 700 nanometers, to 1 millimeter. Most of the thermal radiation emitted by objects near room temperature is infrared; as with all EMR, IR carries radiant energy and behaves both like a wave and like its quantum particle, the photon. Infrared radiation was discovered in 1800 by astronomer Sir William Herschel, who discovered a type of invisible radiation in the spectrum lower in energy than red light, by means of its effect on a thermometer. More than half of the total energy from the Sun was found to arrive on Earth in the form of infrared; the balance between absorbed and emitted infrared radiation has a critical effect on Earth's climate.
Infrared radiation is emitted or absorbed by molecules when they change their rotational-vibrational movements. It excites vibrational modes in a molecule through a change in the dipole moment, making it a useful frequency range for study of these energy states for molecules of the proper symmetry. Infrared spectroscopy examines transmission of photons in the infrared range. Infrared radiation is used in industrial, military, law enforcement, medical applications. Night-vision devices using active near-infrared illumination allow people or animals to be observed without the observer being detected. Infrared astronomy uses sensor-equipped telescopes to penetrate dusty regions of space such as molecular clouds, detect objects such as planets, to view red-shifted objects from the early days of the universe. Infrared thermal-imaging cameras are used to detect heat loss in insulated systems, to observe changing blood flow in the skin, to detect overheating of electrical apparatus. Extensive uses for military and civilian applications include target acquisition, night vision and tracking.
Humans at normal body temperature radiate chiefly at wavelengths around 10 μm. Non-military uses include thermal efficiency analysis, environmental monitoring, industrial facility inspections, detection of grow-ops, remote temperature sensing, short-range wireless communication and weather forecasting. Infrared radiation extends from the nominal red edge of the visible spectrum at 700 nanometers to 1 millimeter; this range of wavelengths corresponds to a frequency range of 430 THz down to 300 GHz. Below infrared is the microwave portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. Sunlight, at an effective temperature of 5,780 kelvins, is composed of near-thermal-spectrum radiation, more than half infrared. At zenith, sunlight provides an irradiance of just over 1 kilowatt per square meter at sea level. Of this energy, 527 watts is infrared radiation, 445 watts is visible light, 32 watts is ultraviolet radiation. Nearly all the infrared radiation in sunlight is shorter than 4 micrometers. On the surface of Earth, at far lower temperatures than the surface of the Sun, some thermal radiation consists of infrared in the mid-infrared region, much longer than in sunlight.
However, black body or thermal radiation is continuous: it gives off radiation at all wavelengths. Of these natural thermal radiation processes, only lightning and natural fires are hot enough to produce much visible energy, fires produce far more infrared than visible-light energy. In general, objects emit infrared radiation across a spectrum of wavelengths, but sometimes only a limited region of the spectrum is of interest because sensors collect radiation only within a specific bandwidth. Thermal infrared radiation has a maximum emission wavelength, inversely proportional to the absolute temperature of object, in accordance with Wien's displacement law. Therefore, the infrared band is subdivided into smaller sections. A used sub-division scheme is: NIR and SWIR is sometimes called "reflected infrared", whereas MWIR and LWIR is sometimes referred to as "thermal infrared". Due to the nature of the blackbody radiation curves, typical "hot" objects, such as exhaust pipes appear brighter in the MW compared to the same object viewed in the LW.
The International Commission on Illumination recommended the division of infrared radiation into the following three bands: ISO 20473 specifies the following scheme: Astronomers divide the infrared spectrum as follows: These divisions are not precise and can vary depending on the publication. The three regions are used for observation of different temperature ranges, hence different environments in space; the most common photometric system used in astronomy allocates capital letters to different spectral regions according to filters used. These letters are understood in reference to atmospheric windows and appear, for instance, in the titles of many papers. A third scheme divides up the band based on the response of various detectors: Near-infrared: from 0.7 to 1.0 µm. Short-wave infrared: 1.0 to 3 µm. InGaAs covers to about 1.8 µm. Mid-wave infrared: 3 to 5 µm (defined by the atmospheric window and covered by indium antimonide and mercury cadmium telluride and by lead
Mercedes-Benz is a German global automobile marque and a division of Daimler AG. The brand is known for luxury vehicles, buses and trucks; the headquarters is in Baden-Württemberg. The name first appeared in 1926 under Daimler-Benz. In 2018, Mercedes-Benz was the biggest selling premium vehicle brand in the world, having sold 2.31 million passenger cars. Mercedes-Benz traces its origins to Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft's 1901 Mercedes and Karl Benz's 1886 Benz Patent-Motorwagen, regarded as the first gasoline-powered automobile; the slogan for the brand is "the best or nothing". Mercedes-Benz traces its origins to Karl Benz's creation of the first petrol-powered car, the Benz Patent Motorwagen, financed by Bertha Benz and patented in January 1886, Gottlieb Daimler and engineer Wilhelm Maybach's conversion of a stagecoach by the addition of a petrol engine that year; the Mercedes automobile was first marketed in 1901 by Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft. Emil Jellinek, an Austrian automobile entrepreneur who worked with DMG, created the trademark in 1902, naming the 1901 Mercedes 35 hp after his daughter Mercedes Jellinek.
Jellinek was a businessman and marketing strategist who promoted "horseless" Daimler automobiles among the highest circles of society in his adopted home, which, at that time, was a meeting place for the "Haute Volée" of France and Europe in winter. His customers included other well-known personalities, but Jellinek's plans went further: as early as 1901, he was selling Mercedes cars in the New World as well, including US billionaires Rockefeller, Astor and Taylor. At a race in Nice in 1899, Jellinek drove under the pseudonym "Monsieur Mercédès", a way of concealing the competitor's real name as was normal and regularly done in those days; the race ranks as the hour of birth of the Mercedes-Benz brand. In 1901, the name "Mercedes" was registered by Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft worldwide as a protected trademark; the first Mercedes-Benz brand name vehicles were produced in 1926, following the merger of Karl Benz's and Gottlieb Daimler's companies into the Daimler-Benz company on 28 June of the same year.
Gottlieb Daimler was born on 17 March 1834 in Schorndorf. After training as a gunsmith and working in France, he attended the Polytechnic School in Stuttgart from 1857 to 1859. After completing various technical activities in France and England, he started working as a draftsman in Geislingen in 1862. At the end of 1863, he was appointed workshop inspector in a machine tool factory in Reutlingen, where he met Wilhelm Maybach in 1865. Throughout the 1930s, Mercedes-Benz produced the 770 model, a car, popular during Germany's Nazi period. Adolf Hitler was known to have driven these cars during his time in power, with bulletproof windshields. Most of the surviving models have been sold at auctions to private buyers. One of them is on display at the War Museum in Ottawa, Ontario; the pontiff's Popemobile has been sourced from Mercedes-Benz. In 1944, 46,000 forced laborers were used in Daimler-Benz's factories to bolster Nazi war efforts; the company paid $12 million in reparations to the laborers' families.
Mercedes-Benz has introduced many technological and safety innovations that became common in other vehicles. Mercedes-Benz is one of the best-known and established automotive brands in the world. For information relating to the famous three-pointed star, see under the title Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft, including the merger into Daimler-Benz; as part of the Daimler AG company, the Mercedes-Benz Cars division includes Mercedes-Benz and Smart car production. Mercedes-AMG became a majority owned division of Mercedes-Benz in 1999; the company was integrated into DaimlerChrysler in 1999, became Mercedes-Benz AMG beginning on 1 January 1999. Daimler's ultra-luxury brand Maybach was under Mercedes-Benz cars division until 2013, when the production stopped due to poor sales volumes, it now exists under the Mercedes-Maybach name, with the models being ultra-luxury versions of Mercedes cars, such as the 2016 Mercedes-Maybach S600. Daimler cooperates with BYD Auto to sell a battery-electric car called Denza in China.
In 2016, Daimler announced plans to sell. Beside its native Germany, Mercedes-Benz vehicles are manufactured or assembled in: Since its inception, Mercedes-Benz has maintained a reputation for its quality and durability. Objective measures looking at passenger vehicles, such as J. D. Power surveys, demonstrated a downturn in reputation in these criteria in the late 1990s and early 2000s. By mid-2005, Mercedes temporarily returned to the industry average for initial quality, a measure of problems after the first 90 days of ownership, according to J. D. Power. In J. D. Power's Initial Quality Study for the first quarter of 2007, Mercedes showed dramatic improvement by climbing from 25th to 5th place and earning several awards for its models. For 2008, Mercedes-Benz's initial quality rating improved to fourth place. On top of this accolade, it received the Platinum Plant Quality Award for its Mercedes’ Sindelfingen, Germany assembly plant. J. D. Power's 2011 US Initial Quality and Vehicle Dependability Studies both ranked Mercedes-Benz vehicles above average in build quality and reliability.
In the 2011 UK J. D. Power Survey, Mercedes cars were rated above average. A 2014 iSeeCars.com study for Reuters found Mercedes to have the lowest vehicle recall rate. Mercedes-Benz offers a full range of light commercial and heavy commercial equipment. Vehicles are manufactured in multiple countries worldwide; the Smart marque of city cars are produced by Daimler AG
Popular Mechanics is a magazine of popular science and technology, featuring automotive, outdoor, science, do-it-yourself, technology topics. Military topics and transportation of all types, space and gadgets are featured, it was founded in 1902 by Henry Haven Windsor, the editor and—as owner of the Popular Mechanics Company—the publisher. For decades, the tagline of the monthly magazine was "Written so you can understand it." In 1958, PM was purchased by the Hearst Corporation, now Hearst Communications. In 2013, the US edition changed from twelve to ten issues per year, in 2014 the tagline was changed to "How your world works." The magazine added a podcast in recent years, including regular features Most Useful Podcast Ever and How Your World Works. Popular Mechanics was founded in Chicago by Henry Haven Windsor, with the first issue dated January 11, 1902, his concept was that it would explain "the way the world works" in plain language, with photos and illustrations to aid comprehension. For decades, its tagline was "Written so you can understand it."
The magazine was a weekly until September 1902. The Popular Mechanics Company was owned by the Windsor family and printed in Chicago until the Hearst Corporation purchased the magazine in 1958. In 1962, the editorial offices moved to New York City. From the first issue, the magazine featured a large illustration of a technological subject, a look that evolved into the magazine's characteristic full-page, full-color illustration and a small 6.5" x 9.5" trim size beginning with the July, 1911 issue. It maintained the small format until 1975. Popular Science adopted full-color cover illustrations in 1915, the look was imitated by technology magazines. Several international editions were introduced after World War II, starting with a French edition, followed by Spanish in 1947, Swedish and Danish in 1949. In 2002, the print magazine was being published in English and Spanish and distributed worldwide. South African and Russian editions were introduced that same year. Notable articles have been contributed by notable people including Guglielmo Marconi, Thomas Edison, Jules Verne, Barney Oldfield, Knute Rockne, Winston Churchill, Charles Kettering, Tom Wolfe, Buzz Aldrin, as well as many presidents including Teddy Roosevelt and Ronald Reagan.
Comedian and car expert Jay Leno had a regular column, Jay Leno's Garage, starting in March, 1999. * Note. For decades, the lead time to go from submission to print was three months, so some of the dates might not correspond with employment dates; as the Popular Mechanics web site has become more dominant and the importance of print issues has declined, editorial changes have more immediate impact. 1986 National Magazine Award in the Leisure Interest category for the Popular Mechanics Woodworking Guide, November 1986. 2008 National Magazine Award in the Personal Service category for its "Know Your Footprint: Energy and Waste" series. The magazine has received eight National Magazine Award nominations, including 2012 nominations in the Magazine of the Year category and the General Excellence category. Israel, Paul B.. "Enthusiasts and Innovators:'Possible Dreams' and the'Innovation Station' at the Henry Ford Museum". Technology and Culture. 35: 396–401. Doi:10.2307/3106308. JSTOR 3106308. Wright, John L..
Possible Dreams: Enthusiasm for Technology in America. Henry Ford Museum and Greenfield Village. P. 128. ISBN 978-0-933728-35-6. Bryant, Margaret M.. "New Words from Popular Mechanics". American Speech. 52: 39–46. Doi:10.2307/454718. JSTOR 454718. A nearly complete archive of Popular Mechanics issues from 1905 through 2005 is available through Google Books. Popular Mechanics' cover art is the subject of Tom Burns' 2015 Texas Tech PhD dissertation, titled Useful fictions: How Popular Mechanics builds technological literacy through magazine cover illustration. Darren Orr wrote an analysis of the state of Popular Mechanics in 2014 as partial fulfillment of requirements for a master's degree in journalism from University of Missouri-Columbia. Popularmechanics.com Google Books archive Popular Mechanics South African edition Works by Popular Mechanics at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Popular Mechanics at Internet Archive Works by or about Popular Mechanics at Google Books
Valet parking is a parking service offered by some restaurants and other businesses, there is Valet Parking in all parts of the world. In contrast to "self-parking", where customers find a parking space on their own, customers' vehicles are parked for them by a person called a valet; this service either requires a fee to be paid by the customer or is offered free of charge by the establishment. A valet is an employee of the establishment or an employee of a third party valet service; when there is a fee, it is either a flat amount or a fee based on how long the car is parked. It is customary in the United States to tip the valet who parks the car. Valet parking is most offered in urban areas, where parking is scarce, though some upscale businesses offer valet parking as an optional service though self-parking may be available. For example, in wealthy suburban areas like California's Silicon Valley, some hospitals offer valet parking for the convenience of patients and their visitors. On the other hand, where parking is not scarce, such as on the Las Vegas Strip, it is offered as a convenience to patrons.
Some hospitals, like the Yale-affiliated Greenwich Hospital on Connecticut's Golden Coast, have such limited space for parking that the emergency room is valet parking only, to fit as many cars in as possible. Some cars come with an additional key, known as a valet key that starts the ignition and opens the driver's side door but prevents the valet from gaining access to valuables that are located in the trunk or the glove box; the main advantage of valet parking is convenience. Customers do not have to walk from a distant parking spot carrying heavy loads. Many handicapped drivers rely on valet parking when they can't walk from and to a distant parking spot. People who do not have time to search for a parking spot can valet park without the hassle. Valet parking is convenient in bad weather. Most professional valet attendants are well insured, knowledgeable about nearly every make and model of car and their quirks. An advantage of valet parking is that it is possible to pack more cars into a given physical space, in what is known as "stack parking".
The valet holds all the keys and can park the cars two or more deep, as he can move cars out of the way to free a blocked-in car. Another type of stacking is called lane stacking; this method is useful for events where guests arrive at around the same time, such as for a wedding reception. The point of this procedure is to keep the lane of incoming traffic flowing forward so that guests are spared a long wait time for valet service; this method is accomplished by designating one or two of the valets to be "stackers", who "push" each car up fifty feet or so and prepare it for a quick "takeaway" for a returning valet to park. The process is repeated until all cars are parked, utilizing as much lane space as possible, meanwhile keeping the lanes moving. An additional advantage of valet parking, aside from stacking, is that valets can park cars closer and straighter than some customers may park; this will save the space in the parking lot or garage, prevent the inconvenience of going to different floors by cramming everything in.
An efficient valet service will implement a system to handle the expected number of guests. This may include, but is not limited to, any of the following: designated greeters and parkers, a system for marking car locations, sometimes a shuttle service for valets at large venues in order to expedite car return times at the end of the event. Valet parking adds a touch of luxury compared to self-parking. Many locations and events that provide valet parking provide extra touches such as bringing the car up front, having the doors opened for the guest, in rare cases cleaning and detailing of the vehicle; as described above, several different types of venues offer valet parking. These include: Single Event: These Valets are hired for just the evening and have assigned roles for efficiency. Parking may be at an off-site location that can handle many cars and can range from a dirt field to a multi-story parking lot, it might be in the streets near the pickup location. At a wedding the cars may be stacked in order, respecting the hierarchy of importance of the visitors.
For instance, at a Middle Eastern oil company executive party, the vehicles might be stacked in the order of the importance of the executives of the company. Restaurant or Bar location: In this setting, parking is in the establishment's own lot, but may be a blocked-off section of a nearby parking house or multilayer lot. A dozen spots in front will be reserved for the big spenders or frequent visitors; when the restaurant is not busy, the nicest, most unusual or newest vehicles will be parked in front of the restaurant. This can be a sales and marketing stipulation. Restaurants trying to attract tourists may park common vehicles in front. Expensive restaurants looking to attract less frugal customers may park expensive cars in front, including those of the restaurant employees or owners. Bar or crowded urban setting: Here, space is a premium, yet the cars on the street may have a huge bearing on the clientele inside. Hotel location: Hotels can have all types mentioned above. Lots, multi-layer lots, parking houses, hydraulic structures, parking in front, parking in back, shuttles for car owners, shuttles for valets and more.
The biggest difference between hotels and other types is the cost. Hotels charge double or more for valet parking when compared to bars and major events