A custom car is a passenger vehicle, either altered to improve its performance by altering or replacing the engine and transmission. A desire among some automotive enthusiasts in the United States is to push "styling and performance a step beyond the showroom floor - to craft an automobile of one's own." A custom car in British according to Collins English Dictionary is built to the buyer's own specifications. Although the two are related, custom cars are distinct from hot rods; the extent of this difference has been the subject of debate among customizers and rodders for decades. Additionally, a street rod can be considered a custom. Custom cars are not to be confused with coachbuilt automobiles rolling chassis fitted with luxury bodywork by specialty body builders. A development of hot rodding, the change in name corresponded to the change in the design of the cars being modified; the first hot rods were pre-World War II cars, with running boards and simple fenders over the wheels. Early model cars were modified by removing the running boards and either removing the fenders or replacing them with light cycle fenders.
Models had fender skirts installed. The "gow job" morphed into the hot rod in the early to middle 1950s. Typical of builds from before World War II were 1935 Ford wire wheels. Many cars were "hopped up" with engine modifications such as adding additional carburetors, high compression heads, dual exhausts. Engine swaps were done, with the objective of placing the most powerful engine in the lightest possible frame and body combination; the suspension was altered by lowering the rear end as much as possible using lowering blocks on the rear springs. Cars were given a rake job by either adding a dropped front axle or heating front coil springs to make the front end of the car much lower than the rear. Postwar, most rods would change from mechanical to hydraulic brakes and from bulb to sealed-beam headlights; the mid-1950s and early 1960s custom Deuce was fenderless and steeply chopped, all Ford. Reproduction spindles, brake drums, backing based on the 1937s remain available today. Aftermarket flatty heads were available from Barney Navarro, Vic Edelbrock, Offenhauser.
The first intake manifold. Front suspension hairpins were adapted from sprint cars, such as the Kurtis Krafts; the first Jimmy supercharger on a V8 may have been by Navarro in 1950. Much rods and customs swapped the old solid rear axle for an independent rear from Jaguar. Sometimes the grille of one make of car replaced another. In the 1950s and 1960s, the grille swap of choice was the 1953 DeSoto; the original hot rods were plainly painted like the Model A Fords from which they had been built up, only begun to take on colors, fancy orange-yellow flamed hoods or "candy-like" deep acrylic finishes in the various colors. With the change in automobile design to encase the wheels in fenders and to extend the hood to the full width of the car, the former practices were no longer possible. In addition, tremendous automotive advertising raised public interest in the new models in the 1950s. Thus, custom cars came into existence, swapping headlamp rings, bumpers, chrome side strips, taillights as well as frenching and tunnelling head- and taillights.
The bodies of the cars were changed by cutting through the sheet metal, removing bits to make the car lower, welding it back together, adding lead to make the resulting form smooth has since replaced lead. Chopping made the roof lower. Channeling was cutting notches in the floorpan where the body touches the frame to lower the whole body. Fins were added from other cars, or made up from sheet steel. In the custom car culture, someone who changed the appearance without substantially improving the performance was looked down upon. Juxtapoz Magazine, founded by the artist Robert Williams, has covered Kustom Kulture art. Certain linguistic conventions are followed among rodders and customizers: The model year is given in full, except when it might be confused, so a 1934 model is a'34, while a 2005 might be an'05 or not. A'32 is a Deuce and most a roadster, unless coupé is specified, always a Ford, now on A frame rails. A 1955, 1956, or 1957 is a Chevrolet. A 1955, 1956, or 1957 Chevrolet is called a Tri-Five.
A 3- or 5-window is a Ford, unless specified. A flatty is a flathead V8. A hemi is always a 426. See baby hemi. A 392 is an early hemi. A 331 or 354 is known to be an hemi, but referred to as such A 270 "Jimmy" was a 270 cubic inch GMC truck engine used to replace a smaller displacement Chevrolet six cylinder. Units are dropped, unless they are unclear, so a 426 cubic inch displacement engine is referred to as a 426, a 5-liter displacement engine is a 5.0, a 600 cubic feet per minute carburetor is a 600. Engin
Kei car is the Japanese vehicle category for the smallest highway-legal passenger cars. Similar Japanese categories existing for microvans, Kei trucks; the kei car category was created by the Japanese government in 1949, the regulations have been revised several times since. These regulations specify a maximum vehicle size, engine capacity of 660cc and power output, so that the kei car may enjoy both tax and insurance benefits. In most rural areas are exempted from the requirement to certify that adequate parking is available for the vehicle. Kei cars have become successful in Japan — consisting just over one third of domestic new car sales in fiscal 2016, in spite of dropping from a record 40% market share in 2013, just three years prior. However, in export markets, the genre is too specialized and too small for most models to be profitable. Notable exceptions exist though, for instance the Suzuki Alto and Jimny models, which were exported from ca. 1980. Most kei cars are designed and manufactured in Japan, however there have been overseas models that have been imported into Japan to be sold as kei cars.
Kei cars feature yellow license plates, earning them the name "yellow-plate cars" in English-speaking circles. Japanese government regulations limit the physical size, engine power and engine displacement of kei cars. Kei cars are available with forced-induction engines, automatic and CV transmissions, front-wheel drive and all-wheel drive; the Kei-car legal class originated in the era following the end of the Second World War, when most Japanese could not afford a full-sized car, but many had enough money to buy a motorcycle. To promote the growth of the car industry, as well as to offer an alternative delivery method to small business and shop owners, the kei car category and standards were created. Limited to a displacement of only 150 cc in 1949, dimensions and engine size limitations were expanded to tempt more manufacturers to produce kei cars. In 1955, the displacement limit increased to 360 cc for both two-strokes, as well as four-stroke engines, resulting in several new kei car models beginning production in the following years.
These included the 1955 Suzuki Suzulight and the 1958 Subaru 360, the first mass-produced kei car able to fill people's need for basic transportation without being too compromised. In 1955, the Japanese Ministry of International Trade and Industry set forth goals to develop a "national car", larger than kei cars produced at the time; this goal influenced Japanese automobile manufacturers to determine how best to focus their product development efforts for the smaller kei cars, or the larger "national car". The small exterior dimensions and engine displacement reflected the driving environment in Japan, with speed limits in Japan realistically not exceeding 40 km/h in urban areas; the class went through a period of increasing sophistication, with an automatic transmission appearing in the Honda N360 in August 1968, with front disc brakes becoming available on a number of sporting kei cars, beginning with the Honda Z GS of January 1970. Power outputs kept climbing, reaching a peak in the 40 PS Daihatsu Fellow Max SS of July 1970.
Sales increased reaching a peak of 750,000 in 1970. Throughout the 1970s, the government kept whittling away at the benefits offered to kei vehicles, which combined with stricter emissions standards to lower sales drastically through the first half of the decade. Honda and Mazda withdrew from the contracting passenger kei car market, in 1974 and 1976 although they both maintained a limited offering of commercial vehicles; until 31 December 1974, kei cars used smaller license plates than regular cars 230 mm × 125 mm. As of 1975, kei cars received the medium-sized standard plates. To set them apart from regular passenger cars, the plates were now yellow and black rather than white and green. Sales had been declining, reaching a low-water mark of 150,000 passenger cars in 1975, 80% less than 1970 sales. Many were beginning to doubt the continued existence of the kei car, with both Honda and Mazda withdrawing in the middle of the 1970s. Emissions laws were another problem for the kei car industry in the mid 1970s.
From 1973 to 1978, emissions standards were to be tightened in four steps. Meeting the stricter standards which were to be introduced in 1975 would be problematic for manufacturers of kei cars; this was hard for Daihatsu and Suzuki, which focused on two-stroke engines. Daihatsu, had both the engineering backing and powerful connections of their large owner, Toyota, to aid them in meeting the new requirements. All manufacturers of kei cars were clamoring for increasing the engine displacement and vehicle size limits, claiming that the emissions standards could not be met with a functional 360-cc engine. In the end, the Japanese legislature relented, increasing the overall length and width restrictions by 200 mm and 100 mm respectively. Engine size was increased to 550 cc, taking effect from 1 January 1976; the new standards were announced on 26 August 1975, leaving little time for manufacturers to revise their designs to take advantage of the new limits. Most manufacturers were somewhat surprised by the decision.
Economy car is a term used in the United States for cars designed for low-cost purchase and operation. Typical economy cars are small and inexpensive to buy. Economy car designers are forced by stringent design constraints to be inventive. Many innovations in automobile design were developed for economy cars, such as the Ford Model T and the Austin Mini; the alternative approach, other than innovating to build a low-cost car, is to build a stripped-down, no-frills version of a conventional car. Gordon Murray, the Formula 1 and McLaren F1 designer, said when designing his new Murray T.25 city car: "I would say that building a car to sell for six thousand pounds and designing that for a high-volume production, where you have all the quality issues under control, is a hundred times more difficult than designing a McLaren F1, or a racing car. It is the biggest challenge I've had from a design point of view." The precise definition of what constitutes an economy car has varied with time and place, based on the conditions prevailing at the time, such as fuel prices, disposable income of buyers, cultural mores.
In any given decade, there has been some rough global consensus on what constituted the minimum necessary requirements for a highway-worthy car, constituting the most economical car possible. However, whether that consensus could be a commercial success in any given country depended on local culture, thus in any given decade, every country has had a rough national consensus on what constituted the minimum necessary requirements for the least expensive car that wasn't undesirable, that is, that had some commercially attractive amount of market demand, making it a mainstream economy car. In many countries at various times, mainstream economy and maximum economy have been one and the same. From its inception into the 1920s, the Ford Model T fulfilled both of these roles in the U. S. and in many markets around the world. In Europe and Japan in the 1920s and 1930s, this was achieved by the much smaller Austin 7 and its competitors and derivatives, although it failed to be accepted on the U. S. market in the middle of the depression.
From the 1940s and into the 1960s, the Volkswagen Beetle played both roles throughout much of the world—in Germany and Latin America particularly—but it was let down by high fuel consumption, such that British, French and Japanese models, all with better fuel economy, could capture the maximum-economy position in their home countries. Meanwhile, in the U. S. the Beetle and other imports could command the maximum-economy position, but the mainstream-economy position was commanded by cars that would seem more like mid-range or luxury models in some other markets. By the 1960s a new wave of front-wheel-drive cars with all independent suspension had been launched. By the 1970s the hatchback had become the standard body type for new economy car models. In 1960-1994 the Soviet Union was selling economy car Zaporozhets on the world market, at subsidised prices for hard foreign currency. Many of these cars were seen as the best value proposition, because they were larger cars, for the same price as small western models.
In the mid-1980s, the Yugoslavian Zastava Koral, was sold as the cheapest new car on the U. S. market, South Korea's Hyundai models sold well in the U. S. and have gone on to be successful around the world. Since the 1990s, the automotive industry has become extensively globalized, with all major manufacturers being multinational corporations using globally sourced raw materials and components, with a trend for moving assembly to the lowest labour cost countries. Today, every major manufacturer offers economy cars, including at least one small car that may fall into subclassifications such as subcompact car, supermini, B-segment. Features that in one decade were considered luxury items would in decades be viewed as appropriate as standard equipment in economy models; the History of the automobile after many experimental models dating back at least a hundred years, started with the first production car - the 1886 Benz Tricycle. This began a period, known as the Brass era, considered to be from 1890 to 1918 in the U.
S. In the UK this is split into the pre 1905 Veteran era and Edwardian era to 1918; the U. S. Veteran era is pre-1890. In the 1890s and into the first decade of the twentieth century; the period children's book Wind in the Willows, pokes fun at early privileged motorists. The Automotive industry in France were the world leaders during this period; the Red Flag Act had obstructed automotive development in the UK until it was repealed in 1896. The high wheeler was an early car body style unique to the United States, it was typified by large-diameter slender wheels with solid tires, to provide ample ground clearance on the primitive roads in much of the country at the turn of the 20th century. For the same reason, it had a wider track than normal automobiles; the first car to be marketed to the ordinary person and so the first'economy car', was the 1901–1907 Oldsmobile Curved Dash - it was produced by the thousands, with over 19,000 built in all. It was inspired by the buckboard type horse
A ute an abbreviation for "utility" or "coupé utility", is a term used in Australia and New Zealand to describe vehicles with a tray behind the passenger compartment, that can be driven with a regular driver's license. Traditionally the term referred to vehicles build on passenger car chassis and with the cargo tray integrated with the passenger body. However, present-day usage of the term "ute" in Australia and New Zealand has expanded to include any vehicle with an open cargo area at the rear; the Australian ute is claimed to have been invented by Ford in 1934. Production of Australian designed utes ceased in 2017, when local production of the Holden Commodore finished; the term "ute" has been used to describe a 2-door vehicle based on a passenger car chassis, such as the Holden Commodore, Australian Ford Falcon, Chevrolet El Camino and Subaru BRAT. Australian produced utes were traditionally rear-wheel drive and with the cargo tray integrated with the passenger body. In the 21st century, the term has become more broadly used, for any vehicle with a cargo tray at the rear.
The concept of a two-door vehicle based on a passenger car chassis with a tray at the rear began in the United States in the 1920s with the roadster utility models. These vehicles were soft-top convertibles, compared with the fixed steel roof used by most utes. Ford Australia is claimed to be the first company to produce an Australian "ute", released in 1934; this was the result of a 1932 letter from the unnamed wife of a farmer in Australia asking for "a vehicle to go to church in on a Sunday and which can carry our pigs to market on Mondays". In response, Ford designer Lew Bandt designed a two-door body with a tray at the rear for the American Ford Model A chassis, the model was named "coupe utility"; when the Australian version was displayed in the US, Henry Ford nicknamed it the "Kangaroo Chaser". A convertible version, known as the roadster utility was produced in limited numbers by Ford in the 1930s. In 1951, Holden released a "utility" model, based on the 48–215 sedan. With both Ford and Holden now producing utes, this started the long-standing tradition of Australian-designed 2 door vehicles with a tray at the back, based on a passenger-car sedan chassis.
Australia has developed a culture around utes in rural areas with events known as Ute musters. It is common in rural areas, to customise utes in the "B&S style" with bullbars, oversized mudflaps, exhaust pipe flaps and UHF aerials. Since 1998, the "Deni Ute Muster" has been held in the town of Deniliquin, which has become a major attraction for the area. High performance utes were sold in Australia, including the FPV F6 and the HSV Maloo; the 2017 HSV GTSR Maloo is powered by a 6.2 L supercharged V8 engine producing 425 kW. The Australian V8 Utes is a racing series based on modified production Holden and Ford utes; the ute variant of the Ford Falcon was produced from 1961-2016. For the first 38 years, the design used a monocoque chassis, the traditional design for a ute. Since the 1999 AU Falcon, the Falcon ute switched to a cargo bed, separate from the cabin, while still retaining the Falcon sedan front-end and cabin; the cargo bed was separated so that both "utility" and "cab chassis" body styles could be produced together.
This separate cab-chassis design challenged the notion that the word "ute" referred to a monocoque body style. Between 1998-2013, the Brazilian-built Ford Courier ute was sold in Australia. Utes produced by Ford in Australia: 1941–1949 1941 Ford 1949–1951 1949 Ford 1946–1953 Ford Anglia Coupe Utility 1956–1962 Ford Consul Mk. II 1961–2016 Ford Falcon Ute 1952–1959 Ford Mainline Utility 1953–1955 Ford Popular 103E 1946–1953 Ford Prefect 1956–1962 Ford Zephyr Mark II Coupe Utility From 1951–1968, the "utility" was sold as part of the 48–215 to HR model ranges. From 1968–1984 the "utility" was included in the Holden Belmont/Kingswood range. In 1984, Holden discontinued the ute variant and it was not part of the VB to VL Commodore ranges; the model returned in 1990 based on the VN Commodore chassis and remained part of the model range until Australian production ended in 2017. In 2000, the Holden Commodore was the first Australian ute to feature independent rear suspension, the Ford Falcon ute retained a live axle rear suspension design until production ended in 2016.
In 2008, the VE Commodore Ute was proposed to be exported to North America as the Pontiac G8 ST. At least one prototype was built, but GM decided not to proceed with production due to the Global Financial Crisis. Utes produced by Holden or its parent company General Motors in Australia: 1946–1948 Chevrolet Stylemaster 1951-1957 Vauxhall Velox 1951–1968 Holden Utility 1952–1954 Vauxhall Wyvern 1968–1984 Holden Kingswood 1990–1991 Holden Utility 1991–2017 Holden Ute / Holden Commodore Ute Models: 1953-1957 Plymouth Belvedere 1956–1957 Plymouth Cranbrook 1956-1958 Plymouth Savoy 1956–1957 Dodge Kingsway 1956–1957 DeSoto Diplomat 1958–1961 Chrysler Wayfarer 1965–1979 Chrysler Valiant Utility and Dodge Utility Models: 1954–1974 Austin Cambridge Coupe Utility 1968–1971 Austin 1800 Utility Models: 1950-1958 Commer Light Pick-up, based on the Hillman Minx 1956 Hillman de luxe Utility Between 1971-2008 Nissan sold the Nissan Sunny Truck as a ute in Australia. Between 2002-2010, the Proton Jumbuck was sold in Australia as a ute.
The best known ute prod
Mini MPV— an abbreviation for Mini Multi-Purpose Vehicle— is a vehicle size class for the smallest size of minivans. The Mini MPV size class sits below the compact MPV size class and the vehicles are built on the platforms of B-segment hatchback models. Mini MPVs are based on the platform of a B-segment hatchback, with a raised roof and five-door body; the raised roof allows for higher H-point seating and easy passenger access compared with traditional hatchbacks. The rear seats can recline, tumble, fold flat or be removed, allowing users to reconfigure the rear passenger and cargo volumes for each journey; the segment was created as a result of the diversification of minivans in the late 1990s. An early usage of the term mini-MPV was in 2000, although the vehicles referred to at the time would now be classified as compact MPVs. In 2018, sales of mini-MPVs in Europe represented 1% of the total market; the top five selling mini-MPVs in Europe in 2018 were the Fiat 500L, Honda Fit/Jazz, Hyundai ix20, Kia Venga and Ford B-Max.
The sales trend for previous years is: 2012: 411,833 sales 2013: 450,897 sales 2014: Sales plateaued at just over 400,000 annual sales, as sales of small crossovers increased. 2015: Sales fell 15% to 350,000 as small crossover segment increased. This was the lowest figure for the segment since 2003 when the first generation Opel Meriva appeared. 2016: By the first quarter, sales fell 20% after the 15% drop in 2015. The Fiat 500L was the segment sales leader. In the United States, sales of mini-MPV's are small, with the Fiat 500L recording 30,000 sales in total from 2013–2017. In Canada, as of 2013, the market for mini-MPV's wasn't "large, the overarching minivan segment is shrinking as the industry expands."
Rear-engine, four-wheel-drive layout
In automotive design, an R4, or Rear-engine, Four-wheel-drive layout places the internal combustion engine at the rear of the vehicle, drives all four roadwheels. This layout is chosen to improve the traction or the handling of existing vehicle designs using the rear-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout. Notable vehicles with the R4 layout include several high-performance Porsche sports cars, including the 959, the 911 Turbo since the introduction of the turbocharged version of the 993 series in 1995, the 911 Carrera 4 introduced with the 964 series in 1989; some Volkswagen Kübelwagen variants were produced with 4-wheel or all-wheel drive, including the Type 86, Type 87, Type 98. Some Vanagons/Microbuses came in 4WD Syncro version. Ludvigsen, Karl. Porsche. Excellence Was Expected. 3. Cambridge, Mass.: Bentley Publishers. ISBN 0-8376-0235-1. Taylor, Blaine. Volkswagen Military Vehicles of the Third Reich. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Da Capo Press. ISBN 0-306-81313-0. OCLC 55534990. Road Trippers, Syncro Porsche - 1989 Porsche 911 Carrera Coupé, Targa, 4 Coupé Porsche - 1989 Porsche Turbo 911 Coupé, Targa Official website of Porsche 993 Owners and information Information on and about Porsche 993 Porsche 911 Carrera 2 Exterior and Interior in Full HD 3D YouTube -Driving Americas with VW Westfalia 4x4 Extreme Adventure, YouTube
Sport utility vehicle
Sport-utility, SUV or sport-ute is an automotive classification a kind of station wagon / estate car with off-road vehicle features like raised ground clearance and ruggedness, available four-wheel drive. Many SUVs are built on a light-truck chassis but operated as a family vehicle, though designed to be used on rougher surfaces, most used on city streets or highways. In recent years, in some countries the term SUV has replaced terms like "Jeep" or "Land-Rover" in the popular lexicon as a generic description for light 4WD vehicles. Many SUVs have an upright built body and tall interior packaging, a high seating position and center of gravity, available all-wheel drive for off-road capability; some SUVs include the towing capacity of a pickup truck and the passenger-carrying space of a minivan or large sedan. The traditional truck-based SUV is more and more being supplanted by unitary body SUVs and crossovers based on regular automobile platforms for lighter weight and better fuel efficiency.
In some countries, notably the United States, SUVs are not classified as cars, but as light trucks. SUVs overtook lower medium segment cars to become the world's largest automotive segment in 2015, accounting for 22.9 percent of global light vehicle sales, or 36.8% of the world's passenger car market. Worldwide sales of SUVs grew from 5 million units in 2000 to 20 million in 2015 and are forecast to hit 42 million units by 2031. Becoming popular in the 1990s and early 2000s, SUVs combined with other light trucks, like pickups and minivans, supplanted many conventional large passenger cars and station wagons, changed the composition of America's vehicle fleet. SUV sales temporarily declined due to high oil prices and a declining economy, but by 2010, SUV sales around the world were growing again, in spite of gasoline prices; the market has overwhelmingly come to prefer 4/5-door models in favor of popular 2-door off-roaders. There is no universally accepted definition of the sport utility vehicle.
Dictionaries, automotive experts, journalists use varying wordings and defining characteristics, in addition to which there are regional variations of the use by both the media and the general public. The auto industry has not settled on one definition of the SUV either; the actual term "Sport Utility Vehicle" did not come into wide popular usage until the late 1980s — prior to such vehicles were marketed during their era as 4-wheel drives, station wagons, or other monikers. The American Merriam-Webster online dictionary offers three different definitions; the general definition of a "sport-utility vehicle", found under "SUV" reads: "a rugged automotive vehicle similar to a station wagon but built on a light-truck chassis", it is defined in the definition of sport-utility vehicle for students as: "an automobile similar to a station wagon but built on a light truck frame". However, the Merriam-Webster definition "for English Language Learners" reads: "a large vehicle, designed to be used on rough surfaces but, used on city roads or highways".
The Webster's New World Dictionary defines sport utility vehicle as "a passenger vehicle similar to a station wagon but with the chassis of a small truck and four-wheel drive". In recent years, the term SUV has come to replace the use of "jeep" as a generic trademark and description of these type of vehicles, a name that originated during World War II as slang for the light general purpose military truck. A Hemmings article defines the sport utility vehicle as bridging the gap between cars and trucks, "combining car-like appointments and wagon practicality with steadfast off-road capability". S. it only applies to the newer street oriented one, whereas "Jeep", "Land Rover" or 4x4 are used for the off-roader oriented ones. The German automaker BMW utilizes the term SAV to denote "Sport Activity Vehicles." Not all SUVs have four-wheel drive capabilities, not all four-wheel-drive passenger vehicles are SUVs. Although some SUVs have off-road capabilities, they play only a secondary role, SUVs do not have the ability to switch among two-wheel and four-wheel-drive high gearing and four-wheel-drive low gearing.
While automakers tout an SUV's off-road prowess with advertising and naming, the daily use of SUVs is on paved roads. In British English the terms "four-by-four" or "off-road vehicle" are preferred, for example the Chambers Dictionary has no entry for sport utility vehicle; the Collins English online dictionary defines sport utility vehicle as a "powerful vehicle with four-wheel drive that can be driven over rough ground" or "a high-powered car with four-wheel drive designed for off-road use", but the citations quoted by Collins are few. Other alternative terms are "four-wheel drive", or using the brand name to describe the vehicle. In the United States, many government regulations have categories for "off-highway vehicles" which are loosely defined and result in SUVs being classified as light trucks. For example, Corporate Average Fuel Economy regulations included "permit greater cargo-carrying capacity than passenger carrying volume" in the definition for trucks, resulting in SUVs being classified as light trucks.
This classification as trucks allowed SUVs to be regulated