Caravan (towed trailer)
A caravan, travel trailer, camper or camper trailer is towed behind a road vehicle to provide a place to sleep, more comfortable and protected than a tent. It provides the means for people to have their own home on a journey or a vacation, without relying on a motel or hotel, enables them to stay in places where none is available. However, in some countries campers are restricted to designated sites. Caravans vary from basic models which may be little more than a tent on wheels to those containing several rooms with all the furniture and furnishings and equipment of a home, they are used principally in North America, Europe and New Zealand. In Europe, the origins of travel trailers and caravanning can be traced back to travelling Gypsies, showmen who spent most of their lives in horse-drawn caravans. Samuel White Baker purchased an actual Gypsy caravan in Britain and shipped it to Cyprus for his tour in 1879; the world's first leisure trailer was built by the Bristol Wagon & Carriage Works in 1880 for Dr. William Gordon Stables, a popular author of teenage adventure fiction, who ordered a "gentleman's caravan".
It was an 18-foot design, based upon their Bible Wagons, used by traveling preachers in America's Wild West. Stables named it Wanderer, he travelled around the British countryside in it and wrote a book documenting his travels in 1885 called The Gentleman Gypsy. This moved the Duke of Newcastle to commission The Bohemian. By the turn of the century,'caravanning' for leisure had become an popular activity. In 1901, the first dedicated caravanning club was established; the Camping and Caravanning Club was founded by the father of modern camping. The Caravan Club was founded in 1907 with Stables as its vice president, its stated aim was to "... bring together those interested in van life as a pastime...to improve and supply suitable vans and other appliances...and to arrange camping grounds." Caravanning gained popularity in North America in the 1920s. Modern travel trailers come in a range of sizes, from tiny two-berth trailers with no toilet and only basic kitchen facilities, to large, triple-axle, six-berth types.
Caravans the Vardo, have served both as a significant cultural icon and symbol of the nomadic Gypsies. Until the early 19th century, Romani caravans served as a means of transport and not as a domicile. At the beginning of the 19th century, more Romani people began to live in their caravans instead of sleeping in tents; the caravan offered greater protection from weather conditions and could be outfitted with modern amenities such as wood-burning stoves. Caravans were commissioned to be built at the request of newlywed couples and their families; the small-scale, pre-industrial methods of the builders and the labour-intensive nature of the building process meant that a family's caravan could take up to a year to build. Trailer caravan is defined in ISO Standard 3833:1977, Road vehicles - Types - Terms and definitions, term No 220.127.116.11. In the United States and Canada, the history of travel trailers can be traced back to the early 1920s, when those who enjoyed their use were referred to as'tin can tourists'.
As time progressed, trailers became more liveable and earned a new name in the 1930s and 1940s, the house trailer. In the 1950s and 1960s, the industry seemed to split, creating the two types that we see today, that of the recreational vehicle industry and mobile home industry. Today travel trailers are classified as a type of RV along with motorhomes, fifth-wheel trailers, pop-up trailers, truck campers. Smaller travel trailers and pop-ups are still made with touring in mind; these are less than 18 feet long and contain simple amenities. By design, they are quick to set up or prepare for travel. Most weigh less than 3,000 pounds and can be towed with a large car or small truck depending upon its towing capacity. Lightweight pop-up trailers weighing less than 700 pounds, such as the Combi-camper and Kamparoo can be towed by small economy cars; some exceptionally light travel trailers can be pulled by motorcycle or bicycle. Fiberglass body construction entered the U. S. scene in 1971 with the introduction of the first U.
S.-produced mini travel trailer, called the Playpac. The Playpac, invented by Steven Whysel, was the answer to the needs of the growing horde of VW "Bug" and other small-car owners who wanted a hard-shelled camper, light enough to be pulled by a small car, it came with a private water closet and the ability to sleep six. Its ultramodern aerodynamic styling and domed skylight by the modernist industrial designer Toshihiko Sakow made it an instant hit, it was short-lived, however, as the first Arab Oil Embargo and the ensuing major slow-down of RV sales caused it to cease operations. The Boler travel trailer, was developed in Canada in 1968, soon joined the Playpac in the U. S. fiberglass light-weight class. The Hunter and Amerigo travel trailers were on the scene by then. Mid-range travel trailers are 18 to 25 feet long, can weigh 5,000 pounds or more, are towed with compact pickup trucks and SUVs, they sleep fewer people. Larger travel trailers are made with the full-time user in mind; these range from 25 to 40 feet long and contain all the comforts of a luxury condominium.
These amenity-laden models can reach 12,000 pounds or more, requiring a purpose-built tow vehicle, highway tractor or large truck or SUV. While trailers may weigh in above that, mo
Honda Civic (eighth generation)
The eighth generation of the Honda Civic was introduced in September 2005, for the 2006 model year. This generation introduced the "two-tier" instrument panel. In many countries, all models come standard with power windows, anti-lock brakes, side/curtain airbags. Additionally, the 2006 models acquired ULEV-2 certification and boast a more powerful 1.8-litre engine than the 2005 counterparts while retaining equal fuel economy. In the North American market, the sedan and coupe styles are available, which were designed in Japan and Ohio, respectively; the sedan and coupe are available in several trim levels. The Hybrid only comes as a sedan, while the Si coupe was joined by a sedan in 2007, the Si sedan entered the Canadian lineup in 2008. 2008 saw the addition of new interior features such as a 60/40 rear folding seat and remote trunk release for LX models, while 2009 models had a mid-generation refresh most notable on the front grille. In Canada, the Japanese-market type Civic 2.0GL is sold as the Acura CSX, uses a 155 hp K20Z2.
A CSX Type-S is sold, similar, but instead is equipped with the Civic Si drivetrain. In the Asian, Russian, South African and Middle East, Canary Islands: Las Palmas de Gran Canaria markets, the new Civic has slight but noticeable styling differences from the American version. While the arcing line sweeping across the front fascia is retained, the main headlights dip away from the main arc for a more sporty appearance; the front bumper has more vents with a steeper angle and sharper corners than the U. S. Civic. Meanwhile, the taillights are more reminiscent of the Integra, with the main round brake lights dipping down into the indicators. By contrast, the taillights of the U. S. Civic resemble those of an Audi A4. On the interior side, the Asian-market Civic has contrasting two tone colour scheme; the three-spoke steering wheel from the American Civic Si and the European hatchback is standard. Engines include a 1.8-litre SOHC i-VTEC engine that produces 140 bhp at 6300 rpm and a 2.0-litre DOHC i-VTEC engine that produces 155 bhp at 6200 rpm, both are mated to either a 5-speed manual or 5-speed automatic with drive by wire throttles.
There is a 1.6-litre variant available in Turkey. A vehicles in the vehicle numbers curbing system in Singapore, while maintaining a higher standard than the 1.3 L variant. It uses an SOHC i-VTEC engine, similar to that of the 1.8-litre variant. It produces 123 bhp at 6500 rpm. For the hybrid, there is the 1.3-litre SOHC i-VTEC with the IMA. In Israel, South Africa, Australia and Republic of Ireland, both the 4-door Asian and 5-door European Civic models are available. In certain European countries, the four-door JDM Civic is available with the hybrid powertrain, being the only Civic sedan available in the UK. In other markets where sedans are more popular, a range of sedans similar to the JDM models are available with the 1.8 L i-VTEC. In Singapore and Brunei, the 3-door European Civic Type R was available. In the Philippines, the Civic is offered in 3 grades; the 1.8 S has the same features as the V, however, it had different wheels, a 15" alloy, equipment level such as ABS Brakes and SRS Airbags while the S has a 16" alloy, 5-spoke wheels.
The 2.0 S produces 195 bhp at 6000 rpm. The S-L is only mated to a 5-speed automatic transmission with paddle shifters, while the manual transmission version has been discontinued; the S-L variant has a 17" 7-spoke alloy wheels, 3-spoke leather steering wheel, HID lamps, has blue leather seats. All of the variants has a digital instrumental gauge. Since the current generation is first introduced to the market in April 2006, its total sales has exceed its nearest competitor, Toyota Altis. In Pakistan, the Civic is offered in 2 trim levels; the difference between the two models is that the VTi Oriel gets additional features, not available in the i-VTEC/VTi, such as sunroof, alloy wheels and door mirrors with integrated turn signals. In Pakistan the eighth generation Civic is known as'Honda Civic Reborn'; the Indonesian market is offered in only two models, 1.8 and 2.0. The 1.8 is available in both automatic transmissions. Both 1.8 and 2.0 automatic transmission has a paddle shifting, unlike the others for the Asian market.
The 1.8 has dual airbags, ABS, EBD, a single-CD player, a 16-inch 5 spoke alloy wheels and air-conditioning, whereas the 2.0 adds a 6-disc CD changer, automatic air-conditioning, ESP, a 17-inch 5-spoke alloy wheels and navy blue/light gray interior instead of the dark gray/beige offered on the 1.8. The facelift model adds an 18-inch 8-spoke alloy wheels replacing the 17-inch offered on the 2.0 trim. The South Korean market has three trim levels, 1.8, 2.0, Hybrid. All Civic models are equipped with 5-speed Automatic transmissions, with
Volkswagen Polo Mk5
The Volkswagen Polo Mk5 is the fifth generation of the Volkswagen Polo supermini-class car, launched by Volkswagen in March 2009. The Mark 5 Polo, internally designated Typ 6R, is based on Volkswagen's PQ25 platform, shared with the 2008 SEAT Ibiza and the Audi A1, its styling, by a team led by Walter de Silva, follows the direction of the previous 2008 Volkswagen Scirocco and Golf VI. Larger than the previous generation Polo, the Mark 5 is however, 7.5% lighter. The car was unveiled in the 2009 Geneva Motor Show; the Volkswagen Polo won the 2010 European Car of the Year, defeating the Toyota iQ and Opel/Vauxhall Astra. In 2018 the Volkswagen Polo Mk4 Polo Vivo was replaced by the Volkswagen Polo Mk5 and is called the Polo Vivo; the European version, with exceptions for the French and Turkish market, includes a standard ESP electronic stabilization program with Hill Hold Control, head-thorax airbags, belt tensioners and belt force limiters plus seatbelt warning indicator and head restraints, three rear head restraints and Isofix child seat preparation.
In France, ESP and Hill Hold Control are standard equipment only on the models with engines no less than 85 hp. In Turkey, ESP and Hill Hold Control are optional equipment on all models except BlueMotion. In its native Germany and South Africa as well as some European markets except France, Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, Trendline and Highline trim levels are being offered in all versions. In France, only Comfortline and Highline trim levels are being offered in all versions. In Croatia and Herzegovina as well as in Slovenia, trim level situation is not stable, these are Trendline, Comfortline and special trim levels including Rabbit and Lounge. Features include: Voice control MirrorLink Full-LED headlamps fatigue detection system Front Assist with "city emergency braking" system Adaptive cruise control Multi-collision brake Rear Assist In addition to the engine options above, BlueMotion Technology versions of the 1.2 TSI are available on some markets. The reduces CO2 emission to 113 g/km for the 90 PS with manual transmission and 115 g/km for the 105 PS in manual and DSG variants.
At the end of 2012, the BlueGT variant has been introduced. The Polo BlueGT features improved aerodynamics and a 1.4 turbocharged TSI engine from the new EA211 generation. This new engine features ACT, a cylinder deactivation management which deactivates two cylinders at torque outputs from 24 to 100 N·m, allowing the Polo BlueGT with a 6-speed manual transmission to emit only 107 g/km. In 2013, Volkswagen entered the World Rally Championship with a new Polo-based rally car. To meet the homologation requirements, 2500 Polo R WRCs were produced between September 2013 and March 2014. Anecdotal reports have appeared of problems with the 66 kW diesel engine, including poor fuel consumption and surging. VW has made one modification to the particle filter ECU mapping. EuroNCAP: 5 stars A one-off Polo concept car was shown at the Wörthersee GTI meeting in May 2009. Considered as a preview of a future Polo GTI model, the car featured Flash Red paint with black rally stripes, 18-inch "Budapest" wheels, high gloss black interior and aluminum tread plates.
A sedan version of the Polo Mark V was launched in India and Russia in 2010 as the Volkswagen Vento and Polo Sedan, increased wheelbase and ground clearance, has one petrol and one diesel engine options available. In 2014, a facelifted Vento was launched, it carries over the 1.6L petrol but has a new 1.5L diesel engine derived from the old 1.6L. The Vento gets a 7-Speed DSG automatic, with this new 1.5L engine. A 1.2L TSI engine is available mated to the 7-Speed DSG, producing 103PS. It is intended to compete with the Honda City, popular in India; the car is manufactured and sold in Indonesia, Mongolia, South Africa and Thailand and Taiwan as Volkswagen Polo Sedan with only the petrol engine available for Malaysian and Russian and Taiwan market. The Volkswagen Polo Sedan is not produced in Brazil, South Africa and China, nor exported to the rest of Latin America and Australia because it is developed in India, but the Polo hatchback is produced in South Africa and exported to China and Australia.
A Mexican variant of the Vento was released in the 2014 model year, manufactured in India by Volkswagen India. Volkswagen Vento is a best seller for Volkswagen México; the main features are good quality under the subcompact segment, good crash test results, affordable price. From 2014 model to present; the car became available in Argentina from October 2015 to February 2018 when it was replaced by the Virtus sourced from Brazil. The Volkswagen Vento 2016 to present in Mexican territory, the renewal of the best-selling model of the Volkswagen brand in Mexico and the third one with more sales volume in this country; this model with a front that more resembles the New Jetta, fascia, fog lights, chrome inserts, visible exhaust and Completely redesigned lights. We find new designs of 15-inch wheels, chrome details on the door handles, fog lights with light static curve and directional lights in the side mirrors. In the interior
The Opel Astra is a compact car/small family car engineered and manufactured by the German automaker Opel since 1991. It is branded as the Buick Excelle XT in China; the Holden Astra was discontinued in Australia and New Zealand in 2009, because exchange rates made the car uncompetitive, was replaced by the Holden Cruze. It returned to the Australian market in 2012, for the first time badged as an Opel, but was discontinued after Opel withdrew from the country a year later. On 1 May 2014, Opel announced that the Astra GTC and Astra VXR would return to Australia and New Zealand in 2015, again bearing the Holden badge; the Astra nameplate originates from Vauxhall, which had manufactured and marketed earlier generations of the Opel Kadett as the Vauxhall Astra. Subsequent GM Europe policy standardised model nomenclature in the early 1990s, whereby model names were the same in all markets regardless of the marque they were sold under; as of 2019, there have been five generations of the Astra. In a fashion typical for Opel they are designated with subsequent letters of the Latin alphabet.
Opel's official convention is that the Astra is a logical continuation of the Kadett lineage, the first generation of Opel Astra as the Astra F. The usual convention would have started with Astra A, if the Astra had been considered a separate model. Models sold as Vauxhall, Holden, or Chevrolet have different generation designations reflecting the history of those nameplates in their home markets and their naming conventions; the Opel Astra F debuted in September 1991. With the Kadett E's successor, Opel adopted the Astra nameplate, used by Vauxhall for the Kadett D and E, it was offered as a three- or five-door hatchback, a saloon, an estate known as the Caravan and available with five doors only, bringing Opel's run of three-door wagons to an end at long last. A cabriolet was offered and built by Bertone in Italy. While the Astra F finished production in Germany in 1998, Polish-built Astras remained on offer in Central and Eastern Europe, as well as Turkey, with the name Astra Classic from 1998 to 2002.
The Opel Astra F consisted of two main revisions and was revised in 1995, with the launch of Opel's new Ecotec engine. Aside from the South Africa-only 200t S, the lead model was the GSi – a 2.0 L I4 16V petrol injected model with 151 hp, available as a three-door only. It featured sports bodykit and widened front seats in the interior. However, this was substituted in 1995 and was renamed as SPORT, although only a limited number were produced and the bodykit was removed and it could be selected with the lower-powered, but more modern'Ecotec' version, the X20XEV parallel with the C20XE. In Europe from 1994 all Astra models were offered with the 2.0 L 16V Ecotec X20XEV parallel with the 2.0 L 8V engine, but the three-door and station wagon models could be selected with the 151 hp C20XE engine. Some Astra models had a 1.6 L engine with 83 hp. After the Astra F was replaced by the new generation Astra G in 1998, the so-called "REDTOP" C20XE engine was taken out of production; the model was launched in South Africa in 1991, where it was produced under licence by Delta.
The "Kadett" name was retained for the hatchback Astras until 1999. The sedan and station wagon models were offered under the Astra name; the Kadett and Astra in South Africa won the title of'Car of the Year' in two consecutive years though they were versions of the same car. South African nomenclature was denoted in centilitres, so the Astra and Kadett ranges featured 140, 160i, 180i and 200i models; the South African Astra turbo included a variant with the same turbocharged engine called the Opel Kadett 200t S. The 200t S was a specific name where Delta Motor Corporation wanted to show the specialty of the type, which could beat the BMW M3 in a quarter mile in that time; the "t" stands for the turbocharger. The engine in the Opel Astra and Kadett 200t S was sourced from the Opel Calibra and Opel Vectra A 4x4 2.0 16V turbo, four-wheel drive found in European markets, but local engineers converted the six-speed, four-wheel drive transmission to front-wheel drive only and as such it was unique to South Africa.
The Opel Astra became available in Australasia badged as a Holden, first in New Zealand in 1995, Australia in 1996. The first models were imported from the UK, but models were imported from Belgium; the Holden Astra name had been used on rebadged Nissan Pulsar models from 1984 to 1989. Opel Astra's first generation was exported to Brazil from December 1994 as the Chevrolet Astra, possible because of a lowering of import tariffs. General Motors do Brasil sent the 2.0-liter, 115 bhp engines to Belgium, whence the completed cars took their way to Brazil. In February 1996 the Brazilian government again changed the import tariff, from 20 to 70% - making the car prohibitively expensive and leading to its cancellation after just over a year on the market. Instead, the locally built Kadett was updated; the second generation Astra was manufactured in Brazil. Beginning in March 1995, the Astra sedan was assembled in Indonesia where it was marketed as the "Opel Optima"; the name had to be changed. In India the Opel Astra was assembled for the local market in a joint venture with the Birla Companies, beginning in 1996.
Indian production ended in 2002. The first generation Chrevolet Astra in Brazil had a Vauxhall-style front grille featuring a "V", containing the Chevrolet badg
Sport utility vehicle
Sport-utility, SUV or sport-ute is an automotive classification a kind of station wagon / estate car with off-road vehicle features like raised ground clearance and ruggedness, available four-wheel drive. Many SUVs are built on a light-truck chassis but operated as a family vehicle, though designed to be used on rougher surfaces, most used on city streets or highways. In recent years, in some countries the term SUV has replaced terms like "Jeep" or "Land-Rover" in the popular lexicon as a generic description for light 4WD vehicles. Many SUVs have an upright built body and tall interior packaging, a high seating position and center of gravity, available all-wheel drive for off-road capability; some SUVs include the towing capacity of a pickup truck and the passenger-carrying space of a minivan or large sedan. The traditional truck-based SUV is more and more being supplanted by unitary body SUVs and crossovers based on regular automobile platforms for lighter weight and better fuel efficiency.
In some countries, notably the United States, SUVs are not classified as cars, but as light trucks. SUVs overtook lower medium segment cars to become the world's largest automotive segment in 2015, accounting for 22.9 percent of global light vehicle sales, or 36.8% of the world's passenger car market. Worldwide sales of SUVs grew from 5 million units in 2000 to 20 million in 2015 and are forecast to hit 42 million units by 2031. Becoming popular in the 1990s and early 2000s, SUVs combined with other light trucks, like pickups and minivans, supplanted many conventional large passenger cars and station wagons, changed the composition of America's vehicle fleet. SUV sales temporarily declined due to high oil prices and a declining economy, but by 2010, SUV sales around the world were growing again, in spite of gasoline prices; the market has overwhelmingly come to prefer 4/5-door models in favor of popular 2-door off-roaders. There is no universally accepted definition of the sport utility vehicle.
Dictionaries, automotive experts, journalists use varying wordings and defining characteristics, in addition to which there are regional variations of the use by both the media and the general public. The auto industry has not settled on one definition of the SUV either; the actual term "Sport Utility Vehicle" did not come into wide popular usage until the late 1980s — prior to such vehicles were marketed during their era as 4-wheel drives, station wagons, or other monikers. The American Merriam-Webster online dictionary offers three different definitions; the general definition of a "sport-utility vehicle", found under "SUV" reads: "a rugged automotive vehicle similar to a station wagon but built on a light-truck chassis", it is defined in the definition of sport-utility vehicle for students as: "an automobile similar to a station wagon but built on a light truck frame". However, the Merriam-Webster definition "for English Language Learners" reads: "a large vehicle, designed to be used on rough surfaces but, used on city roads or highways".
The Webster's New World Dictionary defines sport utility vehicle as "a passenger vehicle similar to a station wagon but with the chassis of a small truck and four-wheel drive". In recent years, the term SUV has come to replace the use of "jeep" as a generic trademark and description of these type of vehicles, a name that originated during World War II as slang for the light general purpose military truck. A Hemmings article defines the sport utility vehicle as bridging the gap between cars and trucks, "combining car-like appointments and wagon practicality with steadfast off-road capability". S. it only applies to the newer street oriented one, whereas "Jeep", "Land Rover" or 4x4 are used for the off-roader oriented ones. The German automaker BMW utilizes the term SAV to denote "Sport Activity Vehicles." Not all SUVs have four-wheel drive capabilities, not all four-wheel-drive passenger vehicles are SUVs. Although some SUVs have off-road capabilities, they play only a secondary role, SUVs do not have the ability to switch among two-wheel and four-wheel-drive high gearing and four-wheel-drive low gearing.
While automakers tout an SUV's off-road prowess with advertising and naming, the daily use of SUVs is on paved roads. In British English the terms "four-by-four" or "off-road vehicle" are preferred, for example the Chambers Dictionary has no entry for sport utility vehicle; the Collins English online dictionary defines sport utility vehicle as a "powerful vehicle with four-wheel drive that can be driven over rough ground" or "a high-powered car with four-wheel drive designed for off-road use", but the citations quoted by Collins are few. Other alternative terms are "four-wheel drive", or using the brand name to describe the vehicle. In the United States, many government regulations have categories for "off-highway vehicles" which are loosely defined and result in SUVs being classified as light trucks. For example, Corporate Average Fuel Economy regulations included "permit greater cargo-carrying capacity than passenger carrying volume" in the definition for trucks, resulting in SUVs being classified as light trucks.
This classification as trucks allowed SUVs to be regulated
The Dodge Charger is a model of automobile marketed by Dodge. The first Charger was a show car in 1964. There have been several different production Chargers, built on sizes. In the United States, the Charger nameplate has been used on subcompact hatchbacks, full-sized sedans, personal luxury coupes; the current version is a four-door sedan. The three main iterations of Dodge Chargers were a mid-size two-door car, a subcompact car, the full-size platform four-door sedans built since 2006; the name was carried by a 1999 concept car that differed from the Charger placed into production for the 2006 model year. A similar name plate, the Ramcharger, was used for the truck-type vehicle; the name Charger was used in Brazil as a performance model based on the Dart. The Dodge Charger was introduced during the 1966 model year, it featured a four bucket seat interior. The intermediate-sized Charger shared components with the Coronet that used the Chrysler B platform; the base engine was a 318 cu in V8 with a three-speed floor shifter.
Larger and more powerful engines were available. Sales were low; the Charger was redesigned for 1968, an initial 35,000 units were slated for production. The demand was so high, however, 96,100 Dodge Chargers were produced. Based on the Chrysler B platform, the model years received various cosmetic changes to the exterior and interior including: an undivided grill, rounded tail lights, hidden headlights; the powertrains were the same as the ones used in the 1967 Charger. The model was not successful in stock car racing such as NASCAR. A more aerodynamic shape formed the Charger 500 model that became the basis for the 1969 Dodge Charger Daytona; the third generation Charger was introduced for the 1971 model year. Chrysler's B platform was modified to meet new emissions and safety regulations. Available in six different packages with cosmetic changes that include: a split grill, semi fastback rear window, a ducktail spoiler; the 1973 and 1974 Chargers were similar to the 1971 with minor differences in the grill and headlamps.
The increase in sales was due to the elimination of the Dodge Coronet, which meant Dodge offered the two-door intermediate-size body style only as the Charger. The 1975 model year Charger was restyled; the new Charger was Dodge's attempt at moving the model into the growing personal luxury car market segment. Dodge expanded its presence in the personal luxury car market in 1978 when it produced two cars in the same class, the Charger and the Dodge Magnum. During the years this car was offered, a Daytona model was offered, featuring stripes that ran along the length of the car; the Charger returned in 1981½ as a subcompact hatchback coupe with front-wheel-drive, a five-speed manual or three-speed automatic transmission. This economy-type model was similar to the Dodge Omni 024, but with a larger engine; the Charger was available with a turbocharged 2.2 l SOHC engine. The turbo was available only unlike in the Dodge Daytona. A Shelby Charger was offered starting in 1983, with a turbo version available in 1984 producing 148 horsepower at 5600 rpm and 160 pound-feet of torque at 3200 rpm.
The engine was not used a small t3 Garrett turbo. In 1985, the electronics were updated but power output was the same. In 1986, the electronics were further updated. After seventeen years of front-wheel-drive only, Dodge reintroduced the Charger in 2005 for the 2006 model year in a new form; this generation was available only as a four-door sedan using the Chrysler LX platform The design was intended to be reminiscent of the Chargers of the 1960s and 1970s and the taillights harkened back to that era, as did the new stamped hood and side panels. This generation was available with a V6 and V8 engine options coupled to automatic transmissions, as well as all-wheel drive. In its inaugural year, the Dodge Charger was available in SE, SXT, R/T, R/T with Road/Track Performance Group and Daytona R/T versions; the basic SE model included a 2.7 L V6 engine, 5-speed automatic transmission with "AutoStick" manual shifting feature, 17-inch wheels, air conditioning, all-speed traction control, as well as ABS and electronic stability control, a CD player and telescoping steering column, power locks/mirrors/windows, remote keyless entry.
Additional features and trims were available including the Charger R/T with a 5.7 L Hemi V8 mated to a 5-speed automatic transmission. A multiple-displacement system that allows it to save fuel by running on only four cylinders when cruising was featured in the V8. Performance was focus of the Charger SRT8 equipped with a 6.1 L Hemi engine mated to a 5-speed automatic, as well as conveniences such as an eight-way power front passenger seat, automatic climate control, special grille and rear spoiler, body-color interior trim, special front fascia and engine cover, larger exhaust tips, performance steering gear, heated front seats with perforated suede inserts, power-adjustable pedals, special colors and exterior trim. Optional was a Road/Track package with 10 additional horsepower, GPS navigation system, 322-watt audio system, a rear-seat DVD entertainment system and radio The Dodge Charger received an improved interior and new exterior styling for 2011; this included new side scoops along both front and rear doors, as well as more angular headlights, aggressive new grille styling, a more defined and aerodynamic shape overall.
Most notably, the rear end adopted a more modern wrap around LED tail light spanning across nearly the entire length of the tru
The Kia K9, marketed as the Kia K900 in the United States and Canada and as the Kia Quoris in other export markets, is a full-size luxury sedan manufactured and marketed by Kia Motors, now in its second generation. The K9 was launched in South Korea in May 2012, with export sales beginning in late 2012; as of June 2013, the car is available in South Korea, the Middle East, Guatemala, Russia, the United States, Canada. There are plans to release it in China; the second generation Quoris was launched in 2018. The K9 is Genesis, with which it shares the BH-L platform, it is the first rear-wheel-drive sedan. The K9's development code was KH; the K9 is shorter than the Equus, has a longer wheelbase with shorter front overhang dimensions. The Quoris features Kia's "Tiger nose" grill as well as blind spot detection, head-up display and an adaptive front lighting system. Launch engines in Korea include a 300 PS 3.3L V6 and a 334 PS 3.8L GDI V6, coupled with an eight-speed automatic transmission. The Quoris debuted in Russia in 2013 with a 294 PS 3.8L V6.
The K900 in the US uses a 426 PS 5.0 L GDI V8. In Canada, the K900 can be fitted with either a 315 PS 3.8L GDI V6, producing 293 lb⋅ft of torque or the same 5.0L GDI V8 as the US market. Kia debuted the all new K9/K900 at the March 2018 New York Auto Show; the new generation is longer and wider than the outgoing model, has a wheelbase stretched by about 2.3 inches. It is expected to retain the same 8-speed transmission, as well as the same three engine choices; the interior will feature higher quality leather and wood trim, as well as an analog clock developed by Maurice Lacroix. Kia introduced an AWD model in South Korea for the second generation. To promote the K900, Kia Motors released their Super Bowl XLVIII commercial, featuring Laurence Fishburne reprising his role as Morpheus from The Matrix series. On October 2014, basketball player LeBron James was named Kia's K900 luxury ambassador; the Kia K900 sold over 200 units per month from April to June in the U. S. market its launch year. Sales dropped to 100-130 units in July and August 2014, to 56 in September and up to 62 October.
Kia GT Concept Kia Stinger Official website