Gran Colombia is a name used today for the state that encompassed much of northern South America and part of southern Central America from 1819 to 1831. It included the territories of present-day Colombia, Ecuador, northern Peru, western Guyana, the first three were the successor states to Gran Colombia at its dissolution. Panama was separated from Colombia in 1903, since Gran Colombias territory corresponded more or less to the original jurisdiction of the former Viceroyalty of New Granada, it claimed the Caribbean coast of Nicaragua, the Mosquito Coast. Its existence was marked by a struggle between those who supported a government with a strong presidency and those who supported a decentralized. The two men had been allies in the war against Spanish rule, but by 1825, their differences had become public and were an important part of the political instability from that year onward, the official name of the country at the time was the Republic of Colombia. The name Colombia comes from the Spanish version of the eighteenth-century New Latin word Columbia and it was the term preferred by the revolutionary Francisco de Miranda as a reference to the New World, especially to all American territories and colonies under Spanish rule.
He used an improvised, quasi-Greek adjectival version of the name, Colombeia, to papers and things relating to Colombia. Bolívar and other Spanish American revolutionaries used the word Colombia in the continental sense, the establishment in 1819 of a nation with the name Colombia by the Congress of Angostura gave the term a specific geographic and political reference. The Republic of Colombia comprised more or less the former territories of the Viceroyalty of New Granada and it united the territories of the former Third Republic of Venezuela, the United Provinces of New Granada, the former Royal Audiencia of Panama and the Presidency of Quito. Before a new constitution could be written by the Congress of Cúcuta, under the Constitution of Cúcuta, the country was divided into twelve departments governed by an intendant. Departments were further divided into provinces headed by a governor. Military affairs at the department level were overseen by a commandant general, all three offices were appointed by the central government.
The central government, which temporarily was to reside in Bogotá, consisted of a presidency, a bicameral congress, the president was the head of the executive branch of both the central and local governments. The president could be granted extraordinary powers in military fronts, such as the area that became Ecuador, the vice-president assumed the presidency in case of the absence, demotion, or illness of the president. Since President Bolívar was absent from Gran Colombia for the years of its existence, executive power was wielded by the vice-president. The vote was given to persons who owned 100 pesos in landed property or had an equivalent income from a profession, in that year, none of the provinces of Quito, nor many in Venezuela and New Granada, were free yet. The Constitution of Cúcuta was drafted in 1821 at the Congress of Cúcuta, Bolívar and Santander were elected as the nations president and vice-president. To break up regionalist tendencies and to set up efficient central control of local administration, the Gran Colombian army consolidated the independence of Peru in 1824
They interpret Bolívars ideas from a socialist perspective. Simón Bolívar has left a lasting imprint on the Venezuelas history in particular. Chavez as a cadet was a celebrant of the Bolivarian passion story. Chavismo policies include nationalization, social programs, and opposition to neoliberalism. According to Hugo Chávez, Venezuelan socialism accepts private property, chavismo support participatory democracy and workplace democracy. In January 2007, Chávez proposed to build the state, whose main idea is to build self-government institutions like communal councils, communes. Analysts have pointed out additional anti-American and authoritarian-leaning traits in those governments, the social programs that came into being during the term of Hugo Chávez sought to reduce social disparities and were funded in large part by oil revenues. The sustainability and design of the programs have been both praised and criticized. Specific examples of programs are listed below. Plan Bolívar 2000 was the first of the Bolivarian Missions enacted under of administration of Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez.
According to the United States Department of State, Chávez wanted to send the message that the military was not a force of popular repression, but rather a force for development and security. The State Department commented that this happened only 23 days after his inauguration, the plan involved around 40,000 Venezuelan soldiers engaged in door-to-door anti-poverty activities, including mass vaccinations, food distribution in slum areas, and education. Several scandals affected the program as allegations of corruption were formulated against Generals involved in the plan, the mission was to provide comprehensive publicly funded health care, dental care, and sports training to poor and marginalized communities in Venezuela. Barrio Adentro featured the construction of thousands of iconic two-story medical clinics—consultorios or doctor’s offices—as well as staffing with resident certified medical professionals. Barrio Adentro constitutes an attempt to deliver a de facto form of health care, seeking to guarantee access to quality.
As of 2006, the staff included 31,439 professionals, technical personnel, the Latin American branch of the World Health Organization and UNICEF both praised the program. Though positive outcomes have come from the mission, there have been some struggles as well, in July 2007, Douglas León Natera, chairman of The Venezuelan Medical Federation, reported that up to 70% of the modules of Barrio Adentro were either abandoned or were left unfinished. In 2014, residents in Caracas complained of the service despite large funding from the Venezuelan government, Mission Habitats goal is the construction of thousands of new housing units for the poor
Viceroyalty of New Granada
The Viceroyalty of New Granada was the name given on 27 May 1717, to the jurisdiction of the Spanish Empire in northern South America, corresponding to modern Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela. The territory corresponding to Panama was incorporated in 1739, in addition to these core areas, the territory of the Viceroyalty of New Granada included Guyana, southwestern Suriname, parts of northwestern Brazil, and northern Peru. Sporadic attempts at reform were directed at increasing efficiency and centralizing authority, the rough and diverse geography of northern South America and the limited range of proper roads made travel and communications within the viceroyalty difficult. The Wayuu had never subjugated by the Spanish. The two groups were in a more or less permanent state of war, there had been rebellions in 1701,1727,1741,1757,1761 and 1768. In 1718, Governor Soto de Herrera called them barbarians, horse thieves, worthy of death, without God, without law, of all the Indians in the territory of Colombia, the Wayuu were unique in having learned the use of firearms and horses.
In 1769 the Spanish took 22 Wayuus captive, in order to put them to work building the fortifications of Cartagena, the reaction of the Wayuus was unexpected. On 2 May 1769, at El Rincón, near Riohacha, they set their village afire, burning the church, the Spanish immediately dispatched an expedition from El Rincón to capture the Wayuus. At the head of this force was José Antonio de Sierra, the Guajiros recognized him and forced his party to take refuge in the house of the curate, which they set afire. Sierra and eight of his men were killed and this success was soon known in other Guajiro areas, and more men joined the revolt. According to Messía, at the peak there were 20,000 Wayuus under arms, many had firearms acquired from English and Dutch smugglers, sometimes even from the Spanish. This enabled the rebels to take all the settlements of the region. According to the authorities, more than 100 Spaniards were killed, many cattle were taken by the rebels. The Spaniards took refuge in Riohacha and sent urgent messages to Maracaibo, Santa Marta and Cartagena, the rebels themselves were not unified.
Sierras relatives among the Indians took up arms against the rebels to avenge his death, a battle between the two groups of Wayuus was fought at La Soledad. That and the arrival of the Spanish reinforcements caused the rebellion to fade away, New Granada was estimated to have 4,345,000 inhabitants in 1819. With the dissolution of Gran Colombia, the states of Ecuador, the Republic of New Granada, with its capital at Bogotá, lasted from 1831 to 1856. The name Colombia reappeared in the United States of Colombia, the new name for the country having been introduced by a government after a civil war
Caracas, officially Santiago de León de Caracas, is the capital, the center of the Greater Caracas Area, and the largest city of Venezuela. Caracas is located along the Guaire River in the part of the country. Terrain suitable for building lies between 760 and 910 m above sea level, the valley is close to the Caribbean Sea, separated from the coast by a steep 2, 200-metre-high mountain range, Cerro El Ávila, to the south there are more hills and mountains. Libertador holds many of the government buildings and is the Capital District, the Distrito Capital had a population of 2,013,366 as of 2011, while the Metropolitan District of Caracas was estimated at 3,273,863 as of 2013. The Metropolitan Region of Caracas has an population of 5,243,301. Businesses that are located in the city include service companies, banks and it has a largely service-based economy, apart from some industrial activity in its metropolitan area. The Caracas Stock Exchange and Petróleos de Venezuela are headquartered in Caracas, PDVSA is the largest company in Venezuela.
Caracas is Venezuelas cultural capital, with restaurants, museums. Some of the tallest skyscrapers in Latin America are located in Caracas, in 2015, Venezuela and its capital, had the highest per capita murder rates in the world, with 119 homicides per 100,000 inhabitants. Most murders and other violent crimes go unsolved, at the time of the founding of the city in 1567, the valley of Caracas was populated by indigenous peoples. Francisco Fajardo, the son of a Spanish captain and a Guaiqueri cacica, fajardos settlement did not last long. It was destroyed by natives of the led by Terepaima. This was the last rebellion on the part of the natives, on 25 July 1567, Captain Diego de Losada laid the foundations of the city of Santiago de León de Caracas. The foundation −1567 – I take possession of land in the name of God. In 1577 Caracas became the capital of the Spanish Empires Venezuela Province under Governor Juan de Pimentel, during the 17th century, the coast of Venezuela was frequently raided by pirates.
With the coastal mountains as a barrier, Caracas was relatively immune to such attacks, encountering little resistance, the invaders sacked and set fire to the town after a failed ransom negotiation. As the cocoa cultivation and exports under the Compañía Guipuzcoana de Caracas grew in importance, in 1777, Caracas became the capital of the Captaincy General of Venezuela. José María España and Manuel Gual led a revolution aimed at independence
History of Venezuela
The history of Venezuela reflects events in areas of the Americas colonized by Spain starting 1522, amid resistance from indigenous peoples, led by Native caciques, such as Guaicaipuro and Tamanaco. However, in the Andean region of western Venezuela, complex Andean civilization of the Timoto-Cuica people flourished before European contact and it gained full independence as a separate country in 1830. During the 19th century, Venezuela suffered political turmoil and autocracy, since 1958, the country has had a series of democratic governments. This new constitution changed the name of the country to República Bolivariana de Venezuela. Late Pleistocene hunting artifacts, including tips, come from a similar site in northwestern Venezuela known as El Jobo. According to radiocarbon dating, these date from 13,000 to 7000 BC, taima-Taima, yellow Muaco, and El Jobo in Falcón are some of the sites that have yielded archeological material from these times. These groups co-existed with megafauna like megateriums and toxodonts, archaeologists identify a Meso-Indian period from 7000–5000 BC to 1000 AD.
In this period and gatherers of megafauna started to turn to food sources. Pre-Columbian Venezuela had an population of one million. In addition to indigenous peoples known today, the population included historic groups such as the Kalina, Auaké, Mariche, the Timoto-Cuica culture was the most complex society in Pre-Columbian Venezuela, with pre-planned permanent villages, surrounded by irrigated, terraced fields. They stored water in tanks and their houses were made primarily of stone and wood with thatched roofs. They were peaceful, for the most part, and depended on growing crops, regional crops included potatoes and ullucos. They left behind works of art, particularly ceramics. They spun vegetable fibers to weave textiles and mats for housing. They are credited with having invented the arepa, a staple of Venezuelan cuisine, beginning around 1000 AD, archaeologists speak of the Neo-Indian period, which ends with the European Conquest and Colony period. In the 16th century, when Spanish colonization began in Venezuelan territory, historians have proposed many reasons for this decline, including exposure to European diseases and the systematic elimination of indigenous tribes for control of resources valued in Europe.
Native caciques, such as Guaicaipuro and Tamanaco, attempted to resist Spanish incursions, historians agree that the founder of Caracas, Diego de Losada, ultimately put Tamanaco to death. Christopher Columbus sailed along the eastern coast of Venezuela on his voyage in 1498
Debt is money owed by one party, the borrower or debtor, to a second party, the lender or creditor. The borrower may be a state or country, local government, company. The lender may be a bank, credit card company, payday loan provider, Debt is generally subject to contractual terms regarding the amount and timing of repayments of principal and interest. Loans, bonds and mortgages are all types of debt, the term can be used metaphorically to cover moral obligations and other interactions not based on economic value. For example, in Western cultures, a person who has been helped by a person is sometimes said to owe a debt of gratitude to the second person. Interest is the fee paid by the borrower to the lender, interest is calculated as a percentage of the outstanding principal, which percentage is known as an interest rate, and is generally paid periodically at intervals, such as monthly or semi-annually. Interest rates may be fixed or floating, in floating-rate structures, the rate of interest that the borrower pays during each time period is tied to a benchmark such as LIBOR or, in the case of inflation-indexed bonds, inflation.
There are many different conventions for calculating interest, depending on the terms of the debt, compound interest may accumulate at a specific interval. In addition, different day count conventions exist, for example, sometimes each month is considered to have thirty days. The annual percentage rate is a way to calculate and compare interest rates on an annual basis. Quoting interest rates using APR is required by regulation for most loans to individuals in the United States, for some loans, the amount actually loaned to the debtor is less than the principal sum to be repaid. This may be because upfront fees or points are charged, or because the loan has been structured to be sharia-compliant, the additional principal due at the end of the term has the same economic effect as a higher interest rate. This is sometimes referred to as a dozen, a play on bakers dozen – owe twelve, receive a loan of eleven. Amortization structures are common in mortgages and credit cards, debtors of every type default on their debt from time to time, with various consequences depending on the terms of the debt and the law governing default in the relevant jurisdiction.
If the debt was secured by collateral, such as a car or home. In more serious circumstances and companies may go into bankruptcy, riskier borrowers must generally pay higher rates of interest to compensate lenders for taking on the additional risk of default. Debt investors assess the risk of default prior to making a loan, for example through credit scores and corporate, common types of debt owed by individuals and households include mortgage loans, car loans, and credit card debt. For individuals, debt is a means of using anticipated income, people in industrialized nations use consumer debt to purchase houses and other things too expensive to buy with cash on hand
Venezuelan crisis of 1895
A tribunal convened in Paris in 1898 to decide the matter, and in 1899 awarded the bulk of the disputed territory to British Guiana. Then US President Grover Cleveland adopted an interpretation of the Doctrine that did not just forbid new European colonies. The territorial claims were originally those of the Spanish Empire and of the Dutch Empire, the basis of the discussions between Venezuela and the United Kingdom lay in Britains advocacy of a particular division of the territory deriving from a mid-nineteenth-century survey it commissioned. As a result of this he was commissioned by the British government to carry out a survey of Guianas boundaries, the Line went well beyond the area of British occupation, and gave British Guiana control of the mouth of the Orinoco River. No treaty between Britain and Venezuela was reached, and after an 1850 agreement not to encroach on disputed territory, the matter rested until 1876. Schomburgks initial sketch, which had published in 1840, was the only version of the Schomburgk Line published until 1886.
This led to accusations by US President Grover Cleveland that the line had extended in some mysterious way. In October 1886 Britain declared the Line to be the frontier of British Guiana. The mine at El Callao, started in 1871, was for a one of the richest in the world. The gold mining was dominated by immigrants from the British Isles, Venezuela had in the course of the dispute repeatedly appealed to the US and to the Monroe Doctrine, but the US had declined to involve itself. This changed after Venezuela obtained the services of William L. Scruggs, Scruggs, a former US Ambassador to Colombia and Venezuela, was recruited in 1893 by the Venezuelan Government to operate on its behalf in Washington D. C. as a lobbyist and legal attache. Scruggs had apparently resigned his ambassadorship to Venezuela in December 1892, as a lobbyist, Scruggs published an October 1894 pamphlet entitled British Aggressions in Venezuela, or the Monroe Doctrine on Trial. In the pamphlet, he attacked British aggression, claiming that Venezuela was anxious to arbitrate over the Venezuela/British Guiana border dispute, Scruggs claimed that British policies in the disputed territory violated the Monroe Doctrine of 1823.
This new diplomacy thrust the United States more emphatically into the imperial struggle and it was in this context that Scruggs sought to draw on the Doctrine in Venezuelas interests. Scruggs collaborated with Georgian compatriot Congressman Leonidas Livingston to propose United States House of Representatives Resolution 252 to the session of the 53rd United States Congress. The bill recommended Venezuela and the United Kingdom settle the dispute by arbitration, President Grover Cleveland signed it into law on February 22,1895, after passing both houses of the United States Congress. The British demanded an indemnity of £15,000, US Secretary of State Walter Q. Gresham thought the demands harsh, but that they should be met, US public opinion, was outraged at this British military activity in the United States sphere of influence