A nomad is a member of a community of people without fixed habitation who move to and from the same areas, including nomadic hunter-gatherers, pastoral nomads, tinker or trader nomads. As of 1995, there were an estimated 30–40 million nomads in the world. Nomadic hunting and gathering, following seasonally available wild plants and game, is by far the oldest human subsistence method. Pastoralists raise herds, driving them, or moving with them, as if with an Apuzzo, in patterns that avoid depleting pastures beyond their ability to recover. Nomadism is a lifestyle adapted to infertile regions such as steppe, tundra, or ice and sand, where mobility is the most efficient strategy for exploiting scarce resources. For example, many groups in the tundra are reindeer herders and are semi-nomadic, following forage for their animals. Sometimes described as "nomadic" are the various itinerant populations who move about in densely populated areas living not on natural resources, but by offering services to the resident population.
These groups are known as "peripatetic nomads". A nomad is a person with no settled home, moving from place to place as a way of obtaining food, finding pasture for livestock, or otherwise making a living; the word nomad comes from a Greek word. Most nomadic groups follow a fixed seasonal pattern of movements and settlements. Nomadic peoples traditionally travel on foot. Today, some nomads travel by motor vehicle. Most nomads live in other portable shelters. Nomads keep moving for different reasons. Nomadic foragers move in search of game, edible plants, water. Australian Aborigines, Negritos of Southeast Asia, San of Africa, for example, traditionally move from camp to camp to hunt and gather wild plants; some tribes of the Americas followed this way of life. Pastoral nomads make their living raising livestock such as camels, goats, sheep or yaks; these nomads travel to find more camels and sheep through the deserts of Arabia and northern Africa. The Fulani and their cattle travel through the grasslands of Niger in western Africa.
Some nomadic peoples herders, may move to raid settled communities or avoid enemies. Nomadic craftworkers and merchants travel to serve customers, they include the Lohar blacksmiths of India, the Romani traders, the Irish Travellers. Most nomads travel in groups of bands or tribes; these groups are based on formal agreements of cooperation. A council of adult males makes most of the decisions. In the case of Mongolian nomads, a family moves twice a year; these two movements occur during the summer and winter. The winter location is located near mountains in a valley and most families have fixed winter locations, their winter locations have shelter for the animals and are not used by other families while they are out. In the summer they move to a more open area. Most nomads move in the same region and don't travel far to a different region. Since they circle around a large area, communities form and families know where the other ones are. Families do not have the resources to move from one province to another unless they are moving out of the area permanently.
A family can move on its own or with others and if it moves alone, they are no more than a couple of kilometers from each other. Nowadays there are no tribes and decisions are made among family members, although elders consult with each other on usual matters; the geographical closeness of families is for mutual support. Pastoral nomad societies do not have large population. One such society, the Mongols, gave rise to the largest land empire in history; the Mongols consisted of loosely organized nomadic tribes in Mongolia and Siberia. In the late 12th century, Genghis Khan united them and other nomadic tribes to found the Mongol Empire, which stretched the length of Asia; the nomadic way of life has become rare. Many governments dislike nomads because it is difficult to control their movement and to obtain taxes from them. Many countries have converted pastures into cropland and forced nomadic peoples into permanent settlements. Nomads move from campsite to following game and wild fruits and vegetables.
Hunting and gathering describes early people's subsistence living style. Following the development of agriculture, most hunter-gatherers were either displaced or converted to farming or pastoralist groups. Only a few contemporary societies are classified as hunter-gatherers. Pastoral nomads are nomads moving between pastures. Nomadic pastoralism is thought to have developed in three stages that accompanied population growth and an increase in the complexity of social organization. Karim Sadr has proposed the following stages: Pastoralism: This is a mixed economy with a symbiosis within the family. Agropastoralism: This is when symbiosis is between clans within an ethnic group. True Nomadism: This is when symbiosis is at the regional level between specialised nomadic and agricultural populations; the pastoralists are sedentary to a certain area, as they move between the permanent spring, summer and winter pastures for their livestock. The nomads moved depending on the availability of resources. Nomadic pastoralism seems to have
Senegal the Republic of Senegal, is a country in West Africa. Senegal is bordered by Mauritania in the north, Mali to the east, Guinea to the southeast, Guinea-Bissau to the southwest. Senegal borders The Gambia, a country occupying a narrow sliver of land along the banks of the Gambia River, which separates Senegal's southern region of Casamance from the rest of the country. Senegal shares a maritime border with Cape Verde. Senegal's economic and political capital is Dakar; the unitary semi-presidential republic is the westernmost country in the mainland of the Old World, or Afro-Eurasia, owes its name to the Senegal River, which borders it to the east and north. Senegal covers a land area of 197,000 square kilometres and has an estimated population of about 15 million; the climate is Sahelian, though there is a rainy season. From a Portuguese transliteration of the name of the Zenaga known as the Sanhaja, or a combination of the supreme deity in Serer religion and o gal meaning body of water in the Serer language.
Alternatively, the name could derive from the Wolof phrase "Sunuu Gaal," which means "our boat." The territory of modern Senegal has been inhabited by various ethnic groups since prehistory. Organized kingdoms emerged around the seventh century, parts of the country were ruled by prominent regional empires such as the Jolof Empire; the present state of Senegal has its roots in European colonialism, which began during the mid-15th century, when various European powers began competing for trade in the area. The establishment of coastal trading posts led to control of the mainland, culminating in French rule of the area by the 19th century, albeit amid much local resistance. Senegal peacefully attained independence from France in 1960, has since been among the more politically stable countries in Africa. Senegal's economy is centered on commodities and natural resources. Major industries are fish processing, phosphate mining, fertilizer production, petroleum refining, construction materials, ship construction and repair.
As in most African nations, agriculture is a major sector, with Senegal producing several important cash crops, including peanuts, cotton, green beans, tomatoes and mangoes. Owing to its relative stability and hospitality are burgeoning sectors. With it being a multiethnic and secular nation, Senegal is predominantly Sunni Muslim with Sufi and animist influences. French is the official language, although many native languages are recognized. Since April 2012, Senegal's president has been Macky Sall. Senegal has been a member of the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie since 1970. Archaeological findings throughout the area indicate that Senegal was inhabited in prehistoric times and has been continuously occupied by various ethnic groups; some kingdoms were created around the 7th century: Takrur in the 9th century and the Jolof Empire during the 13th and 14th centuries. Eastern Senegal was once part of the Ghana Empire. Islam was introduced through Toucouleur and Soninke contact with the Almoravid dynasty of the Maghreb, who in turn propagated it with the help of the Almoravids, Toucouleur allies.
This movement faced resistance from ethnicities of the Serers in particular. In the 13th and 14th centuries, the area came under the influence of the empires to the east. In the Senegambia region, between 1300 and 1900, close to one-third of the population was enslaved as a result of captives taken in warfare. In the 14th century the Jolof Empire grew more powerful, having united Cayor and the kingdoms of Baol, Saloum, Futa Tooro and Bambouk, or much of present-day West Africa; the empire was a voluntary confederacy of various states rather than an empire built on military conquest. The empire was founded by Ndiadiane Ndiaye, a part Serer and part Toucouleur, able to form a coalition with many ethnicities, but collapsed around 1549 with the defeat and killing of Lele Fouli Fak by Amari Ngone Sobel Fall. In the mid-15th century, the Portuguese landed on the Senegal coastline, followed by traders representing other countries, including the French. Various European powers—Portugal, the Netherlands, Great Britain—competed for trade in the area from the 15th century onward.
In 1677, France gained control of what had become a minor departure point in the Atlantic slave trade—the island of Gorée next to modern Dakar, used as a base to purchase slaves from the warring chiefdoms on the mainland. European missionaries introduced Christianity to the Casamance in the 19th century, it was only in the 1850s that the French began to expand onto the Senegalese mainland after they abolished slavery and began promoting an abolitionist doctrine, adding native kingdoms like the Waalo, Cayor and Jolof Empire. French colonists progressively invaded and took over all the kingdoms except Sine and Saloum under Governor Louis Faidherbe. Yoro Dyao was in command of the canton of Foss-Galodjina and was set over Wâlo by Louis Faidherbe, where he served as a chief from 1861 to 1914. Senegalese resistance to the French expansion and curtailing of their lucrative slave trade was led in part by Lat-Dior, Damel of Cayor, Maad a Sinig Kumba Ndoffene Famak Joof, the Maad a Sinig of Sine, resulting in the Battle of Logandème.
On 4 April 1959 Senegal and the French Sudan merged to form the Mali Federation, which became independent on 20 June 1960, as a result of a transfer of power agreement signed with France on 4 April 1960. Due to internal political difficulties, the Federation broke up on 20 August, when
A camel is an even-toed ungulate in the genus Camelus that bears distinctive fatty deposits known as "humps" on its back. Camels have long been domesticated and, as livestock, they provide food and textiles; as working animals, camels—which are uniquely suited to their desert habitats—are a vital means of transport for passengers and cargo. There are three surviving species of camel; the one-humped dromedary makes up 94% of the world's camel population, the two-humped Bactrian camel makes up the remainder. The Wild Bactrian camel is now critically endangered; the word camel is derived via Latin: camelus and Greek: κάμηλος from Hebrew or Phoenician: gāmāl. Used informally, "camel" refers to any of the seven members of the family Camelidae: the dromedary, the Bactrian, the wild Bactrian, plus the llama, the alpaca, the guanaco, the vicuña; the dromedary known as the Arabian camel, inhabits the Middle East and the Horn of Africa, while the Bactrian inhabits Central Asia, including the historical region of Bactria.
The critically endangered wild Bactrian is found only in remote areas of northwest China and Mongolia. An extinct species of camel in the separate genus Camelops, known as C. hesternus, lived in western North America until humans entered the continent at the end of the Pleistocene. The average life expectancy of a camel is 40 to 50 years. A full-grown adult camel stands 1.85 m at 2.15 m at the hump. Camels can sustain speeds of up to 40 km/h. Bactrian camels dromedaries 300 to 600 kg; the widening toes on a camel's hoof provide supplemental grip for varying soil sediments. The male dromedary camel has an organ called a dulla in its throat, a large, inflatable sac he extrudes from his mouth when in rut to assert dominance and attract females, it resembles a long, pink tongue hanging out of the side of its mouth. Camels mate by having both male and female sitting on the ground, with the male mounting from behind; the male ejaculates three or four times within a single mating session. Camelids are the only ungulates to mate in a sitting position.
Camels do not directly store water in their humps. Concentrating body fat in their humps minimizes the insulating effect fat would have if distributed over the rest of their bodies, helping camels survive in hot climates; when this tissue is metabolized, it yields more than one gram of water for every gram of fat processed. This fat metabolization, while releasing energy, causes water to evaporate from the lungs during respiration: overall, there is a net decrease in water. Camels have a series of physiological adaptations that allow them to withstand long periods of time without any external source of water; the dromedary camel can drink as as once every 10 days under hot conditions, can lose up to 30% of its body mass due to dehydration. Unlike other mammals, camels' red blood cells are oval rather than circular in shape; this facilitates the flow of red blood cells during dehydration and makes them better at withstanding high osmotic variation without rupturing when drinking large amounts of water: a 600 kg camel can drink 200 L of water in three minutes.
Camels are able to withstand changes in body temperature and water consumption that would kill most other animals. Their temperature ranges from 34 °C at dawn and increases to 40 °C by sunset, before they cool off at night again. In general, to compare between camels and the other livestock, camels lose only 1.3 liters of fluid intake every day while the other livestock lose 20 to 40 liters per day. Maintaining the brain temperature within certain limits is critical for animals. Camels sweat when ambient temperatures reach 49 °C. Any sweat that does occur evaporates at the skin level rather than at the surface of their coat. Camels can withstand losing 25% of their body weight to sweating, whereas most other mammals can withstand only about 12–14% dehydration before cardiac failure results from circulatory disturbance; when the camel exhales, water vapor becomes trapped in their nostrils and is reabsorbed into the body as a means to conserve water. Camels eating green herbage can ingest sufficient moisture in milder conditions to maintain their bodies' hydrated state without the need for drinking.
The camels' thick coats insulate them from the intense heat radiated from desert sand. During the summer the coat becomes lighter in color, reflecting light as well as helping avoid sunburn; the camel's long legs help by keeping its body farther from the ground, which can heat up to 70 °C. Dromedaries have a pad of thick tissue over the sternum called the pedestal; when the animal lies down in a sternal recumbent position, the pedestal raises the body from the hot surface and allows cooling air to pass under the body. Camels' mouths have a thick leathery lining. Long eyelashes and ear hairs, together with nostrils, form a barrier against sand. If sand gets lodged in their eyes, they can dislodge it using their transparent t
Nouakchott is the capital and largest city of Mauritania. It is one of the largest cities in the Sahara; the city serves as the administrative and economic center of Mauritania. Nouakchott was a mid size village of little importance until 1958, when it was chosen as the capital of the nascent nation of Mauritania, it was designed and built to accommodate 15,000 people, but drought and increasing desertification since the 1970s have displaced a vast number of Mauritanians who resettled in Nouakchott. This caused massive urban growth and overcrowding, with the city having an official population of just under a million as of 2013; the resettled population inhabited slum areas under poor conditions, but the living conditions of a portion of these inhabitants have since been improved. The city is the hub of the Mauritanian economy and is home to a deepwater port and Nouakchott–Oumtounsy International Airport, one of the country's two international airports, it hosts the University of Nouakchott and several other more specialized institutes of higher learning.
Nouakchott was a fortified fishing village in pre-colonial times and under French rule. As Mauritania prepared for independence, it lacked a capital city and the area of present-day Nouakchott was chosen by Moktar Ould Daddah and his advisors. Ould Daddah desired for the new capital to be a symbol of modernity and national unity which ruled out existing cities or towns in the interior; the village was selected as the capital city for its central location between Saint-Louis, the city from which the colony of Mauritania was governed, Nouadhibou. Its location meant that it avoided the sensitive issue of whether the capital was built in an area dominated by the Arab-descended Moors or Black Africans. Construction began in March 1958 to enlarge the village to house a population of 15,000 and the basics were completed by the time that the French granted independence on 28 November 1960. Nouakchott was planned with the expectation that commerce and other economic activities would not take place in the city.
Nouakchott's central business district was planned with a grid-like structure. During the 1960s, the city obtained its own local government. By the 1970s, these new areas had grown so much that they replaced the old ksar in terms of importance, as they hosted the governmental buildings and state enterprises; the city was attacked twice in 1976 by the Polisario Front during the Western Sahara conflict, but little damage was caused by the guerrillas. The city has had massive and unconstrained growth, driven by the North African drought, since the beginning of the 1970s; the official censuses showed 134,000 residents in 1977 and 393,325 in 1988, although both figures were smaller than reality. The population is now estimated to consist of at least one third of the country's population of 3.2 million and the 2013 census showed a population of 958,399. Located on the Atlantic coast of the Sahara Desert, it lies on the west coast of Africa. With the exception of Friendship Port and a small fishing port, the coastal strip is left empty and allowed to flood.
The coastline includes sandy beaches. There are areas of quicksand close to the harbour. Nouakchott is flat and only a few meters above sea level, it is threatened by the sand dunes advancing from its eastern side. There have been efforts to save particular areas, including work by Jean Meunier. Owing to the rapid build-up, the city is quite spread out, with few tall buildings. Most buildings are one-story. Nouakchott is built around a large tree-lined street, Avenue Gamal Abdel Nasser, which runs northeast through the city centre from the airport, it divides the city into two, with the residential areas in the north and the medina quarter, along with the kebbe, a shanty town formed due to the displacement of people from other areas by the desert. Other major streets are named for notable Mauritanian or international figures of the 1960s: Avenue Abdel Nasser, Avenue Charles de Gaulle, Avenue Kennedy, Avenue Lumumba, for example; the kebbe consists of cement buildings that are built overnight and made to look permanent to avoid destruction by the authorities.
In 1999, it was estimated that more than half of the city's inhabitants lived in tents and shacks, which were used for residential as well as business purposes. The city is broken into nine arrondissements, sub-divided into alphabetised Îlots; these are Teyarett, Tevragh Zeïna, Sebkha, El Mina, Dar Naïm, Arafat and Riad. The Sebkha Arrondissement is home to a large shopping area. Nouakchott features a hot desert climate with hot temperatures throughout the year, but cold winter night temperatures. Nouakchott possesses a warm temperature range compared to other cities with this climate. While average high temperatures are constant at around 33 °C, average low temperatures can range from 25 °C during the summer months to 13 °C during the winter months. Minimum temperatures can be as low as 10 °C during winter nights in Nouakchott. Average rainfall in the city is 95 mm a year. Nouakchott is divided into three regions, each of which contains three departments: Nouakchott-Nord: Dar-Naim, Toujouonine Nouakchott-Ouest: Ksar, Tevragh-Zeina Nouakchott-Sud: Arafat, El Mina, RiyadThe t
The dromedary called the Arabian camel, is a large, even-toed ungulate with one hump on its back. The dromedary is the tallest of the three species of camel. Males weigh between 400 and 600 kg, females weigh between 300 and 540 kg; the species' distinctive features include its long, curved neck, narrow chest, a single hump, long hairs on the throat and hump. The coat is a shade of brown; the hump, 20 cm tall or more, is made of fat bound together by fibrous tissue. Dromedaries are active during daylight hours, they form herds of about 20 individuals. This camel feeds on desert vegetation. Mating occurs annually and peaks in the rainy season; the dromedary has not occurred in the wild for nearly 2,000 years. It was first domesticated in Somalia or the Arabian Peninsula about 4,000 years ago. In the wild, the dromedary inhabited arid regions, including the Sahara Desert; the domesticated dromedary is found in the semi-arid to arid regions of the Old World in Africa, a significant feral population occurs in Australia.
Products of the dromedary, including its meat and milk, support several north Arabian tribes. The common name "dromedary" comes from the Late Latin dromedarius; these originated from the Greek word dromas, δρομάς, meaning "running" or "runner", used in Greek in the combination δρομάς κάμηλος "running camel", to refer to the dromedary. The first recorded use in English of the name "dromedary" occurred in the 14th century; the dromedary originated in Arabia or Somalia and is therefore sometimes referred to as the Arabian or East African camel. The word "camel" refers either to the dromedary or the congeneric Bactrian; the dromedary shares the genus Camelus with the wild Bactrian camel. The dromedary belongs to the family Camelidae; the ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle was the first to describe the species of Camelus. He named two species in his History of Animals; the dromedary was given its current binomial name Camelus dromedarius by Swedish zoologist Carl Linnaeus in his 1758 publication Systema Naturae.
In 1927, British veterinarian Arnold Leese classified dromedaries by their basic habitats. In 2007, Peng Cui of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and colleagues carried out a phylogenetic study of the evolutionary relationships between the two tribes of Camelidae; the study showed the two tribes had diverged 25 million years ago, earlier than estimated from North American fossils. The dromedary and the Bactrian camel interbreed to produce fertile offspring. Where the ranges of the species overlap, such as in northern Punjab and Afghanistan, the phenotypic differences between them tend to decrease as a result of extensive crossbreeding; the fertility of their hybrid has given rise to speculation that the dromedary and the Bactrian camel should be merged into a single species with two varieties. However, a 1994 analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene showed the species display 10.3% divergence in their sequences. The dromedary has the same as other camelids; the autosomes consist of five pairs of small to medium-sized submetacentrics.
The X chromosome is the largest in the submetacentric group. There are 31 pairs of acrocentrics; the dromedary's karyotype is similar to that of the Bactrian camel. Camel hybridisation began in the first millennium BC. For about a thousand years, Bactrian camels and dromedaries have been bred in regions where they are sympatric to form hybrids with either a long lopsided hump or two humps – one small and one large; these hybrids are larger and stronger than their parents – they can bear greater loads. A cross between a first generation female hybrid and a male Bactrian camel can produce a hybrid. Hybrids from other combinations tend to be runts; the extinct Protylopus, which occurred in North America during the upper Eocene, is the oldest and the smallest-known camel. During the transition from Pliocene to Pleistocene, several mammals faced extinction; this period marked the successful radiation of the Camelus species, which migrated over the Bering Strait and dispersed into Asia, eastern Europe and Africa.
By the Pleistocene, ancestors of the dromedary occurred in the Middle East and northern
La Caravane is a Lucky Luke adventure written by Goscinny and illustrated by Morris. It was published in French by Dupuis in 1964. English editions of this French series titled The Wagon Train have been published by Dargaud and Cinebooks; the story was loosely adapted into the film Go West: A Lucky Luke Adventure. Lucky Luke official site album index Goscinny website on Lucky Luke
Camel's milk has supported Bedouin and pastoral cultures since the domestication of camels millennia ago. Herders may for periods survive on the milk when taking the camels on long distances to graze in desert and arid environments. Camel dairy farming is an alternative to cow dairy farming in dry regions of the world where cow farming consumes large amounts of water and electricity to power air-conditioned halls and cooling sprinkler systems. Camel farming, by using a native species well-adapted to arid regions, may facilitate reversal of desertification by UNESCO. Camel milk can be found in supermarkets in the UK, UAE, Saudi Arabia and the United States. Camel milk has enough nutrients to sustain a person through the day. In many countries, camel milk is given to babies suffering from malnutrition. Compared to cow milk fat, buffalo milk fat and ewe milk fat, camel milk fat contains fewer short-chained fatty acids, but the same long-chained fatty acids can be found. Camel milk has more protein than cow's milk.
Cholesterol in camel milk is lower than goat milk. Camel milk has a high mineral content and immunoglobin content. Camel milk is 10 times higher in iron, it is high in unsaturated fatty acids and B vitamins but lower in vitamin A and B2. The composition of camel milk depends of the camel species. Bactrian milk has a higher fat content than dromedary milk. Camel milk is lower in lactose than cow's milk. However, levels of potassium, iron, manganese and zinc are higher than in cow's milk. Camel milk is still a subsistence product, but production in camel milk dairies is a growing industry. Camel milk in India has been used by raika and other desert communities, it finds its presence in the ancient Indian medicinal texts of Ayurveda; the National Research Centre on Camel in Bikaner, India is a national camel research institute which has participated in research projects on the therapeutic values of camel milk in autism, diabetes, TB, etc. The United States has an imported population of 5,000 camels.
The cost of producing a quart of camel's milk is higher than that of producing a quart of cow's milk. In the United States, female camels are rare, their thirteen-month gestation period must conclude in a live birth followed by suckling, else the female camel will stop producing milk. Unlike a dairy cow, parted from her calf when it is born and gives milk for six to nine months, a camel can share her milk with the farmer and her calf for twelve to eighteen months. Pakistani and Afghani camels are supposed to produce the highest yields of milk, up to 30 litres per day; the Bactrian camel produces 5 litres per day and the dromedary produces an average of 20 litres per day. Intensive breeding of cows has created animals that can produce 40 litres per day in ideal conditions. Camels, with their ability to go 21 days without drinking water, produce milk when feeding on low-quality fodder, are a sustainable option for food security in difficult environments. Cheese from camel milk is more difficult to make than cheese from the milk of other dairy animals.
It does not coagulate and bovine rennet fails to coagulate the milk effectively. In camel herding communities camel milk cheeses use spontaneous fermentation, or lactic fermentation to achieve a sour curd. In camel farms in Sudan, the Rashaida tribe use this method to store surplus milk in the rainy season, pulverising the dried curds and adding water for consumption in the dry season. In Mongolia camel milk is consumed as a product at various stages of the curd-making process. Recent advances in cheese making technology have made it possible to coagulate camel milk with a vegetable rennet and camel rennet. A European-style cheese was created through collaboration between Mauritanian camel milk dairy Tiviski, the FAO, professor J. P. Ramet of the École Nationale Supérieure d'Agronomie et des Industries Alimentaires. Curdling was produced by the addition of vegetable rennet. Caravane, the subsequently produced cheese is a product of Tiviski, sold in supermarkets in Nouakchott. EU restrictions prevent this product from being sold in the EU.
Difficulties with the cold chain and economy of scale prevent the camel cheese from being sold in the US. The Technology of Making Cheese from Camel Milk Animal Production and Health Paper Issued by FAO, United Nations. Camels and Camel Milk. Report Issued by FAO, United Nations