Carbajal Valley

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Carbajal Valley
ARG-2016-Aerial-Tierra del Fuego (Ushuaia)–Valle Carbajal 01.jpg
Aerial view, east end
Carbajal Valley is located in Southern Patagonia
Carbajal Valley
Carbajal Valley
Floor elevation~150 metres (490 ft) asl
Length~20 kilometres (12.4 mi) NW-SE
Width2.6 kilometres (1.6 mi)
Geography
Coordinates54°41′8.69″S 68°20′57.67″W / 54.6857472°S 68.3493528°W / -54.6857472; -68.3493528Coordinates: 54°41′8.69″S 68°20′57.67″W / 54.6857472°S 68.3493528°W / -54.6857472; -68.3493528
RiversRío Olivia

The Carbajal Valley (Spanish: Valle Carbajal) is located in the Fuegian Andes of southern Tierra del Fuego Province, Argentina. The Carbajal valley is approximately 20 kilometres (12 mi) long, running west (54°39′37.85″S 68°30′21.83″W / 54.6605139°S 68.5060639°W / -54.6605139; -68.5060639) to east (54°39′39.24″S 68°30′23.79″W / 54.6609000°S 68.5066083°W / -54.6609000; -68.5066083), between the Alvear mountain range to the north and the Vinciguerra range to the south.[1][2][3] Andes peak heights in the region are generally less than 1,250 metres (4,100 ft) above sea level.[1]

Argentine Route 3 runs diagonally through Ushuaia (SW-NE) along the Río Olivia past the west base of Mount Olivia and around the northwestern and northern base of Monte Cinco Hermanos.

Topography[edit]

During the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), approximately 20 ka BP or 20,000 years ago,[4][nb 1] a Valley glacier carved the Carbajal-Tierra Mayor valley (described as the "glaciation axis of the Fuegian Andes")[7] from northwest to southeast, with an ice tongue forking south along the Valle Río Olivia into the Beagle Channel immediately to the east of Ushuaia.[8] Based on the geological study of the erosion patterns, the Carbajal glacier’s ice thickness was 600–800 metres (2,000–2,600 ft).[8] Several existing glaciers (e.g., Ojos de Albino, Vinciguerra) were tributaries of the Carbajal glacier.[9]

In the early Holocene period (11.7–8.2 ka BP/11,700–8,200 years ago),[10] by 10.3 ka BP (10,300 years ago), ice had receded from the valley walls and vegetation was growing.[8] By the middle Holocene period (8.2–4.2 ka BP/8,200–4,200 years ago),[11] forest growth was expanding.[8]

Currently, the nearly U-shaped valley floor (pictured) is covered with "Sphagnum peat bogs and poorly drained mires."[4]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Menounos et al. 2013, p. 71.
  2. ^ Rabassa et al. 2006, p. 130.
  3. ^ Hennessy 1999, p. 333.
  4. ^ a b Borromei et al. 2007, p. 332.
  5. ^ Hopcroft & Valdes 2015, p. 5533.
  6. ^ Cook & Vizy 2006, p. 1.
  7. ^ Rabassa 2008, p. 183.
  8. ^ a b c d Borromei et al. 2007, p. 329.
  9. ^ Menounos et al. 2013, pp. 73–75.
  10. ^ Walker et al. 2012, p. 651.
  11. ^ Walker et al. 2012, p. 653.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Research suggests that the LGM occurred 19–23 ka BP.[5][6]

Sources[edit]

  • Borromei, Ana Marıa; Coronato, Andrea; Quattrocchio, Mirta; Rabassa, Jorge; Grill, Silvia; Roig, Claudio (2007), "Late Pleistocene–Holocene environments in Valle Carbajal, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina", Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 23 (4): 321–335, doi:10.1016/j.jsames.2007.02.008
  • Cook, K.H.; Vizy, E.K. (2006), "South American climate during the Last Glacial Maximum: Delayed onset of the South American monsoon", Journal of Geophysical Research, 111 (D2): 1–21, Bibcode:2006JGRD..111.2110C, doi:10.1029/2005JD005980
  • Hennessy, Huw (1999). Insight Guide Argentina. Insight Guides. p. 333. ISBN 978-0-88729-031-2.
  • Hopcroft, Peter O.; Valdes, Paul J. (2015), "How well do simulated last glacial maximum tropical temperatures constrain equilibrium climate sensitivity?", Geophysical Research Letters, 42 (13): 5533–5539, doi:10.1002/2015GL064903
  • Menounos, Brian; Clague, John J.; Osborn, Gerald; Davis, P. Thompson; Ponce, Federico; Goehring, Brent; Maurer, Malyssa; Rabassa, Jorge; Coronato, Andrea; Marr, Rob (2013), "Latest Pleistocene and Holocene glacier fluctuations in southernmost Tierra del Fuego, Argentina", Quarterly Science Reviews, 77: 70–79, doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2013.07.008
  • Rabassa, Jorge (2008). "Chapter 8: Late Cenozoic Glaciations in Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego". In Rabassa, Jorge. The Late Cenozoic of Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego. Elsevier. pp. 151–xxx. ISBN 978-0-444-52954-1.
  • Rabassa, J.; Coronato, A.; Heusser, C.J.; Roig Junent, F.; Borromei, A.; Roig, C.; Quattrocchio, M. (2006). Martini, I.P.; Martinez Cortizas, A.; Chesworth, W., eds. Peatlands: Evolution and Records of Environmental and Climate Changes. Elsevier. p. 130. ISBN 978-0-444-52883-4.
  • Walker, M.J.C.; Berkelhammer, M.; Björck, S.; Cwynar, L.C.; Fisher, D.A.; Long, A.J.; Lowe, J.J.; Newnham, R.M.; Rasmussen, S.O.; Weiss, H. (2012), "Formal subdivision of the Holocene Series/Epoch: a Discussion Paper by a Working Group of INTIMATE (Integration of ice-core, marine and terrestrial records) and the Subcommission on Quaternary Stratigraphy (International Commission on Stratigraphy)", Journal of Quarterly Science, 27 (27(2)): 649–659, doi:10.1002/jqs.2565

External links[edit]