Musselburgh is the largest settlement in East Lothian, Scotland, on the coast of the Firth of Forth, 6 miles east of Edinburgh city centre. The population of Musselburgh is 21,900; the name Musselburgh is Old English in origin, with "mussel" referring to the shellfish, "burgh" derived from the Old English for "town". Musselburgh was first settled by the Romans in the years following their invasion of Scotland in AD 80, they built a fort a little inland from the mouth of the River Esk, at Inveresk. They bridged the Esk downstream from the fort, thus established the line of the main eastern approach to Scotland's capital for most of the next 2,000 years; the bridge built by the Romans outlasted them by many centuries. It was rebuilt on the original Roman foundations some time before 1300, in 1597 it was rebuilt again, this time with a third arch added on the east side of the river; the Old Bridge is known as the Roman Bridge and remains in use today by pedestrians. To its north is the New Bridge, designed by John Rennie the Elder and built in 1806.
This in turn was widened in 1925. The Battle of Pinkie Cleugh was fought south of Musselburgh. Around 1315, Musselburgh was made a burgh of barony, earlier than Edinburgh, which became a burgh in 1329; the town motto "Honestas" dates back to 1332, when the Regent of Scotland, Earl of Moray, died in the burgh after a long illness during which he was devotedly cared for by the townsfolk. His successor offered to reward the people for their loyalty but they declined, saying they were only doing their duty; the new regent, the Earl of Mar, was impressed and said they were a set of honest men, hence "Honest Toun". The town and its population grew throughout the latter half of the twentieth century, with major local authority and private housing developments on both the eastern and western outskirts. Before 1975, Musselburgh was part of Midlothian, not East Lothian, it became part of the East Lothian District following the Local Government Act 1973 and subsequently East Lothian unitary council area in 1996.
Until the mid-20th century Musselburgh was governed by a provost. Past provosts include: David Lowe of Stoneyhill served 1928 to 1938 Schools include Loretto School, a private boarding school, Musselburgh Grammar School, the local large comprehensive, one of the oldest grammar schools in the country, dating from 1608. Primary schools include: Campie Primary School, Musselburgh Burgh Primary School, Stoneyhill Primary School, Pinkie St Peter's Primary School, Loretto RC Primary School and Loretto Nippers. Early learning locations include The Burgh, Loretto RC, St. Ninian's. There are several private nurseries for preschool-aged children. Edinburgh's Queen Margaret University relocated all its schools from Edinburgh to Musselburgh as of 2007, her Majesty The Queen opened the QMU campus in July 2008. Musselburgh is served by two railway stations. Musselburgh railway station is in the west of the town adjacent to Queen Margaret University and has regular Abellio ScotRail services from Edinburgh Waverley to North Berwick.
It is a new station, having opened in 1988. The other station serving the town is Wallyford railway station to the east of the town in the village of Wallyford, which opened in 1994; the town's original station was close to the town centre at the end of a short branch from Newhailes Junction. Passenger services from there ceased in 1964, the line closed to all traffic in the early-1970s; the former railway line is now a road bypassing the Fisherrow area of the town. The town is served by Lothian Buses, East Coast Buses and Prentice, Bus Services26 Clerwood - Edinburgh Zoo - Haymarket - Princes Street - Portobello - Eastfield - Musselburgh - Prestonpans - Tranent or Seton Sands X26 Port Seton - Prestonpans - Musselburgh - - Joppa - Portobello - King's Road - Meadowbank House - Abbeyhill - Princes Street - Haymarket 30 Clovenstone - Wester Hailes - Longstone - Balgreen - Princes Street - Prestonfield - Niddrie - Fort Kinnaird - Queen Margaret Uni - Musselburgh 40 Eastfield - Musselburgh - Whitecraig - Dalkeith - Bonnyrigg - Loanhead - Roslin - Penicuik Town Centre 44 Balerno - Currie - Slateford - Haymarket - Princes Street - Meadowbank - Willowbrae - Brunstane - Eastfield - Musselburgh - Wallyford 45 Riccarton - Currie - Colinton - Firhill - Craiglockheart - Bruntsfield - Tollcross - North Bridge - Meadowbank - Portobello - Eastfield - QMU 108 Fort Kinnaird - Newcraighall - Musselburgh - Levenhall - Wallyford Station - Tranent - Macmerry - Gladsmuir - Haddington 111 Royal Infirmary - Millerhill - QMU - Musselburgh - Whitecraig - Wallyford - Prestonpans - Seton Sands - Longniddry - Aberlady - Gullane - Drem - Haddington 106 Musselburgh - Wallyford - Tranent - Macmerry - Haddington - East Linton - Dunbar Musselburgh - Dunbar journeys only run early/late113 West Granton - Crewe Toll - - Princes Street - Meadowbank - Brunstane - Eastfield - Musselburgh - Wallyford P&R - Tranent - Ormiston - Pencaitland 124 Semple Street - Princes Street - Meadowbank - Portobello - Eastfield - Musselburgh - Wallyford P&R - Prestonpans - Longniddry - Aberlady - Gullane - Dirleton - North Berwick Tesco X24 Semple Street - Princes Street - Meadowbank House - Portobello Town Hall - Joppa - Musselburgh - Wallyford P&R - Prestonpans - Longniddry - Aberlady - Gullane - Dirleton - North Berwick Tesco 125 Musselburgh - Wallyford P&R - Prestonpans - Longniddry - Aberlady - Gullane - Dirleton - North Berwick High School N26 Clerwood - Haym
Manitoba Highway 1
Provincial Trunk Highway 1 is Manitoba's section of the Trans-Canada Highway. It is a used, 4-lane divided highway, with the exception of a short 18 km section in the southeastern corner of the province, it is the main link between southern Manitoba's largest cities, serves as the province's main transportation link to the neighbouring provinces of Saskatchewan and Ontario. The highway is the only major east-west divided highway in Manitoba, carries a large majority of east-west traffic within and through the province, it has full freeway status sections at Winnipeg. The total distance of the Trans-Canada Highway in Manitoba is 490 km. PTH 1 is a important part of the national highway system, it is the only road that links the province of Manitoba with the province of Ontario, making it a major section of Canada's primary commercial and leisure route for all traffic travelling between Canada's largest cities, from Toronto and Montreal in the east to Calgary and Vancouver in the west. The highway is routed from west to east across the province of Manitoba.
It begins at the western provincial boundary with Saskatchewan, connecting with Saskatchewan's Highway 1 to become Manitoba Trans-Canada 1. The highway is designated as T-C 1 throughout Manitoba until it reaches the eastern provincial boundary with Ontario, where it continues as the main route to Kenora and the rest of Eastern Canada as Highway 17; the entire length of the Trans-Canada Highway in the province of Manitoba is a 4-lane divided highway, with the exception of the Winnipeg city route and an 18 kilometre section in eastern Manitoba between the town of Falcon Lake and the Manitoba-Ontario provincial boundary, a two-lane highway. PTH 1 has full expressway status on the routes around Winnipeg on the Perimeter Highway, around Portage la Prairie. Plans do exist to bring the entire length of PTH 1 to full expressway status in the future. Exit numbers only exist at three interchanges, only small sections of PTH 1 and the Perimeter Highway have freeway status. In the Winnipeg metro area, the Trans-Canada Highway has two official routes.
The main route passes directly through the city of Winnipeg on city streets, entering the city from the west and continuing along Portage Avenue, Main Street, Queen Elizabeth Way, St. Mary's Road, St. Anne's Road, Fermor Avenue where it re-joins the Perimeter Highway and continues east on TC 1. An alternate routing exits the main T-C 1 route on the western edge of Winnipeg onto the Perimeter Highway, which by-passes the city completely; the Perimeter Highway is a ring road which encircles Winnipeg and is used by commuters and through traffic on the Trans Canada Highway wishing to avoid congested city streets. The first Provincial Trunk Highways in Manitoba were numbered in 1926; the original Highway 1 was one of nine highways fanning out from Winnipeg, but was different in that it fanned out from the west and the east. Highway 1 was routed via provincial secondary roads; these are: Highway 1A into and out of Brandon Provincial Road 351 into and out of Carberry Highway 1A through Portage la Prairie Highway 26 from Portage la Prairie to Headingley Highway 9 from downtown Winnipeg to Lockport Highway 44 from Lockport to Whiteshell Provincial ParkIn 1949, Highway 1 had been rerouted on new construction northeast of Griswold, with the part of old route from Highway 21 to Highway 28 becoming part of Highway 21, the section from Highway 21 eastward being removed from the system, but becoming PR 455.
By the early 1950s, Highway 1 had become an important east-west route in all of the western provinces. Most of the provincial highways that Highway 1 traversed on were re-numbered and designated as Highway 4 between 1958 and 1968, the #1 was relocated to its present route. In 1962, the Trans-Canada Highway in Manitoba was completed, Highway 1 across all of the western provinces was incorporated as part of the Trans-Canada Highway. In 1955, most intra-city traffic in the Winnipeg area was diverted onto the newly built Perimeter Highway; that year, the Perimeter Highway's southern section was merged with the Trans-Canada Highway system, due to the amount of traffic using it to bypass the city. That section of the highway was used, still is today. On October 6, 2006 the Trans-Canada Highway Portage la Prairie by-pass was closed due to a structural defect found in the bridge over the CN Rail Line. On October 31, 2007, a $19 million project to rebuild the bridge was completed, the by-pass was re-opened to traffic.
On October 25, 2007, a major federal/provincial construction project twinning the highway in western Manitoba between the Saskatchewan-Manitoba provincial boundary and the town of Hargrave was completed, with 34 kilometres of newly divided highway lanes opened to traffic. On April 9, 2008, the Government of Manitoba announced that construction of a new interchange would begin in the summer of 2008 at the intersection of Highway 16 and the Trans Canada Highway mainline route, located a short distance west of Portage la Prairie; this project has been delayed and its current status is unknown. On February 27, 2008 the Manitoba Highway Traffic Board approved a request by the Government of Manitoba to raise the speed limit on the Trans Canada Highway in Manitoba to 110 km/h along the section between the Saskatchewan-Manitoba provincial boundary and Winnipeg; the speed limit was raised on July 1, 2009, though it was only raised on one po
North America is a continent within the Northern Hemisphere and all within the Western Hemisphere. It is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean, to the southeast by South America and the Caribbean Sea. North America covers an area of about 24,709,000 square kilometers, about 16.5% of the earth's land area and about 4.8% of its total surface. North America is the third largest continent by area, following Asia and Africa, the fourth by population after Asia and Europe. In 2013, its population was estimated at nearly 579 million people in 23 independent states, or about 7.5% of the world's population, if nearby islands are included. North America was reached by its first human populations during the last glacial period, via crossing the Bering land bridge 40,000 to 17,000 years ago; the so-called Paleo-Indian period is taken to have lasted until about 10,000 years ago. The Classic stage spans the 6th to 13th centuries.
The Pre-Columbian era ended in 1492, the transatlantic migrations—the arrival of European settlers during the Age of Discovery and the Early Modern period. Present-day cultural and ethnic patterns reflect interactions between European colonists, indigenous peoples, African slaves and their descendants. Owing to the European colonization of the Americas, most North Americans speak English, Spanish or French, their culture reflects Western traditions; the Americas are accepted as having been named after the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci by the German cartographers Martin Waldseemüller and Matthias Ringmann. Vespucci, who explored South America between 1497 and 1502, was the first European to suggest that the Americas were not the East Indies, but a different landmass unknown by Europeans. In 1507, Waldseemüller produced a world map, in which he placed the word "America" on the continent of South America, in the middle of what is today Brazil, he explained the rationale for the name in the accompanying book Cosmographiae Introductio:... ab Americo inventore... quasi Americi terram sive Americam.
For Waldseemüller, no one should object to the naming of the land after its discoverer. He used the Latinized version of Vespucci's name, but in its feminine form "America", following the examples of "Europa", "Asia" and "Africa". Other mapmakers extended the name America to the northern continent, In 1538, Gerard Mercator used America on his map of the world for all the Western Hemisphere; some argue that because the convention is to use the surname for naming discoveries, the derivation from "Amerigo Vespucci" could be put in question. In 1874, Thomas Belt proposed a derivation from the Amerrique mountains of Central America. Marcou corresponded with Augustus Le Plongeon, who wrote: "The name AMERICA or AMERRIQUE in the Mayan language means, a country of perpetually strong wind, or the Land of the Wind, and... the can mean... a spirit that breathes, life itself." The United Nations formally recognizes "North America" as comprising three areas: Northern America, Central America, The Caribbean.
This has been formally defined by the UN Statistics Division. The term North America maintains various definitions in accordance with context. In Canadian English, North America refers to the land mass as a whole consisting of Mexico, the United States, Canada, although it is ambiguous which other countries are included, is defined by context. In the United States of America, usage of the term may refer only to Canada and the US, sometimes includes Greenland and Mexico, as well as offshore islands. In France, Portugal, Romania and the countries of Latin America, the cognates of North America designate a subcontinent of the Americas comprising Canada, the United States, Mexico, Greenland, Saint Pierre et Miquelon, Bermuda. North America has been referred to by other names. Spanish North America was referred to as Northern America, this was the first official name given to Mexico. Geographically the North American continent has many subregions; these include cultural and geographic regions. Economic regions included those formed by trade blocs, such as the North American Trade Agreement bloc and Central American Trade Agreement.
Linguistically and culturally, the continent could be divided into Latin America. Anglo-America includes most of Northern America and Caribbean islands with English-speaking populations; the southern North American continent is composed of two regions. These are the Caribbean; the north of the continent maintains recognized regions as well. In contrast to the common definition of "North America", which encompasses the whole continent, the term "North America" is sometimes used to refer only to Mexico, the United States, Greenland; the term Northern America refers to the northern-most countries and territories of North America: the United States, Bermuda, St. Pierre and Miquelon and Greenland. Although the term does not refer to a unifie
The Odawa, said to mean "traders", are an Indigenous American ethnic group who inhabit land in the northern United States and southern Canada. They have long had territory that crosses the current border between the two countries, they are federally recognized as Native American tribes in the United States and have numerous recognized First Nations bands in Canada, they are one of the Anishinaabeg, related to but distinct from the Potawatomi peoples. After migrating from the East Coast in ancient times, they settled on Manitoulin Island, near the northern shores of Lake Huron, the Bruce Peninsula in the present-day province of Ontario, Canada, they considered this their original homeland. After the 17th century, they settled along the Ottawa River, in the states of Michigan and Wisconsin, as well as through the Midwest south of the Great Lakes in the latter country. In the 21st century, there are 15,000 Odawa living in Ontario, Michigan and Oklahoma; the Ottawa dialect is part of the Algonquian language family.
This large family has numerous smaller tribal groups or “bands,” called “Tribe” in the United States and “First Nation” in Canada. Their language is considered a divergent dialect of Ojibwe, characterized by frequent syncope. Odawaa; the Potawatomi spelling of Odawa and the English derivative "Ottawa" are common. The Anishinaabe word for "Those men who trade, or buy and sell" is Wadaawewinini. Fr. Frederic Baraga, a Catholic missionary in Michigan, transliterated this and recorded it in his A Dictionary of the Otchipwe Language as "Watawawininiwok," noting that it meant "men of the bulrushes", associated with the many bulrushes in the Ottawa River. But, this recorded meaning is more appropriately associated with the Matàwackariniwak, a historical Algonquin band who lived along the Ottawa River; the only American tribe, Odawa are the Little Traverse Bay Band of Odawa Indians, the rest are considered Ottawa. Their neighbors applied the "Trader" name to the Odawa because in early traditional times, during the early European contact period, they were noted as intertribal traders and barterers.
The Odawa were described as having dealt "chiefly in cornmeal, sunflower oil and skins, rugs and mats and medicinal roots and herbs."Like the Ojibwe, the Odawa identify as Nishnaabe, meaning "original people". The Odawa name in its English transcription is the source of the place names of Ottawa and the Ottawa River; the Odawa home territory at the time of early European contact, but not their trading zone, was well to the west of the city and river named after them. The tribe is the namesake for Tawas City and Tawas Point, which reflect the syncope-form of their name. Ottawa, Ohio is the county seat of Putnam County, developed at the site of the last Ottawa reservation in Ohio; the Odawa dialect is considered one of several divergent dialects of the Ojibwe language group, noted for its frequent syncope. In the Odawa language, the general language group is known as Nishnabemwin, while the Odawa language is called Daawaamwin. Of the estimated 5,000 ethnic Odawa and additional 10,000 people with some Odawa ancestry, in the early 21st century an estimated 500 people in Ontario and Michigan speak this language.
The Ottawa Tribe of Oklahoma has three fluent speakers. According to Anishinaabeg tradition, from recordings in Wiigwaasabak, the Odawa people came from the eastern areas of North America, or Turtle Island, from along the East Coast. Directed by the miigis beings, the Anishinaabe peoples moved inland along the Saint Lawrence River. At the "Third Stopping Place" near what is now Detroit, the southern group of Anishinaabeg divided into three groups, the Ojibwe and Potawatomi. There is archaeological evidence that the Saugeen Complex people, a Hopewell-influenced group who were located on the Bruce Peninsula during the Middle Woodland period, may have evolved into the Odawa people; the Hopewell tradition was a extended trading network operating from about 200BCE to 500 CE. Some of these peoples constructed earthwork mounds for burials, a practice that ended about 250 CE; the Saugeen mounds have not been excavated. The Odawa, together with the Ojibwe and Potawatomi, were part of a long-term tribal alliance called the Council of Three Fires, which fought the Iroquois Confederacy and the Dakota people.
In 1615 French explorer Samuel de Champlain met 300 men of a nation which, he said, "we call les cheueux releuez" near the French River mouth. Of these, he said: "Their arms consisted only of a bow and arrows, a buckler of boiled leather and the club, they wore no breech clouts, their bodies were tattooed in many fashions and designs, their faces painted and their noses pierced." In 1616, Champlain left the Huron villages and visited the "Cheueux releuez," who lived westward from the lands of the Huron Confederacy. The Jesuit Relations of 1667 report three tribes living in the same town: the Odawa, the Kiskakon Odawa, the Sinago Odawa. All three tribes spoke the same language. Due to the extensive trade network maintained by the Odawa, many of the North American interior nations became known by names which their trading partners used for them, rather than by the nations’ own names. For example, these exonyms include Winnebago for t
Montreal is the most populous municipality in the Canadian province of Quebec and the second-most populous municipality in Canada. Called Ville-Marie, or "City of Mary", it is named after Mount Royal, the triple-peaked hill in the heart of the city; the city is centred on the Island of Montreal, which took its name from the same source as the city, a few much smaller peripheral islands, the largest of, Île Bizard. It has a distinct four-season continental climate with cold, snowy winters. In 2016, the city had a population of 1,704,694, with a population of 1,942,044 in the urban agglomeration, including all of the other municipalities on the Island of Montreal; the broader metropolitan area had a population of 4,098,927. French is the city's official language and is the language spoken at home by 49.8% of the population of the city, followed by English at 22.8% and 18.3% other languages. In the larger Montreal Census Metropolitan Area, 65.8% of the population speaks French at home, compared to 15.3% who speak English.
The agglomeration Montreal is one of the most bilingual cities in Quebec and Canada, with over 59% of the population able to speak both English and French. Montreal is the second-largest French-speaking city in the world, after Paris, it is situated 258 kilometres south-west of Quebec City. The commercial capital of Canada, Montreal was surpassed in population and in economic strength by Toronto in the 1970s, it remains an important centre of commerce, transport, pharmaceuticals, design, art, tourism, fashion, gaming and world affairs. Montreal has the second-highest number of consulates in North America, serves as the location of the headquarters of the International Civil Aviation Organization, was named a UNESCO City of Design in 2006. In 2017, Montreal was ranked the 12th most liveable city in the world by the Economist Intelligence Unit in its annual Global Liveability Ranking, the best city in the world to be a university student in the QS World University Rankings. Montreal has hosted multiple international conferences and events, including the 1967 International and Universal Exposition and the 1976 Summer Olympics.
It is the only Canadian city to have held the Summer Olympics. In 2018, Montreal was ranked as an Alpha− world city; as of 2016 the city hosts the Canadian Grand Prix of Formula One, the Montreal International Jazz Festival and the Just for Laughs festival. In the Mohawk language, the island is called Tiohtià:ke Tsi, it is a name referring to the Lachine Rapids to the island's Ka-wé-no-te. It means "a place where nations and rivers unite and divide". In the Ojibwe language, the land is called Mooniyaang which means "the first stopping place" and is part of the seven fires prophecy; the city was first named Ville Marie by European settlers from La Flèche, or "City of Mary", named for the Virgin Mary. Its current name comes from the triple-peaked hill in the heart of the city. According to one theory, the name derives from mont Réal,. A possibility by the Government of Canada on its web site concerning Canadian place names, is that the name was adopted as it is written nowadays because an early map of 1556 used the Italian name of the mountain, Monte Real.
Archaeological evidence demonstrates that First Nations native people occupied the island of Montreal as early as 4,000 years ago. By the year AD 1000, they had started to cultivate maize. Within a few hundred years, they had built fortified villages; the Saint Lawrence Iroquoians, an ethnically and culturally distinct group from the Iroquois nations of the Haudenosaunee based in present-day New York, established the village of Hochelaga at the foot of Mount Royal two centuries before the French arrived. Archeologists have found evidence of their habitation there and at other locations in the valley since at least the 14th century; the French explorer Jacques Cartier visited Hochelaga on October 2, 1535, estimated the population of the native people at Hochelaga to be "over a thousand people". Evidence of earlier occupation of the island, such as those uncovered in 1642 during the construction of Fort Ville-Marie, have been removed. Seventy years the French explorer Samuel de Champlain reported that the St Lawrence Iroquoians and their settlements had disappeared altogether from the St Lawrence valley.
This is believed to be due to epidemics of European diseases, or intertribal wars. In 1611 Champlain established a fur trading post on the Island of Montreal, on a site named La Place Royale. At the confluence of Petite Riviere and St. Lawrence River, it is where present-day Pointe-à-Callière stands. On his 1616 map, Samuel de Champlain named the island Lille de Villemenon, in honour of the sieur de Villemenon, a French dignitary, seeking the viceroyship of New France. In 1639 Jérôme Le Royer de La Dauversière obtained the Seigneurial title to the Island of Montreal in the name of the Notre Dame Society of Montreal to establish a Roman Catholic mission to evangelize natives. Dauversiere hired Paul Chomedey de Maisonneuve 30, to lead a group of colonists to build a mission on his new seigneury; the colonists left France in 1641 for Quebec, arrived on the island the following year. On May 17, 1642, Ville-Marie was founded on the southern shore of Montreal is
A grain is a small, dry seed, with or without an attached hull or fruit layer, harvested for human or animal consumption. A grain crop is a grain-producing plant; the two main types of commercial grain crops are legumes. After being harvested, dry grains are more durable than other staple foods, such as starchy fruits and tubers; this durability has made grains well suited to industrial agriculture, since they can be mechanically harvested, transported by rail or ship, stored for long periods in silos, milled for flour or pressed for oil. Thus, major global commodity markets exist for maize, soybeans and other grains but not for tubers, vegetables, or other crops. Grains and cereal are synonymous with the fruits of the grass family. In agronomy and commerce, seeds or fruits from other plant families are called grains if they resemble caryopses. For example, amaranth is sold as "grain amaranth", amaranth products may be described as "whole grains"; the pre-Hispanic civilizations of the Andes had grain-based food systems but, at the higher elevations, none of the grains was a cereal.
All three grains native to the Andes are broad-leafed plants rather than grasses such as corn and wheat. All cereal crops are members of the grass family. Cereal grains contain a substantial amount of a carbohydrate that provides dietary energy. Finger millet fonio foxtail millet Japanese millet Coix lacryma-jobi var. Ma-yuen kodo millet maize millet pearl millet proso millet sorghum barley oats rice rye spelt teff triticale wheat wild rice Starchy grains from broadleaf plant families: amaranth buckwheat chia quinoa kañiwa kiwicha Pulses or grain legumes, members of the pea family, have a higher protein content than most other plant foods, at around 20%, while soybeans have as much as 35%; as is the case with all other whole plant foods, pulses contain carbohydrate and fat. Common pulses include: chickpeas common beans common peas fava beans lentils lima beans lupins mung beans peanuts pigeon peas runner beans soybeans Oilseed grains are grown for the extraction of their edible oil. Vegetable oils provide some essential fatty acids.
They are used as fuel and lubricants. Black mustard India mustard rapeseed safflower sunflower seed flax seed hemp seed poppy seed Because grains are small and dry, they can be stored and transported more than can other kinds of food crops such as fresh fruits and tubers; the development of grain agriculture allowed excess food to be produced and stored which could have led to the creation of the first permanent settlements and the division of society into classes. Those who handle grain at grain facilities may encounter numerous occupational hazards and exposures. Risks include grain entrapment, where workers are submerged in the grain and unable to remove themselves.
Manitoba is a province at the longitudinal centre of Canada. It is considered one of the three prairie provinces and is Canada's fifth-most populous province with its estimated 1.3 million people. Manitoba covers 649,950 square kilometres with a varied landscape, stretching from the northern oceanic coastline to the southern border with the United States; the province is bordered by the provinces of Ontario to the east and Saskatchewan to the west, the territories of Nunavut to the north, Northwest Territories to the northwest, the U. S. states of North Minnesota to the south. Aboriginal peoples have inhabited. In the late 17th century, fur traders arrived on two major river systems, what is now called the Nelson in northern Manitoba and in the southeast along the Winnipeg River system. A Royal Charter in 1670 granted all the lands draining into Hudson's Bay to the British company and they administered trade in what was called Rupert's Land. During the next 200 years, communities continued to grow and evolve, with a significant settlement of Michif in what is now Winnipeg.
The assertion of Métis identity and self-rule culminated in negotiations for the creation of the province of Manitoba. There are many factors that led to an armed uprising of the Métis people against the Government of Canada, a conflict known as the Red River Rebellion aka Resistance; the resolution of the assertion of the right to representation led to the Parliament of Canada passing the Manitoba Act in 1870 that created the province. Manitoba's capital and largest city, Winnipeg, is the eighth-largest census metropolitan area in Canada. Other census agglomerations in the province are Brandon, Portage la Prairie, Thompson; the name Manitoba is believed to be derived from the Ojibwe or Assiniboine languages. The name derives from Cree manitou-wapow or Ojibwa manidoobaa, both meaning "straits of Manitou, the Great Spirit", a place referring to what are now called The Narrows in the centre of Lake Manitoba, it may be from the Assiniboine for "Lake of the Prairie". The lake was known to French explorers as Lac des Prairies.
Thomas Spence chose the name to refer to a new republic he proposed for the area south of the lake. Métis leader Louis Riel chose the name, it was accepted in Ottawa under the Manitoba Act of 1870. Manitoba is bordered by the provinces of Ontario to the east and Saskatchewan to the west, the territories of Nunavut to the north, the US states of North Dakota and Minnesota to the south; the province meets the Northwest Territories at the four corners quadripoint to the extreme northwest, though surveys have not been completed and laws are unclear about the exact location of the Nunavut–NWT boundary. Manitoba adjoins Hudson Bay to the northeast, is the only prairie province to have a saltwater coastline; the Port of Churchill is Canada's only Arctic deep-water port. Lake Winnipeg is the tenth-largest freshwater lake in the world. Hudson Bay is the world's second-largest bay by area. Manitoba is at the heart of the giant Hudson Bay watershed, once known as Rupert's Land, it was a vital area of the Hudson's Bay Company, with many rivers and lakes that provided excellent opportunities for the lucrative fur trade.
The province has a saltwater coastline bordering Hudson Bay and more than 110,000 lakes, covering 15.6 percent or 101,593 square kilometres of its surface area. Manitoba's major lakes are Lake Manitoba, Lake Winnipegosis, Lake Winnipeg, the tenth-largest freshwater lake in the world; some traditional Native lands and boreal forest on Lake Winnipeg's east side are a proposed UNESCO World Heritage Site. Manitoba is at the centre of the Hudson Bay drainage basin, with a high volume of the water draining into Lake Winnipeg and north down the Nelson River into Hudson Bay; this basin's rivers reach far west to the mountains, far south into the United States, east into Ontario. Major watercourses include the Red, Nelson, Hayes and Churchill rivers. Most of Manitoba's inhabited south has developed in the prehistoric bed of Glacial Lake Agassiz; this region the Red River Valley, is flat and fertile. Baldy Mountain is the province's highest point at 832 metres above sea level, the Hudson Bay coast is the lowest at sea level.
Riding Mountain, the Pembina Hills, Sandilands Provincial Forest, the Canadian Shield are upland regions. Much of the province's sparsely inhabited north and east lie on the irregular granite Canadian Shield, including Whiteshell and Nopiming Provincial Parks. Extensive agriculture is found only in the province's southern areas, although there is grain farming in the Carrot Valley Region; the most common agricultural activity is cattle husbandry, followed by assorted grains and oilseed. Around 12 percent of Canada's farmland is in Manitoba. Manitoba has an extreme continental climate. Temperatures and precipitation decrease from south to north and increase from east to west. Manitoba is far from the moderating large bodies of water; because of the flat landscape, it is exposed to cold Arctic high-pressure air masses from the northwest during January and February. In the summer, air masses sometimes come out of the Southern United States, as warm humid air is drawn northward from the Gulf of Mexico.
Temperatures exceed 30 °C numerous times each summer, the combination of heat and humidity can bring the humidex value to the mid-40s. Carman, Manitoba recorded the second-highest humidex in Canada in 2007, with