Baltimore, County Cork
Baltimore is a village in western County Cork, Ireland. It is the village in the parish of Rathmore and the Islands. It is the ferry port to Sherkin Island, Cape Clear Island. The recently restored castle is open to the public and overlooks the town, in ancient times, Dunashad was considered a sanctuary for druids and the place name is associated with Bealtaine. Baltimore enters history as a seat of one of Irelands most ancient dynasties and these activities were unaffected by official discouragement under King James, but English piracy generally declined shortly thereafter, partly due to competition from Barbary pirates. In 1607 Baltimore became a town, with the right to hold a weekly market. Control passed after Crookes death to Sir Walter Coppinger, the town was depopulated in 1631 in the Sack of Baltimore, a raid by Barbary pirates from either Algeria and Salé. 237 English settlers and local Irish people were sold into slavery, reminders of the incident still exist in the form of pub names, like the Algiers Inn.
The survivors fled to Skibbereen, and Baltimore for generations was almost deserted, a slow recovery began in the 18th century, and by the early 1800s the village was starting to prosper again, only to suffer further great losses in the Great Famine. It is believed that Napoleon obtained his famous white mare Intendant from the area, Baltimore was granted borough status in 1612 with a town government consisting of a sovereign and twelve burgesses. It returned two members to the Irish House of Commons 1613-1801, one of the most notable landmarks in the area is the Baltimore Beacon, known as Lots wife. He recommended a large and properly constructed beacon with which the Board concurred, almost a year passed,6 July 1848, before the Board requested the secretary to seek permission from Lord Carbery for a piece of ground ten yards in diameter, on which to build the beacon. The conspicuous conical white painted Baltimore Beacon, sometimes called the pillar of salt or Lots wife is approximately 50 feet high and 5 yards in diameter at the base.
The vent, mentioned by Halpin in 1849 was obviously vulnerable, Baltimore attracts many visitors and the resident population booms in summer months due to the large number of summer homes that have been built in the area in the last ten years. Baltimore is particularly attractive as a destination to visitors interested in sailing and exploring the countryside, Baltimore is a great base from which to explore Cape Clear and Lough Hyne. Lough Hyne, Irelands first marine reserve is only 5 km from town. Baltimore has become a popular venue for scuba diving, due largely to the number. These include a Second World War submarine, the bulk carrier Kowloon Bridge, the local GAA club is Ilen Rovers, which was formed in 1973 and consists of the surrounding parish and that of Lisheen and Kilcoe
Castletownshend is a village about 8 km from Skibbereen, in County Cork, Ireland. The village developed around a small 17th-century castle built by Richard Townsend, the main street of the town, lined with large homes from the 18th century, runs down a sharply sloped hill leading to Castlehaven Harbour and the castle. The Church of St Barrahane, built in 1826, overlooks the town and its main architect was James Pain. This replaced the church built in 1761. It is noted for its glass windows, the east window by Harry Clarke, was given to the church in 1915 in memory of Mr. The window in the wall of the chancel and the third window on the south side are by Clarke. The eastern window on the side, the eastern-most window on the south side. In the church there is an oar from a rescue boat from the Lusitania in memory of the many drowned passengers. Castletownsend was the home of Edith Anna Œnone Somerville the co-author of the Irish RM series of novels on Irish Life in the early 1900s. Sir Patrick Buckley was born near the village in the townland of Gortbrack, buildings of Ireland, Drishane House List of towns and villages in the Republic of Ireland Southwest Ireland
Goleen is a small rural village in County Cork on the south-western tip of Ireland. Farming and construction work are the occupations of the local people. Many are involved with some aspect of the tourist business, looking after some of the holiday homes which surround the village. The village has four pubs, four shops, and a petrol station, Goleen is located towards the south-western end of the Mizen Peninsula, in West Cork. The land surrounding the village is of quality for farming, being hilly. The village has a large Roman Catholic church, there is a smaller Church of Ireland church situated just outside the village but this has been deconsecrated and is the site for a sail-maker. The distinction of being Irelands most southerly point belongs to nearby Brow Head, the town boasts a community pitch on which locals play Gaelic football and soccer. In the sports hall beside the pitch, is a tennis club which has 26 members. In 1852, shortly after the famine, the parish priest John Foley started to build a new church with the help of donations by Irish emigrants.
The church was erected in the Neo-Gothic style with a cruciform ground plan, four bays. Bishop William Delaney of the diocese of Cork consecrated the church on 11 October 1854, bus Éireann run the 237 bus service from Cork City to Goleen. The nearest airport is Cork Airport
County Cork is the largest and southernmost county of Ireland. It lies in the province of Munster and is named after the city of Cork, Cork County Council is the local authority for the county. Its largest settlements are Cork City and Carrigaline, in 2016, the countys population was 542,196, making it the third most populous county in Ireland. There are two local authorities whose remit collectively encompasses the area of the county and city of Cork. The county, excluding Cork city, is administered by Cork County Council, both city and county are part of the South-West Region. For standardized European statistical purposes both Cork County Council and Cork City Council rank equally as first-level local administrative units of the NUTS3 South-West Region, there are 34 such LAU1 entities in the Republic of Ireland. For elections to Dáil Éireann, the county is divided into five constituencies—Cork East, Cork North–Central, Cork North–West, Cork South–Central, together they return 19 deputies to the Dáil.
The county is part of the South constituency for the purposes of European elections, for purposes other than local government, such as the formation of sporting teams, the term County Cork is often taken to include both city and county. County Cork is located in the province of Munster and it borders four other counties, Kerry to the west, Limerick to the north, Tipperary to the north-east and Waterford to the east. Cork is the largest county in the state by land area and it is the largest of Munsters 6 counties by both population and area. The population of Cork city stood at 125,622 in 2016, the population of the entire county is 542,196 making it the states second most populous county and the third most populous county on the island of Ireland. The remit of Cork County Council includes some suburbs of the city not within the area of Cork City Council, there are 24 historic baronies in the county—the most of any county in Ireland. While baronies continue to be officially defined units, they are no longer used for administrative purposes.
Their official status is illustrated by Placenames Orders made since 2003, there are 253 civil parishes in the county. Townlands are the smallest officially defined geographical divisions in Ireland, there are approximately 5447 townlands in the county, the Shehy Mountains are on the border with Kerry and may be accessed from the area known as Priests Leap, near the village of Coomhola. The Galtee Mountains are located across parts of Tipperary, the upland areas of the Ballyhoura, Boggeragh and the Mullaghareirk Mountain ranges add to the range of habitats found in the county. Important habitats in the uplands include blanket bog, glacial lakes, Cork has the 13th highest county peak in Ireland. The three great rivers, the Bandon, the Blackwater and the Lee, and their valleys dominate central Cork, habitats of the valleys and floodplains include woodlands, marshes and species-rich limestone grasslands
The southern and western boundaries are delimited by the continental shelf, which drops away sharply. The Isles of Scilly are an archipelago of islands in the sea. The Celtic Sea takes its name from the Celtic heritage of the lands to the north. The name was first proposed by E. W. L, Holt at a 1921 meeting in Dublin of fisheries experts from England, Ireland and France. The northern portion of this sea had previously considered as part of Saint Georges Channel. The need for a name came to be felt because of the common marine biology and hydrology. It was adopted in France before being common in the English-speaking countries, in 1957 Édouard Le Danois wrote and it was adopted by marine biologists and oceanographers, and by petroleum exploration firms. There are no features to divide the Celtic Sea from the open Atlantic Ocean to the south. For these limits, Holt suggested the 200 fathom marine contour, the International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Celtic Sea as follows, On the North.
The Southern limit of the Irish Sea, the South coast of Ireland, a line from the position 51°0′N 11°30′W South to 49°N, thence to latitude 46°30N on the Western limit of the Bay of Biscay, thence along that line to Penmarch Point. The Western limit of the English Channel and the Western limit of the Bristol Channel, the seabed under the Celtic Sea is called the Celtic Shelf, part of the continental shelf of Europe. The northeast portion has a depth of between 90m and 100m, increasing towards Saint Georges Channel, in the opposite direction, sand ridges pointing southwest have a similar height, separated by troughs approximately 50m deeper. These ridges were formed by tidal effects when the sea level was lower, South of 50° the topography is more irregular. Oil and gas exploration in the Celtic Sea has had limited commercial success, the Kinsale Head gas field supplied much of the Republic of Ireland in the 1980s and 1990s. The Celtic Sea has a rich fishery with total annual catches of 1.8 million tonnes as of 2007, four cetacean species occur frequently in the area, minke whale, bottlenose dolphin, short-beaked common dolphin and harbor porpoise.
Formerly it held an abundance of marine mammals, Irish Conservation Box Coccoliths in the Celtic Sea, a bloom of phytoplankton in the Celtic Sea, visible from outer space in an MISR image,4 June 2001
Local government in the Republic of Ireland
In Ireland, local government functions are mostly exercised by thirty-one local authorities, termed County, City or City and County Councils. The principal decision-making body in each of the local authorities is composed of the members of the council. Irish Local Authorities are the closest and most accessible form of Government to people in their local community, many of the authorities statutory functions are, the responsibility of ministerially appointed career officials termed Chief executives. The competencies of the city and county councils include planning, transport infrastructure, sanitary services, public safety, Local government in the state is governed by Local Government Acts, the most recent of which – the Local Government Act 2001 – established this two-tier structure. The Local Government Act 1898 is the document of the present system. The Twentieth Amendment of the Constitution of Ireland provided for constitutional recognition of local government for the first time in Ireland.
The Local Government Reform Act 2014 changed the structure, in line with reforms announced in October 2012 by the Minister for the Environment, Community. These included the abolition of all councils and the merger of some county councils. The reforms came into effect in 2014, to coincide with that years local elections, the county was a unit of judicial and administrative government introduced to Ireland following the Norman invasion. The country was shired in a number of phases with County Wicklow being the last to be shired in 1625, the traditional county of Tipperary was split into two judicial counties following the establishment of assize courts in 1838. Sixty years later, a radical reorganisation of local government took place with the passage of the Local Government Act. This Act established a county council for each of the thirty-three Irish counties, to this number may be added the county boroughs. The five county boroughs of Dublin, Galway, the remaining county boroughs in place at the foundation of the state were downgraded by the 2001 Act to town council status.
From 1 January 2002 the existing Urban District Councils and boards of Town Commissioners were renamed as Town Councils, the city of Kilkenny, along with the four towns of were reduced in status to the level of Town Council. In recognition of the history, the towns were permitted to use the title of Borough Council instead of Town Council. There were 75 other town councils in addition to these five borough councils, the distinction between urban district and towns with town commissioners had been abolished. At various times in the past, other entities at a level below that of the county or county borough have been employed in Ireland for various judicial and revenue collecting purposes. Some of these, such as the barony and Grand jury, such as the Poor Law Unions, have been transformed into entities still in use by the modern state, but again, their original functions have been substantially altered
The Gaels are an ethnolinguistic group native to northwestern Europe. They are associated with the Gaelic languages, a branch of the Celtic languages comprising Irish, historically, the ethnonyms Irish and Scots referred to the Gaels in general, but the scope of those nationalities is today more complex. Gaelic language and culture originated in Ireland, extending to Dál Riata in western Scotland, in antiquity the Gaels traded with the Roman Empire and raided Roman Britain. In the Middle Ages, Gaelic culture became dominant throughout the rest of Scotland, there was some Gaelic settlement in Wales and Cornwall. In the Viking Age, small numbers of Vikings raided and settled in Gaelic lands, in the 9th century, Dál Riata and Pictland merged to form the Gaelic Kingdom of Alba. Meanwhile, Gaelic Ireland was made up of several kingdoms, with a High King often claiming lordship over them, in the 12th century, Anglo-Normans conquered parts of Ireland, while parts of Scotland became Anglo-Normanized.
However, Gaelic culture remained strong throughout Ireland, the Scottish Highlands, in the early 17th century, the last Gaelic kingdoms in Ireland fell under English control. In the following centuries most Gaels were gradually anglicized and Gaelic language mostly supplanted by English, however, it continues to be the main language in Irelands Gaeltacht and Scotlands Outer Hebrides. The modern descendants of the Gaels have spread throughout Britain, the Americas, Gaelic society traditionally centered around the clan, each with its own territory and chieftain, elected through tanistry. The Gaels were originally pagans who worshipped the Tuatha Dé Danann, venerated the ancestors and their four yearly festivals – Samhain, Imbolc and Lughnasa – continued to be celebrated into modern times. The Gaels have an oral tradition, traditionally maintained by shanachies. Inscription in the Gaelic ogham alphabet began in the 1st century and their conversion to Christianity accompanied the introduction of writing, and Irish Gaelic has the oldest vernacular literature in western Europe.
Irish mythology and Brehon law were preserved, albeit Christianized, Gaelic monasteries were renowned centres of learning and played a key role in developing Insular art, while Gaelic missionaries and scholars were highly influential in western Europe. In the Middle Ages, most Gaels lived in roundhouses and ringforts, the Gaels had their own style of dress, which became the belted plaid and kilt. They have music and sports. Gaelic culture continues to be a component of Irish, Scottish. Throughout the centuries and Gaelic-speakers have been known by a number of names, the most consistent of these have been Gael and Scots. The latter two have developed more ambiguous meanings, due to the modern concept of the nation state
Schull or Skull is a town in County Cork, Ireland. The name derives from a monastic school, of which no trace remains. Located on the southwest coast, in West Cork, the village is situated in a scenic and remote location and it has a sheltered harbour, used for recreational boating. The area, on the leading to Mizen Head, is popular with tourists. The village had a population of 693 in 2002, the towns secondary school, Schull Community College, houses one of the only planetariums in Ireland along with a sailing school. Each year Schull harbour hosts the Fastnet International Schools Regatta, Schull once had its own railway station. The village was the terminus of the Schull and Skibbereen Railway. Schull railway station opened on 6 September 1886, closed for passenger and goods traffic on 27 January 1947, Schull. org Schull Country Market - for great food, plants etc Cork Ancestors - Schull
Muskerry West is one of the baronies of Ireland, a historical geographical unit of land. It is one of 24 baronies in the county of Cork and it may be viewed as a half barony because sometime before the 1821 census, it was divided from its other half – Muskerry East. Other neighbouring baronies include Duhallow to the north and the Barony of Carbery East to the south, baronies were created after the Norman invasion of Ireland as divisions of counties and were used the administration of justice and the raising of revenue. While baronies continue to be officially defined units, they have been obsolete since 1898. However, they continue to be used in registration and in specification. In many cases, a barony corresponds to an earlier Gaelic túath which had submitted to the Crown, the Múscraige and Corcu Duibne descend form Corc, a son of Cairbre Musc. While the Múscraige petty kingdoms were scattered throughout the province of Munster, the tribes or septs were pre-Eóganachta, that is before the 6th century.
At this time, the territory did not extend south of the River Lee, a pedigree of the chieftains of the tribe may be found in the Book of Leinster. The main septs were, Rivalry between the houses of the outer circle of the Eóganacht would eventually undo the kingdom of Múscraige Mittaine. The ODonoghues, originally from Eóganacht Raithlind, moved in to become the new princes of Eóganacht Locha Léin and this forced the erstwhile rulers of Locha Léin - the OFlynns - to migrate eastwards. Sometime after 1096, Múscraighe Mittaine fell to the OFlynns, the local Ó Donnagáin dynasty persisted in their opposition to the usurpers, at least until 1115 when they killed the reigning OFlynn king of Muskerry. Thereafter, both dynasties were united in obscurity, from 1118 onwards, the kings of Desmond came from the leading family of Eóganacht Chaisil - the MacCarthy dynasty. The reigning king at the time of the Norman invasion of Ireland was Dermod Mór na Cill Baghain MacCarthy, in so doing, he hoped to secure the kings protection for his lands, particularly from Henrys own barons, as was the Gaelic way.
Instead, Henry granted of Dermods entire kingdom to two of his leading adventurer knights, Robert Fitz-Stephen and Milo de Cogan in 1177. According to Giraldus, the grantees took possession of seven cantrefs only, the remaining twenty four cantrefs they allowed to MacCarthy at rent. They proceeded thence to Cenn Eich, spent a week there, as neither Fitz-Stephen nor de Cogan left male heirs, the inheritance was confused. This suited the purposes of King John of England who, when he came to the throne, was determined to weaken the power of the Irish barons. He sequestered the kingdom of Desmond to the English crown and from 1200 to 1207 he proceeded to parcel out the land among his loyal subjects, richard de Cogan got Múscraige Mittaine which he was expected to win by the sword
Dunmanus Bay is a bay in County Cork, Ireland. The bay lies between Mizen Head to the south and Sheeps Head to the north with the village of Durrus at the head of the bay. The bay is out of the tidal flow with no significant rivers flowing into it and is little frequented by vessels. On the eastern shore of the bay are the ruins of Dunmanus Castle built by the OMahony clan, to the south, Dunlough Castle, an earlier OMahony fortification, stands atop the cliffs at the northern perch of the Mizen peninsula. A hand book for travellers in Ireland
The FitzGerald dynasty is an Irish Hiberno-Norman or Cambro-Norman dynasty. The dynasty has referred to as the Geraldines. They were established by the conquest of large swathes of Irish territory by the sons and grandsons of Gerald FitzWalter of Windsor, Gerald was a Norman castellan in Wales, and is the male progenitor of the Fitzgerald dynasty. Geralds Welsh wife Nest ferch Rhys is the progenitor of the Fitzgeralds. She was the daughter of Rhys ap Tewdwr, last King of Deheubarth, through her the Fitzgeralds are descended from the Welsh rulers of Deheubarth as well as related to the Tudors who are descended from the same Welsh royal line. Consequently, the Fitzgeralds are cousins to the Tudors through Nest, in his poetry, Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey, referred to Elizabeth FitzGerald as Fair Geraldine. The main branches of the family are, the FitzGeralds of Kildare and its current head is Maurice FitzGerald, 9th Duke of Leinster. The Lord of Lanstephan was a participant in the 1169 Norman invasion of Ireland.
The FitzGerald dynasty has played a role in Irish history. Gearóid Mór, 8th Earl of Kildare and his son Gearóid Óg, 9th Earl of Kildare, were Lord Deputy of Ireland in the late Fifteenth and early Sixteenth centuries respectively. The FitzGerald dynasty became so intermingled with the native Gaelic Irish that they were often described as more Irish than the Irish themselves. The best example of this is Gerald FitzGerald, 3rd Earl of Desmond, although made Lord Chief Justice of Ireland in 1367, Gerald wrote poetry in the Irish language, most famously the poem Mairg adeir olc ris na mnáibh. Indeed, although an accomplished poet in Norman French, Gerald was instrumental in the move by the FitzGeralds of Desmond toward greater use of the Irish language, the surname FitzGerald comes from the Norman tradition of adding Fitz, meaning son of before the fathers name. So, Fitz Gerald means in Old Norman and in Old French son of Gerald, Gerald itself is a Germanic compound of ger and waltan, rule. Variant spellings include Fitz-Gerald and the modern Fitzgerald, the name can be used as two separate words Fitz Gerald.
For more on the Kildare Geraldines, see Duke of Leinster, lady Edward FitzGerald, known as Pamela, wife of Lord Edward FitzGerald. The line of the Earls of Desmond has been extinct since the 17th century and their branch of the dynasty continues only in their distant collateral kinsmen, Irelands hereditary knights. Thus in fact represent a sister branch to the FitzGeralds of Desmond