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Carbon (API)

Carbon is one of Apple’s C-based application programming interfaces for macOS, the operating system that powers Macintosh computers. Carbon provided a good degree of backward compatibility for programs that ran on Mac OS 8 and 9. Developers could use the Carbon APIs to port their “classic” Mac software to the Mac OS X platform with little effort, compared to porting the app to the different Cocoa system, which originated in OPENSTEP. Carbon was an important part of Apple's strategy for bringing Mac OS X to market, offering a path for quick porting of existing software applications, as well as a means of shipping applications that would run on either Mac OS X or the classic Mac OS; as the market has moved to the Cocoa-based frameworks after the release of iOS, the need for a porting library was diluted. Apple did not create a 64-bit version of Carbon while updating their other frameworks in the 2007 time-frame, deprecated the entire API in OS X 10.8 Mountain Lion, released on July 24, 2012. Carbon was discontinued and removed with the release of macOS 10.15 Catalina.

The original Mac OS used Pascal as its primary development platform, the APIs were based on Pascal's call semantics. Much of the Macintosh Toolbox consisted of procedure calls, passing information back and forth between the API and program using a variety of data structures based on Pascal's variant record concept. Over time, a number of object libraries evolved on the Mac, notably the Object Pascal library MacApp and the Think Class Library in Pascal, versions of MacApp and CodeWarrior's PowerPlant in C++. By the mid-1990s, most Mac software was written in C++ using CodeWarrior. With the purchase of NeXT in late 1996, Apple developed a new operating system strategy based on the existing OpenStep platform; the new Rhapsody was simple. When this plan was unveiled at the Worldwide Developers Conference in 1997 there was some push-back from existing Mac OS developers, who were upset that their code bases would be locked into an emulator, unlikely to be updated, they took to calling the Blue Box the "penalty box".

Larger developers like Microsoft and Adobe balked outright, refused to consider porting to OpenStep, so different from the existing Mac OS that there was little or no compatibility. Apple took these concerns to heart; when Steve Jobs announced this change in direction at the 1998 WWDC, he stated that "what developers wanted was a modern version of the Mac OS, Apple going to deliver it". The statement was met with thunderous applause; the original Rhapsody concept, with only the Blue Box for running existing Mac OS software, was released in 1999 as Mac OS X Server 1.0. This was the only release based on the original Rhapsody concept. In order to offer a real and well supported upgrade path for existing Mac OS code bases, Apple introduced the Carbon system. Carbon consists of many libraries and functions that offer a Mac-like API, but running on top of the underlying Unix-like OS, rather than a copy of the Mac OS running in emulation; the Carbon libraries are extensively cleaned up, modernized and better "protected".

While the Mac OS was filled with APIs that shared memory to pass data, under Carbon all such access was re-implemented using accessor subroutines on opaque data types. This allowed Carbon to support true multitasking and memory protection, features Mac developers had been requesting for a decade. Other changes from the pre-existing API removed features which were conceptually incompatible with Mac OS X, or obsolete. For example, applications could no longer install interrupt handlers or device drivers. In order to support Carbon, the entire Rhapsody model changed. Whereas Rhapsody would be OpenStep with an emulator, under the new system both the OpenStep and Carbon API would, where possible, share common code. To do this, many of the useful bits of code from the lower-levels of the OpenStep system, written in Objective-C and known as Foundation, were re-implemented in pure C; this code became known as CF for short. A version of the Yellow Box ported to call CF became the new Cocoa API, the Mac-like calls of Carbon called the same functions.

Under the new system and Cocoa were peers. This conversion would have slowed the performance of Cocoa as the object methods called into the underlying C libraries, but Apple used a technique they called toll-free bridging to reduce this impact; as part of this conversion, Apple ported the graphics engine from the licence-encumbered Display PostScript to the licence-free Quartz. Quartz provided native calls that could be used from either Carbon or Cocoa, as well as offering Java 2D-like interfaces as well; the underlying operating system itself was further released as Darwin. Carbon was introduced in incomplete form in 2000, as a shared library backward-compatible with 1997's Mac OS 8.1. This version allowed developers to port their code to Carbon without losing the ability for those programs to run on existing Mac OS machines. Porting to Carbon became known as "Carbonization". Official Mac OS X support arrived in 2001 with the release of Mac OS X v10.0, the first public version of the new OS. Carbon was widely used in early versions of Mac OS X by all major software houses by A

What If? (Kenny Barron album)

What If? is an album by pianist Kenny Barron, recorded in 1986 and released on the German Enja label. In his review on Allmusic, Greg Turner noted "Long considered as one of the finest pianists in jazz, Barron's excellent composing skills are evident on this worthy addition to his discography". All compositions by Kenny Barron except. "Phantoms" – 7:02 "What If?" – 7:26 "Close to You Alone" – 5:58 "Dexterity" – 3:57 "Voyage" – 5:03 "Lullabye" – 7:09 "Trinkle, Tinkle" – 5:43 Kenny Barron – piano Wallace Roneytrumpet John Stubblefieldtenor saxophone Cecil McBeebass Victor Lewisdrums


Maliq known as Malik, is a town and a municipality in Korçë County of eastern Albania. It is the smaller of two cities in the other being Korçë, 7 miles southeast of Maliq; the current enlarged municipality was formed at the 2015 local government reform by the merger of the former administrative units of Gorë, Maliq, Moglicë, Pirg and Vreshtas. The seat of the municipality is the town Maliq; the total population is 41,757, in a total area of 656.89 km2. The population of the former municipality at the 2011 census was 4,290; the municipal unit consists of the town Maliq and the villages Kolanec, Gjyras, Bickë, Fshat Maliq and Plovisht. The city of Malqi flourished around a sugar beet factory built in 1951; the factory was built with help from Soviet foreign aid. When the factory started operating it had a capacity of 1,000 tons to 2,400 tons on; the factory was closed in the 1990s leading to a significant unemployment in the city. The football team KF Maliqi is home to the city of Maliq; the team was founded in the late 1990s and its home ground in Jovan Asko Stadium,Maliq which has a capacity of 1,500 spectators.

The owner of the team is the Municipality of Maliq and the President of the team is Gëzim Topçiu. The team is playing in the Albanian Second Division. Neolithic Settlements in Albania Prendi, F. “La civilisation préhistorique de Maliq”, Studia Albanica 1, 1966: 254–266. Maliq map –

Thomas Andrew Donnellan

Thomas Andrew Donnellan was an American prelate of the Roman Catholic Church who served as the ninth bishop of the Diocese of Ogdensberg, New York from 1964 to 1968, as the second Archbishop of the Archdiocese of Atlanta, Georgia from 1968 until his death in 1987. The eldest of two children, Thomas Donnellan was born in 1914 in the Bronx, New York, to Andrew and Margaret Donnellan. After graduating from Regis High School in the Bronx in 1931, Donnellan entered St. Joseph's Seminary in 1933, was ordained to the priesthood by then-Archbishop of New York Francis Spellman on June 3, 1939. In 1942, Donnellan received a doctorate in Canon Law from The Catholic University of America in Washington, D. C. Upon graduation, Donnellan was appointed as assistant pastor of St. Patrick's Cathedral in New York becoming Cardinal Spellman's secretary in 1954. In 1962, Donnellan became the rector of St. Joseph's Seminary in New York. In June 1954, Pope Pius XII honored Fr. Donnellan by raising him the rank of Papal Chamberlain, with the title of Very Reverend Monsignor, again in March 1958, when he named him a Domestic Prelate, with the title of Right Reverend Monsignor.

In December 1962, Pope John XXIII elevated him to the rank of Prothonotary Apostolic. On April 9, 1964, Donnellan was consecrated as bishop by Cardinal Spellman in St. Patrick's Cathedral, subsequently installed as the ninth Bishop of Ogdensburg in upstate New York four days on April 13. On May 29, 1968, following the death of Archbishop Paul Hallinan, Bishop Donnellan was appointed by Pope Paul VI as the second Archbishop of Atlanta, was installed on July 16. During his 19-year tenure, Donnellan guided the archdiocese through extensive growth, with the number of Catholics in North Georgia nearly tripling from 50,000 in 1968 to over 133,000. With his tenure as head of a Southern archdiocese beginning in the wake of the assassination of civil rights leader Martin Luther King, Jr. Donnellan dealt with many issues regarding the civil rights movement, most notably in January 1970, when he barred new enrollments in the archdiocese's Catholic schools as a gesture of support to the integration of local public school systems.

In 1984, Archbishop Donnellan was one of the co-authors of Economic Justice For All: Catholic Social Teaching and the U. S. Economy, unveiled at a meeting of the National Conference of Catholic Bishops, which urged a moral perspective in viewing the economy from the vantage point of the nation's poor. By 1987, Archbishop Donnellan suffered from ill health due to a stroke which occurred that May, resulting in him convalescing until his death on October 15, his funeral was held at the archdiocese's mother church, Cathedral of Christ the King, was attended by over 1,000 mourners, with then-Apostolic Pro-Nuncio in the U. S. Archbishop Pio Laghi as principal celebrant. Archbishop Donnellan is buried at Arlington Cemetery in Georgia. Catholic Church hierarchy Catholic Church in the United States Historical list of the Catholic bishops of the United States List of the Catholic bishops of the United States Lists of patriarchs and bishops Biography of Archbishop Donnellan from the Archdiocese of Atlanta Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Atlanta Roman Catholic Diocese of Ogdensburg

Birdsong, Arkansas

Birdsong is a town in Mississippi County, United States. The population was 41 at the 2010 census. Birdsong is located at 35°27′33″N 90°15′38″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of all land; as of the 2010 United States Census, there were 41 people living in the town. The racial makeup of the town was 70.7 % 29.3 % White. As of the census of 2000, there were 40 people, 20 households, 8 families living in the town; the population density was 140.4/km². There were 27 housing units at an average density of 94.8/km². The racial makeup of the town was 100 % African American. There were 20 households out of which two had children under the age of 18 living with them, 15.0% were married couples living together, 15.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 60.0% were non-families. 60.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 30.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.00 and the average family size was 3.38.

In the town, the population was spread out with 15.0% under the age of 18, 12.5% from 18 to 24, 22.5% from 25 to 44, 30.0% from 45 to 64, 20.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 45 years. For every 100 females, there were 81.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 78.9 males. The median income for a household in the town was $6,806, the median income for a family was $7,083. Males had a median income of $18,750 versus $28,750 for females; the per capita income for the town was $9,363. There were 57.1% of families and 56.3% of the population living below the poverty line, including no under-eighteens and 100.0% of those over 64

Independent Investigations Group

The Independent Investigations Group is a volunteer-based organization founded by James Underdown in January 2000 at the Center for Inquiry-West in Hollywood, California. The IIG investigates fringe science and extraordinary claims from a rational, scientific viewpoint, disseminates factual information about such inquiries to the public; the IIG offers a $250,000 prize to anyone who can "prove paranormal ability, under scientific testing conditions". While the IIG conducts scientifically based experiments, its membership is composed of lay-people. Members' collective professional experience includes the fields of architecture, education, engineering, film making, law enforcement, medicine and visual effects; the chair of IIG is James Underdown, Executive Director of the Center For InquiryLos Angeles. The IIG in 2011 announced an affiliate program, allowing other skeptic groups across the world to have access to the $100,000 challenge award, as well as participate in investigations. Affiliates are in Washington DC, Atlanta, GA, Denver, CO, San Francisco Bay Area, Portland, OR, Alberta.

In January 2013, the IIG celebrated the thirteenth anniversary since its founding. On October 28, 2010 Olympic Champion Gymnast Dominique Dawes working for Yahoo Weekend News and with The Independent Investigations Group IIG tested Power Balance Bracelets for their claim that they improve balance and strength, she states, "The fact is, all athletes know that nothing can replace good old-fashioned hard work—practice, practice... Can a silicone wristband with a hologram sticker give you an added edge?" According to IIG investigator Dave Richards, "There was one'legitimate' Power Balance bracelet, 3'sham' bracelets that had had the hologram removed from them. The experiment was double-blinded, all bracelets were wrapped with tape so no one present knew which bracelet was real and which were fakes." One of the control bracelets contained PEZ candy. "Neither the participants nor the people recording the scores knew which bracelet was which until after all participants had completed their runs and their scores were recorded."

From Wendy Hughes' report, "The claim was that if the hologram worked, the speed of the participants would increase, it would show on the graph. But it didn't. Out of 64 heats, 16 participants using 4 bracelets in 4 random heats, the results were flat; the main result was that if there was any change, the familiarity with the course caused a slight increase in efficiency. The Pez didn't make a difference either." Dawes' conclusion is. On November 21, 2009, the IIG administered a Preliminary Demonstration for IIG Paranormal Challenge applicant Anita Ikonen; the demonstration consisted of three trials, wherein Ikonen was faced with six people who were sitting away from her, whose faces were obscured. In each of the three trials, one person was known to be missing a kidney; that meant. Ikonen had to determine. On her sheet, she was to mark which kidney was missing on the diagram of the person corresponding to the kidney, she had to choose on all three trials in order to succeed, move on to a formal test which, if she was successful, would earn her $50,000.

Ikonen did not succeed. She chose incorrectly on trial one, chose on trial two, chose incorrectly on trial three, she failed the Preliminary Demonstration and this failure falsified her claim to be able to see inside of the human body and determine if a person is missing a kidney or not. IIG tested an applicant who claimed to be able to "influence electricity with mind." And control the intensity of a light bulb. The subject was placed in a darkroom with a frosted-glass incandescent light bulb mounted on a tripod, a light meter was pointed at a large white board mounted behind the bulb; the subject was not allowed to approach the apparatus. The agreed-upon threshold for a successful test was to achieve ten out of fifteen trials in which the subject had two minutes to vary the meter reading either up or down by 3 exposure value settings. During the first six trials, the light meter failed to move more than 0.1EV, after which the test was terminated. Afterwards, the subject explained that "Whenever I'm just, driving around when there's a light, flickering just focus on it, it just happens".

The IIG concluded that "There is no evidence from this demonstration that Subject possesses psychic ability." Owen Hammer and James Underdown report on the ongoing investigation into California nursing standards concerning teaching therapeutic touch as continuing education units. The Independent Investigative Group looked into 14 cases Carla Baron claims to have assisted detectives on, including JonBenét Ramsey, Elizabeth Smart and Nicole Brown Simpson. In all 14 cases the IIG contacted the police all saying the same things, "we have never heard of this person" or "the information provided did not produce any new leads in the investigation". IIG's conclusion is that she has never provided any help in any investigation, her claims stating such are unsubstantiated. In 2003 the IIG attended a taping of James Van Praagh's syndicated series Beyond, in order to document the difference between what occurred at the taping and how it appeared on TV after editing; as suspected, there were many significant differences, the IIG concluded that Van Praagh’s power emanates from