Green River (Colorado River tributary)
The Green River, located in the western United States, is the chief tributary of the Colorado River. The watershed of the river, known as the Green River Basin, covers parts of Wyoming and Colorado. The Green River is 730 miles long, beginning in the Wind River Mountains of Wyoming and flowing through Wyoming and Utah for most of its course, much of the route is through the Colorado Plateau and through some of the most spectacular canyons in the United States. It is only smaller than the Colorado when the two rivers merge, but typically carries a larger load of silt. The average yearly mean flow of the river at Green River, the status of the Green River as a tributary of the Colorado River came about for mainly political reasons. In earlier nomenclature, the Colorado River began at its confluence with the Green River, above the confluence the Colorado was called the Grand River. Representative Edward T. Taylor petitioned the Congressional Committee on Interstate and it rises in western Wyoming, in northern Sublette County, on the western side of the Continental Divide in the Bridger-Teton National Forest in the Wind River Range.
It flows south through Sublette County and western Wyoming in a known as the Upper Green River Valley. At the town of La Barge, it flows into Fontenelle Reservoir, prior to the creation of the reservoir, the Blacks Fork joined the Green River south of Green River, today the mouth of Blacks Fork is submerged by the reservoir. It turns westward back into Utah along the edge of the Uintas in Whirlpool Canyon. In Utah it meanders southwest across the Yampa Plateau and through the Uintah and Ouray Indian Reservation, two miles south of Ouray, Utah, it is joined by Duchesne River, and three miles downstream by the White River. Ten miles farther downstream it is joined by the Willow River, south of the plateau, it is joined by Nine Mile Creek, enters the Roan Cliffs where it flows south through the back-to-back Desolation and Gray Canyons, with a combined length of 120 mi. In Gray Canyon, it is joined by the Price River, south of the canyon it passes the town of Green River, Utah and is joined by the San Rafael River in southern Emery County.
In eastern Wayne County it meanders through Canyonlands National Park where it joins the Colorado, the Flaming Gorge Dam in Utah is a significant regional source of water for irrigation and mining, as well as for hydroelectric power. Begun in the 1950s and finished in 1963, it was highly controversial, originally, a dam was to be built in Whirlpool Canyon, but the conservationist movement traded the Flaming Gorge dam for halting that proposal. Apocryphally, the Sierra Club, an environmental organization, lost its tax-exempt status for political action in opposing the proposed dam. The Green is a large, powerful river and it ranges from 100 to 300 feet wide in the upper course to 300 to 1,500 feet wide in its lower course and ranges from 3 to 50 feet in depth. It is navigable by small craft throughout its course and by large motorboats upstream to Flaming Gorge Dam, near the areas where the Oregon Trail crosses, the river is 400 -500 feet wide and averages about 20 feet deep at normal flow
The creation of the territory was part of the Compromise of 1850 that sought to preserve the balance of power between slave and free states. The creation of the Utah Territory was partially the result of the petition sent by the Mormon pioneers who had settled in the valley of the Great Salt Lake starting in 1847. S. The Mormon settlers had drafted a constitution in 1849 and Deseret had become the de facto government in the Great Basin by the time of the creation of the Utah Territory. Following the organization of the territory, Young was inaugurated as its first governor on February 3,1851, in the first session of the territorial legislature in September, the legislature adopted all the laws and ordinances previously enacted by the General Assembly of the State of Deseret. In 1861, partly as a result of this, the Nevada Territory was created out of the part of the territory. Non-Mormons entered the easternmost part of the territory during the Pikes Peak Gold Rush, in 1861 a large portion of the eastern area of the territory was reorganized as part of the newly created Colorado Territory.
Territories that encompassed land that would become part of the Territory of Utah, Mexican Cession,1848 State of Deseret
The Wasatch Range /ˈwɑːsætʃ/ is a mountain range that stretches approximately 160 miles from the Utah-Idaho border, south through central Utah in the western United States. It is the edge of the greater Rocky Mountains. The northern extension of the Wasatch Range, the Bear River Mountains, extends just into Idaho, according to the Utah History Encyclopedia, Wasatch in Ute means mountain pass or low pass over high range. According to William Bright the mountains were named for a Shoshoni leader who was named with the Shoshoni term wasattsi, since the earliest days of settlement, the majority of Utahs population has chosen to settle along the ranges western front, where numerous river drainages exit the mountains. The mountains were a source of water, timber. Today, 85% of Utahs population lives within 15 miles of the Wasatch Range and this concentration is known as the Wasatch Front and has a population of just over 2,000,000 residents. Salt Lake City lies between the Wasatch Range and the Great Salt Lake, at 11,928 feet, Mount Nebo, a triple peak rising above Nephi, Utah at the southern end of the range, is the highest peak of the Wasatch.
In some places the mountains rise immediately from the base elevation of 4,330 feet to over 11,000 feet. Since they top out just below 12,000 feet, Wasatch peaks are not especially high compared to the Colorado Rockies or even the Uinta Mountains, the other main portion of the Rocky Mountains in Utah. However, they are sculpted by glaciers, yielding notably rugged and they receive heavy falls of snow, in some places over 500 inches per year. This great snowfall, with its runoff, made possible a prosperous urban strip of some 25 cities along nearly 100 miles of mountain frontage. The Wasatch Range is home to a concentration of ski areas, with 11 stretching from Sundance in northern Utah County to Powder Mountain. There is one ski resort in the Bear River Mountains, Park City alone is bordered by two ski resorts. Further north, Big Cottonwood Canyon features tricky climbing on quartzite, the canyons are located within 24 miles of downtown Salt Lake City and the year-round paved roadways can reach 5,000 ft higher in elevation above the city within a short distance.
Dirt roads readily drivable in passenger cars with moderate clearance stretch up from Park City and these reach about 10,000 feet above sea level and provide impressive long-range high country views. Mount Nebo, the highest peak of the Wasatch, is located at the edge of the range. The Colorado Plateau comes to its northwest corner here as it meets the end of the Rocky Mountains. The range is punctuated by a series of faults, chief among them the Wasatch fault
Utah's 3rd congressional district
Utahs 3rd congressional district is a congressional district in the United States House of Representatives. It is located in southern and eastern Utah and includes the cities of Orem, george W. Bush received 77% of the vote in this strongly Republican district in 2004. With a Cook PVI of R+28, it is the most Republican Congressional District in America outside of the South, the district was created when Utah was awarded an extra congressional seat following the 1980 U. S. Census. All of its Representatives have been Republicans, with the exception of Bill Orton, the current Representative is Republican Jason Chaffetz. In 2017, conservative Damian Kidd announced that he would compete for the seat
1910 United States Census
The 1910 Census switched from a portrait page orientation to a landscape orientation. The column titles in the form are as follows, LOCATION. Number of dwelling house in order of visitation, Number of family in order of visitation. NAME of each person whose place of abode on April 15,1910, was in this family, enter surname first, the given name and middle initial, if any. Include every person living on April 15,1910, omit children born since April 15,1910. Relationship of this person to the head of the family, whether single, widowed, or divorced. Number of years of present marriage, Mother of how many children, Number born. Mother of how children, Number now living. Place of birth of each person and parents of each person enumerated, if born in the United States, give the state or territory. If of foreign birth, give the country, place of birth of this Person. Place of birth of Father of this person, place of birth of Mother of this person. Year of immigration to the United States, whether able to speak English, or, if not, give language spoken.
Trade or profession of, or particular kind of work done by person, as spinner, laborer. General nature of industry, business, or establishment in which this works, as cotton mill, dry goods store, farm. Whether as employer, employee, or work on own account, whether out of work on April 15,1910. Number of weeks out of work during year 1909, attended school any time since September 1,1909. Whether a survivor of the Union or Confederate Army or Navy, special Notation, In 1912, New Mexico and Arizona would become the 47th and 48th states admitted to the Union. The 1910 population count for each of these areas was 327,301 and 204,354 respectively
Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams. The harder forms, such as coal, can be regarded as metamorphic rock because of exposure to elevated temperature and pressure. Coal is composed primarily of carbon, along with quantities of other elements, chiefly hydrogen, oxygen. A fossil fuel, coal forms when plant matter is converted into peat, which in turn is converted into lignite, sub-bituminous coal, after that bituminous coal. This involves biological and geological processes that take place over time, throughout history, coal has been used as an energy resource, primarily burned for the production of electricity and heat, and is used for industrial purposes, such as refining metals. Coal is the largest source of energy for the generation of electricity worldwide, the extraction of coal, its use in energy production and its byproducts are all associated with environmental and health effects including climate change.
Coal is extracted from the ground by coal mining, since 1983, the worlds top coal producer has been China. In 2015 China produced 3,747 million tonnes of coal –47. 7% of 7,861 million tonnes world coal production, in 2015 other large producers were United States, European Union and Australia. The word originally took the col in Old English, from Proto-Germanic *kula. In Old Turkic languages, kül is ash, cinders, öčür is quench, the compound charcoal in Turkic is öčür kül, literally quenched ashes, coals with elided anlaut ö- and inflection affixes -ülmüş. At various times in the geologic past, the Earth had dense forests in low-lying wetland areas, due to natural processes such as flooding, these forests were buried underneath soil. As more and more soil deposited over them, they were compressed, the temperature rose as they sank deeper and deeper. As the process continued the plant matter was protected from biodegradation and oxidation and this trapped the carbon in immense peat bogs that were eventually covered and deeply buried by sediments.
Under high pressure and high temperature, dead vegetation was slowly converted to coal, as coal contains mainly carbon, the conversion of dead vegetation into coal is called carbonization. The wide, shallow seas of the Carboniferous Period provided ideal conditions for coal formation, the exception is the coal gap in the Permian–Triassic extinction event, where coal is rare. Coal is known from Precambrian strata, which predate land plants — this coal is presumed to have originated from residues of algae, in its dehydrated form, peat is a highly effective absorbent for fuel and oil spills on land and water. It is used as a conditioner for soil to make it able to retain. Lignite, or brown coal, is the lowest rank of coal, jet, a compact form of lignite, is sometimes polished and has been used as an ornamental stone since the Upper Palaeolithic
The Book Cliffs are a series of desert mountains and cliffs in western Colorado and eastern Utah, in the western United States. They are so named because the cliffs of Cretaceous sandstone that cap many of the buttes appear similar to a shelf of books. Stretching nearly 200 miles from east to west, the Book Cliffs begin where the Colorado River descends south through De Beque Canyon into the Grand Valley to Price Canyon, the Book Cliffs appear mostly along the southern and western edge of the Tavaputs Plateau. The cliffs are composed of sedimentary materials. The Book Cliffs are within the Colorado Plateau geologic province, in the Colorado stretch of the Book Cliffs, abandoned coal mines are present, as significant coal resources were present in the region. These mines are now generally capped for safety, but several fatalities of recreational hikers have occurred at these mines since 1989. In some places, wild horses can be found in the Book Cliffs, for example, the Book Cliffs are one of the worlds best places to study sequence stratigraphy.
In the 1980s, Exxon scientists used the Cretaceous strata of the Book Cliffs to develop the science of sequence stratigraphy. The Book Cliffs have preserved excellent strata of the basin of the ancient Western Interior Seaway that stretched north from the Gulf of Mexico to the Yukon in the Cretaceous time. Components of deltaic and shallow marine reservoirs are very well preserved in the Book Cliffs, large mammals found in the Book Cliffs include coyotes, mountain lions, mule deer, American bison as an extension of the Henry Mountains bison herd and bighorn sheep. In January,2009, Utah Division of Wildlife Resources officials transplanted 31 bison from the Henry Mountains bison herd to the Book Cliffs, the new group joined 14 animals previously released in August,2008 from a private herd on the nearby Uintah and Ouray Indian Reservation. Since this herd is located approximately 100 miles north of the Henry Mountains, across mostly harsh, desert terrain, it should perhaps be considered as a separate herd, Cretaceous Paleogeography - Showing Western Interior Seaway The Soils of Western Colorado Mesa and Montrose Counties
Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad
The Denver & Rio Grande Western Railroad, often shortened to Rio Grande, D&RG or D&RGW, formerly the Denver & Rio Grande Railroad, was an American Class I railroad company. The railroad started as a 3 ft narrow gauge line running south from Denver and it served mainly as a transcontinental bridge line between Denver, and Salt Lake City, Utah. The Rio Grande was a major origin of coal and mineral traffic, the Rio Grande was the epitome of mountain railroading, with a motto of Through the Rockies, not around them and Main line through the Rockies, both referring to the Rocky Mountains. The D&RGW operated the highest mainline rail line in the United States, over the 10,240 feet Tennessee Pass in Colorado, and the routes through the Moffat Tunnel. At its height in the mid-1880s, the D&RG had the largest narrow gauge network in North America with 2,783 miles of track interconnecting the states of Colorado, New Mexico. Known for its independence, the D&RGW operated the last private intercity passenger train in the United States, the Rio Grande Zephyr, the Rio Grande operated as a separate division of the Southern Pacific, until that company was acquired by the Union Pacific Railroad.
Today, most former D&RGW main lines are owned and operated by the Union Pacific while several lines are now operated as heritage railways by various companies. The Denver & Rio Grande Railway was incorporated on October 27,1870 by General William Jackson Palmer, Narrow gauge was chosen in part because construction and equipment costs would be relatively more affordable when weighed against that of the prevailing standard gauge. Eventually the route of the D&RG would be amended and added to as new opportunities, competitive construction plans provoked the 1877–1880 war over right of way with the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway. Both rivals hired gunslingers and bought politicians while courts intervened to bring settlement to the disagreements. In March 1880, a Boston Court granted the AT&SF the rights to Raton Pass, the D&RGs possession of this route allowed quick access to the booming mining district of Leadville, Colorado. By late 1880 William Bell had begun to organize railway construction in Utah that would become the Palmer controlled Denver & Rio Grande Western Railway in mid-1881, the intention of the D&RGW was to work eastward from Provo to an eventual link with westward bound D&RG in Colorado.
This physical connection was realized near Green River, Utah on March 30,1883, General Palmer would continue as president of the Utah line until retirement in 1901. The D&RG built west from Pueblo reaching Cañon City in 1874, the line through the Royal Gorge reached Salida on May 20,1880 and was pushed to Leadville that same year. From Salida, the D&RG pushed west over the Continental Divide at the 10,845 feet Marshall Pass, from Gunnison the line entered the Black Canyon of the Gunnison River passing the famous Curecanti Needle seen in their famous Scenic Line of the World Herald. The tracks left the difficult canyon at Cimmaron and passed over Cerro Summit. The line from Pueblo to Leadville was upgraded in 1887 to three rails to accommodate narrow gauge and standard gauge operation. Narrow gauge branch lines were constructed to Crested Butte, Lake City, the route over Tennessee Pass was known for steep grades, and it was not uncommon to see trains running with midtrain and rear-end helpers
Time in the United States
The time zone boundaries and DST observance are regulated by the Department of Transportation. The clocks run by these services are synchronized with each other as well as with those of other international timekeeping organizations. It is the combination of the zone and daylight saving rules, along with the timekeeping services. The use of solar time became increasingly awkward as railways. American railroads maintained many different time zones during the late 1800s, each train station set its own clock making it difficult to coordinate train schedules and confusing passengers. Time calculation became a problem for people travelling by train. Every city in the United States used a different time standard so there were more than 300 local sun times to choose from, Time zones were therefore a compromise, relaxing the complex geographic dependence while still allowing local time to be approximate with mean solar time. Railroad managers tried to address the problem by establishing 100 railroad time zones, operators of the new railroad lines needed a new time plan that would offer a uniform train schedule for departures and arrivals.
Four standard time zones for the continental United States were introduced at noon on November 18,1883, the conference therefore established the Greenwich Meridian as the prime meridian and Greenwich Mean Time as the worlds time standard. The US time-zone system grew from this, in all zones referred back to GMT on the prime meridian. It is, within about 1 second, mean time at 0°. It does not observe daylight saving time and it is one of several closely related successors to Greenwich Mean Time. For most purposes, UTC is considered interchangeable with GMT, standard time zones in the United States are currently defined at the federal level by law 15 USC §260. The federal law establishes the transition dates and times at which daylight saving time occurs. As of August 9,2007, the time zones are defined in terms of hourly offsets from UTC. Prior to this they were based upon the solar time at several meridians 15° apart west of Greenwich. Only the full-time zone names listed below are official, abbreviations are by common use conventions, the United States uses nine standard time zones.
The Central standard time zone, which comprises roughly the Gulf Coast, Mississippi Valley, the Mountain standard time zone, which comprises roughly the states that include the Rocky Mountains
Emery County, Utah
Emery County is a county located in the U. S. state of Utah. As of the 2010 census, the population was 10,976 and its county seat is Castle Dale, and the largest city is Huntington. The county was named for George W. Emery, governor of the Utah Territory in 1875. D, Ute Indians occupied sites in Castle Valley, The first white men who came to Castle Valley were undoubtedly Spanish Traders and Explorers. These explorers came to the area sometime after Silvestre Vélez de Escalante and these Spanish traders and explorers eventually found a more southerly route than Escalante had traveled, which became known as the Spanish Trail. It went on the South side of Cedar Mountain, across Buckhorn Flat, passed the Red Seeps to Huntington Creek, crossing about a mile below where the present bridge crosses and it crossed the Ferron Creek where Molen now stands. It passed through the Rochester Flats about one mile east of present-day Moore and it went over Salina Canyon. It turned south and went through Parowan, Mountain Meadows, Las Vegas, Barstow California and they had to enter Castle Valley in order to avoid the straight walled canyons of the San Juan, Green, Dirty Devil, and San Rafael Rivers.
Eventually, after years of exploring, the best route became the Spanish Trail. The principal trade which developed between Santa Fe and the Utah region was slavery, the trading of Indian women and children to the Spanish, although illegal, was the purpose of the Spanish coming into the area which was to become Utah. The other use of the trail was to herd livestock, mostly horses, since the slave trade was illegal, the traders kept neither records of their activities nor the extent of their travels and explorations. Travelers along the Old Spanish Trail gave Castle Valley its names, the first Americans to come to Castle Valley were fur trappers. Here they met a Spanish caravan of forty or fifty people going to California and they joined the caravan and traveled through Castle Valley in 1809 and went on to California. In 1830, William Wilfskill came to Castle Valley along the Spanish Trail and he and his party were fur trappers but found little in the area to keep them here. Following the trappers in the late 1840s and early 1850s, government explorers came to the valley to find routes across the continent, kit Carson was the first of these famous men.
He was looking for a route for the mail to be carried overland from St. Louis to California. Carson carried through Castle Valley to the nation the news of gold being found in the Sierra Nevada in 1848, in 1853 John W. Gunnison, an Army Topographical Engineer came through Castle Valley for a route for the Pacific Railroad. He was commissioned for this assignment by Jefferson Davis Secretary of War and he left very detailed descriptions of his travels and carefully laid out his route through Castle Valley. Gunnisons route first met the Spanish Trail at the Green River crossing, the third government explorer was John C
Carbon is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6. It is nonmetallic and tetravalent—making four electrons available to form covalent chemical bonds, three isotopes occur naturally, 12C and 13C being stable, while 14C is a radioactive isotope, decaying with a half-life of about 5,730 years. Carbon is one of the few elements known since antiquity, Carbon is the 15th most abundant element in the Earths crust, and the fourth most abundant element in the universe by mass after hydrogen and oxygen. It is the second most abundant element in the body by mass after oxygen. The atoms of carbon can bond together in different ways, termed allotropes of carbon, the best known are graphite and amorphous carbon. The physical properties of carbon vary widely with the allotropic form, for example, graphite is opaque and black while diamond is highly transparent. Graphite is soft enough to form a streak on paper, while diamond is the hardest naturally occurring material known, graphite is a good electrical conductor while diamond has a low electrical conductivity.
Under normal conditions, carbon nanotubes, and graphene have the highest thermal conductivities of all known materials, all carbon allotropes are solids under normal conditions, with graphite being the most thermodynamically stable form. They are chemically resistant and require high temperature to react even with oxygen, the most common oxidation state of carbon in inorganic compounds is +4, while +2 is found in carbon monoxide and transition metal carbonyl complexes. The largest sources of carbon are limestones and carbon dioxide, but significant quantities occur in organic deposits of coal, oil. For this reason, carbon has often referred to as the king of the elements. The allotropes of carbon graphite, one of the softest known substances, and diamond. It bonds readily with other small atoms including other carbon atoms, Carbon is known to form almost ten million different compounds, a large majority of all chemical compounds. Carbon has the highest sublimation point of all elements, although thermodynamically prone to oxidation, carbon resists oxidation more effectively than elements such as iron and copper that are weaker reducing agents at room temperature.
Carbon is the element, with a ground-state electron configuration of 1s22s22p2. Its first four ionisation energies,1086.5,2352.6,4620.5 and 6222.7 kJ/mol, are higher than those of the heavier group 14 elements. Carbons covalent radii are normally taken as 77.2 pm,66.7 pm and 60.3 pm, although these may vary depending on coordination number, in general, covalent radius decreases with lower coordination number and higher bond order. Carbon compounds form the basis of all life on Earth
It is formed when layers of decomposing plant and animal matter are exposed to intense heat and pressure under the surface of the Earth over millions of years. The energy that the plants originally obtained from the sun is stored in the form of bonds in the gas. Natural gas is a fuel used as a source of energy for heating, cooking. It is used as fuel for vehicles and as a feedstock in the manufacture of plastics. Natural gas is found in underground rock formations or associated with other hydrocarbon reservoirs in coal beds. Petroleum is another resource and fossil fuel found in proximity to. Most natural gas was created over time by two mechanisms and thermogenic, biogenic gas is created by methanogenic organisms in marshes, bogs and shallow sediments. Deeper in the earth, at temperature and pressure, thermogenic gas is created from buried organic material. In petroleum production gas is burnt as flare gas. The World Bank estimates that over 150 cubic kilometers of gas are flared or vented annually.
Before natural gas can be used as a fuel, Natural gas is often informally referred to simply as gas, especially when compared to other energy sources such as oil or coal. However, it is not to be confused with gasoline, especially in North America, Natural gas was used by the Chinese in about 500 BCE. They discovered a way to transport gas seeping from the ground in crude pipelines of bamboo to where it was used to salt water to extract the salt. The worlds first industrial extraction of gas started at Fredonia, New York. By 2009,66000 km³ had been used out of the total 850000 km³ of estimated remaining reserves of natural gas. An annual increase in usage of 2–3% could result in currently recoverable reserves lasting significantly less, unwanted natural gas was a disposal problem in the active oil fields. If there was not a market for natural gas near the wellhead it was expensive to pipe to the end user. In the 19th century and early 20th century, unwanted gas was burned off at oil fields