Rosasite is a carbonate mineral with minor potential for use as a zinc and copper ore. Chemically, it is a copper zinc carbonate hydroxide with a copper to zinc ratio of 3:2, occurring in the secondary oxidation zone of copper-zinc deposits, it was discovered in 1908 in the Rosas mine in Sardinia, is named after the location. Fibrous blue-green rosasite crystals are found in globular aggregates associated with red limonite and other colorful minerals, it is similar to aurichalcite, but can be distinguished by its superior hardness. Mineral galleries
Gaspéite, a rare nickel carbonate mineral, with the formula CO3, is named for the place it was first described, in the Gaspé Peninsula, Québec, Canada. Gaspéite is the nickel rich member of the calcite group. A solid solution series exists between all members of this group with divalent cations exchanged within the common crystal structure, it forms massive to reniform pappillary aggregates in fractures, bottryoidal concretions in laterite or fracture infill. It is present as stains and patinas on iron oxide boxworks of gossanous material. Gaspéite is formed in the regolith as a supergene enrichment mineral of hypogene nickel sulfide minerals in arid or semi-arid environments which produce conditions amenable to concentration of calcareous or carbonate minerals in the weathering profile. Gaspéite from Widgiemooltha is associated with talc carbonated komatiite-associated nickel sulfide gossans and is formed by substitution of nickel into carbonates such as magnesite which are formed by oxidation of the talc-carbonate lithology, of primary and supergene nickel sulfide minerals.
Gaspéite is formed from a similar process to the weathering of other sulfide minerals to form carbonate minerals. The sulfide minerals which are weathered to produce gaspéite are pentlandite, violarite and nickeline. Gaspéite is known from a handful of locations worldwide. Aside from its type locality in Canada, gaspéite is found in the nickeliferous gossans of Kambalda type komatiitic nickel ore deposits in Kambalda, nearby Widgie Townsite, both south of Kalgoorlie, Western Australia, in both locations associated with garnierite and kambaldaite. Nickel carbonate, though not conclusively proven to be gaspéite, is reported in hydrothermally altered ultramafic rocks in New South Wales, associated with serpentinite bodies and lode gold deposits. Gaspéite is reported from Tasmania, in association with hellyerite. Gaspéite presence in the geologic environment may be used as an ore mining indicator of nickel rich minerals nearby. Gaspéite stones are used for carving ornamental objects and animal figurines, are cut and polished into attractive apple green color cabochons for jewelry use.
Thornber, M. R.. "Supergene alteration of sulphides, I. A chemical model based on massive nickel sulphide deposits at Kambalda, Western Australia". Chemical Geology. 15: 1–14. Bibcode:1975ChGeo..15....1T. Doi:10.1016/0009-254190010-8. Thornber, M. R.. "Supergene alteration of sulphides, II. A chemical study of the Kambalda nickel deposits". Chemical Geology. 15: 117–144. Bibcode:1975ChGeo..15..117T. Doi:10.1016/0009-254190048-0. Thornber, M. R.. H.. "Supergene alteration of sulphides, III. The composition of associated carbonates". Chemical Geology. 17: 45–72. Bibcode:1976ChGeo..17...45T. Doi:10.1016/0009-254190021-8
Ankerite is a calcium, magnesium, manganese carbonate mineral of the group of rhombohedral carbonates with formula: Ca2. In composition it is related to dolomite, but differs from this in having magnesium replaced by varying amounts of iron and manganese, it forms a series with kutnohorite. The crystallographic and physical characters resemble those of siderite; the angle between the perfect rhombohedral cleavages is 73° 48', the hardness is 3.5 to 4, the specific gravity is 2.9 to 3.1. The color is grey or reddish to yellowish brown. Ankerite occurs with sedimentary banded iron formations, it occurs in carbonatites. In sediments it occurs as authigenic, diagenetic minerals and as a product of hydrothermal deposition, it is one of the minerals of the dolomite-siderite series, to which the terms brown-spar, pearl-spar and bitter-spar have been loosely applied. It was first recognized as a distinct species by W. von Haidinger in 1825, named for Matthias Joseph Anker of Styria, an Austrian mineralogist.
It has been found in mines in Dundas, Tasmania. List of minerals List of minerals named after people
Reynolds County, Missouri
Reynolds County is a county located in the Ozark Foothills Region in the Lead Belt of Missouri. As of the 2010 census, the population was 6,696, its county seat is Centerville. The county was organized on February 25, 1845, was named in honor of former Governor of Missouri Thomas Reynolds; the county is home to Johnson's Shut-Ins State Park, a popular tourist attraction in the state of Missouri. Reynolds County was organized on February 25, 1845, it is still an area of rugged beauty near the geologic center of the Ozark Highland. Reynolds County was part of Ripley County, formed in 1831 and part of Wayne County, formed in 1818, it was previously part of Washington County and part of Ste. Genevieve County; the Reynolds County Courthouse has burned twice. The first time was in December 1863. A new courthouse was built in the fall of 1867 on the same foundation as the previous one; this courthouse was burned in late November 1871. Both times all records were destroyed. Temporary quarters again burned May 1872, while a new "fireproof" courthouse was being built.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 814 square miles, of which 808 square miles is land and 5.9 square miles is water. Dent County Iron County Wayne County Carter County Shannon County Route 21 Route 49 Route 72 Route 106 Mark Twain National Forest Robinson Hollow As of the census of 2000, there were 6,689 people, 2,721 households, 1,915 families residing in the county; the population density was 8 people per square mile. There were 3,759 housing units at an average density of 5 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 95.65% White, 0.52% Black or African American, 1.29% Native American, 0.19% Asian, 0.21% from other races, 2.14% from two or more races. 0.82% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. Among the major first ancestries reported in Reynolds County were 37.6% American, 12.1% Irish, 11.6% German, 11.4% English. There were 2,721 households out of which 27.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.20% were married couples living together, 7.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.60% were non-families.
26.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.40 and the average family size was 2.85. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.00% under the age of 18, 6.80% from 18 to 24, 25.00% from 25 to 44, 27.90% from 45 to 64, 16.20% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females there were 101.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.60 males. The median income for a household in the county was $31,546, the median income for a family was $37,891. Males had a median income of $26,753 versus $18,322 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,847. About 16.10% of families and 20.10% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.90% of those under age 18 and 15.50% of those age 65 or over. According to the Association of Religion Data Archives County Membership Report, Reynolds County is a part of the Bible Belt with evangelical Protestantism being the majority religion.
The most predominant denominations among residents in Reynolds County who adhere to a religion are Southern Baptists, Baptist Missionary Association of America, Methodists. The Democratic Party controls politics at the local level in Reynolds. Democrats hold every elected position in the county. Reynolds County is divided into two legislative districts in the Missouri House of Representatives, both of which are held by Republicans. District 143 — Currently represented by Jeffrey Pogue, consists of the extreme northwestern parts of the county and includes the town of Bunker. District 144 — Currently represented by Paul Fitzwater, consists of most of the entire county and includes Ellington and Centerville. All of Reynolds County is a part of the 3rd District in the Missouri Senate and is represented by Gary Romine. Reynolds County is included in Missouri’s 8th Congressional District and is represented by Jason T. Smith in the U. S. House of Representatives. Smith won a special election on Tuesday, June 4, 2013, to finish out the remaining term of U.
S. Representative Jo Ann Emerson. Emerson announced her resignation a month after being reelected with over 70 percent of the vote in the district, she resigned to become CEO of the National Rural Electric Cooperative. At the presidential level, Reynolds County is independent-leaning but unlike many rural counties, it has a tendency to lean Democratic. While George W. Bush carried Reynolds County in 2000 and 2004, the margins of victory were smaller than in many of the rural areas. Bill Clinton carried Reynolds County both times in 1992 and 1996, like most of the rural counties in Missouri, Reynolds County favored John McCain over Barack Obama in 2008, although not as as the rest of the rural areas. Like most rural areas throughout Southeast Missouri, voters in Reynolds County adhere to and culturally conservative principles but are more moderate or populist on economic issues, typical of the Dixiecrat philosophy. In 2004, Missourians voted on a constitutional amendment to define marriage as the union between a man and a woman—it overwhelmingly passed Reynolds County with 85.41 percent of the vote.
The initiative passed the state with 71 percent of support from voters as Missouri became the first state
The Tri-State district was a historic lead-zinc mining district located in southwest Missouri, southeast Kansas and northeast Oklahoma. The district produced zinc for over 100 years. Production began in the 1850s and 1860s in the Joplin - Granby area of Jasper and Newton counties of southwest Missouri and continued until the closure of the Picher, Oklahoma mines in 1967; the tri-state district includes three mining-related Superfund sites: the Tar Creek Superfund site in Oklahoma. List of Superfund sites in the United States Lead and Zinc Mining in Kansas, Kansas Geological Survey Cherokee County Map, Kansas Ottawa County Map, Oklahoma
Phosgenite is a rare mineral consisting of lead chlorocarbonate, 2CO3. The tetragonal crystals are prismatic or tabular in habit: they are colorless and transparent, have a brilliant adamantine lustre. Sometimes the crystals have a curious helical twist about the principal axis; the hardness is 3 and the specific gravity 6.3. The mineral is rather sectile, was earlier known as corneous lead; the name phosgenite was given by August Breithaupt in 1820, from phosgene, carbon oxychloride, because the mineral contains the elements carbon and chlorine. It was found associated with anglesite and matlockite in cavities within altered galena in a lead mine at Cromford, near Matlock: hence its common name cromfordite. Crystals are found in galena at Monteponi near Iglesias in Sardinia, near Dundas in Tasmania, it has been reported from Laurium, Greece. In the US it has been reported from Custer County, Colorado. Crystals of phosgenite, of the corresponding bromine compound PbBr2CO3, have been prepared artificially
Hexagonal crystal family
In crystallography, the hexagonal crystal family is one of the 6 crystal families, which includes 2 crystal systems and 2 lattice systems. The hexagonal crystal family consists of the 12 point groups such that at least one of their space groups has the hexagonal lattice as underlying lattice, is the union of the hexagonal crystal system and the trigonal crystal system. There are 52 space groups associated with it, which are those whose Bravais lattice is either hexagonal or rhombohedral; the hexagonal crystal family consists of two lattice systems: rhombohedral. Each lattice system consists of one Bravais lattice. In the hexagonal family, the crystal is conventionally described by a right rhombic prism unit cell with two equal axes, an included angle of 120° and a height perpendicular to the two base axes; the hexagonal unit cell for the rhombohedral Bravais lattice is the R-centered cell, consisting of two additional lattice points which occupy one body diagonal of the unit cell with coordinates and.
Hence, there are 3 lattice points per unit cell in total and the lattice is non-primitive. The Bravais lattices in the hexagonal crystal family can be described by rhombohedral axes; the unit cell is a rhombohedron. This is a unit cell with parameters a = b = c. In practice, the hexagonal description is more used because it is easier to deal with a coordinate system with two 90° angles. However, the rhombohedral axes are shown in textbooks because this cell reveals 3m symmetry of crystal lattice; the rhombohedral unit cell for the hexagonal Bravais lattice is the D-centered cell, consisting of two additional lattice points which occupy one body diagonal of the unit cell with coordinates and. However, such a description is used; the hexagonal crystal family consists of two crystal systems: hexagonal. A crystal system is a set of point groups in which the point groups themselves and their corresponding space groups are assigned to a lattice system; the trigonal crystal system consists of the 5 point groups that have a single three-fold rotation axis.
These 5 point groups have 7 corresponding space groups assigned to the rhombohedral lattice system and 18 corresponding space groups assigned to the hexagonal lattice system. The hexagonal crystal system consists of the 7 point groups that have a single six-fold rotation axis; these 7 point groups have 27 space groups, all of which are assigned to the hexagonal lattice system. Graphite is an example of a crystal; the trigonal crystal system is the only crystal system whose point groups have more than one lattice system associated with their space groups: the hexagonal and rhombohedral lattices both appear. The 5 point groups in this crystal system are listed below, with their international number and notation, their space groups in name and example crystals; the point groups in this crystal system are listed below, followed by their representations in Hermann–Mauguin or international notation and Schoenflies notation, mineral examples, if they exist. Hexagonal close packed is one of the two simple types of atomic packing with the highest density, the other being the face centered cubic.
However, unlike the fcc, it is not a Bravais lattice as there are two nonequivalent sets of lattice points. Instead, it can be constructed from the hexagonal Bravais lattice by using a two atom motif associated with each lattice point. Quartz is a crystal that belongs to the hexagonal lattice system but exists in two polymorphs that are in two different crystal systems; the crystal structures of α-quartz are described by two of the 18 space groups associated with the trigonal crystal system, while the crystal structures of β-quartz are described by two of the 27 space groups associated with the hexagonal crystal system. The lattice angles and the lengths of the lattice vectors are all the same for both the cubic and rhombohedral lattice systems; the lattice angles for simple cubic, face-centered cubic, body-centered cubic lattices are π/2 radians, π/3 radians, arccos radians, respectively. A rhombohedral lattice will result from lattice angles other than these. Crystal structure Close-packing Wurtzite Hahn, Theo, ed..
International Tables for Crystallography, Volume A: Space Group Symmetry. A. Berlin, New York: Springer-Verlag. Doi:10.1107/97809553602060000100. ISBN 978-0-7923-6590-7. Media related to Trigonal lattices at Wikimedia Commons Mineralogy database