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Carbondale, Illinois

Carbondale is a city in Jackson County, United States, within the Southern Illinois region informally known as "Little Egypt." The city developed from 1853 because of the stimulation of railroad construction into the area. Today the major roadways of Illinois Route 13 and U. S. Route 51 intersect in the city; the city is 96 miles southeast of St. Louis, Missouri, on the northern edge of the Shawnee National Forest. Carbondale is the home of the main campus of Southern Illinois University; the city is the most populous in Southern Illinois outside the St. Louis Metro-East region, the most populous city in the Carbondale-Marion-Herrin, Illinois Combined Statistical Area; as of the 2010 census, the city had a population of 25,902, it is the state's 20th-most-populated city outside the Chicago Metropolitan Area. In addition, the CSA has 126,575 residents, the sixth-most-populous combined statistical area in Illinois. In August 1853, Daniel Harmon Brush, John Asgill Conner, Dr. William Richart bought a 360-acre parcel of land between two proposed railroad station sites and two county seats.

Brush named Carbondale for the large deposit of coal in the area. The first train through Carbondale arrived on Independence Day 1854, traveling north on the main line from Cairo, Illinois. By the time of the American Civil War, Carbondale had developed as a regional center for transportation and business, surrounded by agricultural development; this part of Illinois was known as "Little Egypt" because of the confluence of the Ohio and Mississippi rivers, where the town of Cairo is located. The city has had a college since 1856 beginning with the Presbyterian-founded Carbondale College, converted to an elementary school. Carbondale won the bid for the new state teacher training school for the region, Southern Illinois Normal University opened in 1874; this gave the town new industry, new citizens, a supplement to public schools. In 1947, the name was changed to Southern Illinois University, it has become the flagship of the Southern Illinois University system. This institution, now recognized as a national research university, has nearly 18,000 students enrolled and offers a wide variety of undergraduate and graduate specialties.

On April 29, 1866, one of the first formal Memorial Day observations following the Civil War was held at the city's Woodlawn Cemetery. Local resident, General John A. Logan, gave the principal address. Logan, as co-founder of the Civil War veteran's group the "Grand Army of the Republic", issued General Order #11 on March 3, 1868, calling for a national day of remembrance for Civil War dead; this order served as the basis for the creation of a formal Memorial Day. Logan called observance day "Decoration Day" and proposed it for May 30, to assure flowers would be in bloom nationwide. In the early 20th century, Carbondale was known as the "Athens of Egypt," due to the expansion of the college and university, the region's moniker of "Little Egypt." The phrase dates to at least 1903. By 1922, the Carbondale Free Press was using the phrase on its flag; the area was in totality during the solar eclipse of August 21, 2017, with Giant City State Park, just south of the city, experiencing the longest period of totality during the eclipse, earning it the nickname, "Eclipse Crossroads of America".

It will be within the path of totality of the solar eclipse of April 8, 2024, making it one of only a handful of cities within the direct paths of both eclipses. Carbondale is located at 37°44′N 89°13′W, it is at 415 feet above sea level. Carbondale has been in totality path of one previous solar eclipse on August 21, 2017 and hosted the longest duration of totality with 2 minutes 41.6 seconds just to its south in Makanda Township, additionally will be in the path of another April 8, 2024. According to the 2010 census, Carbondale has a total area of 17.519 square miles, of which 17.09 square miles is land and 0.429 square miles is water. Carbondale lies with four distinct seasons; the monthly daily average temperature ranges from 32.4 °F in January to 78.1 °F in July. On average, there are 40 days of 90 °F + highs, 16 days where the high fails to rise above freezing, 2.3 nights of sub-0 °F per year. It has an average annual precipitation including an average 11 inches of snow. Extremes in temperature range from −25 °F on January 11, 1977 up to 113 °F on August 9, 1930.

Carbondale receives thunderstorms on an average of 50 days per year. In the spring, these storms can be severe, with high winds, damaging hail, tornadoes; as of the census of 2000, there were 25,597 people, 10,018 households, 3,493 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,152.0 people per square mile. There were 11,005 housing units at an average density of 925.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 66.08% White, 23.14% Black or African American, 0.22% Native American, 6.67% Asian, 0.08% Pacific Islander, 1.42% from other races, 2.40% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.05% of the population. There were 9,981 households out of which 17.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 22.1% were married couples living together, 10.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 21.5% were non-families. 43.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of

Putnam, Oklahoma

Putnam is a town in Dewey County, United States. The population was 29 at the 2010 census, down from 46 at the 2000 census, it lies along U. S. Route 183. Putnam is located in southern Dewey County at 35°51′23″N 98°58′7″W. Via US 183 it is 13 miles north to Taloga, the county seat, 22 miles to Seiling. To the south on 183 it is 23 miles to Clinton. According to the United States Census Bureau, Putnam has a total area of 0.10 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2000, there were 46 people, 20 households, 16 families residing in the town; the population density was 455.1 people per square mile. There were 30 housing units at an average density of 296.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 2.17 % Native American. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.17% of the population. There were 20 households out of which 35.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 70.0% were married couples living together, 10.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 20.0% were non-families.

20.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.30 and the average family size was 2.56. In the town, the population was spread out with 21.7% under the age of 18, 28.3% from 25 to 44, 34.8% from 45 to 64, 15.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 44 years. For every 100 females, there were 130.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 125.0 males. The median income for a household in the town was $40,417, the median income for a family was $42,083. Males had a median income of $16,875 versus $15,625 for females; the per capita income for the town was $17,928. There were no families and 3.4% of the population living below the poverty line, including no under eighteens and none of those over 64

Gershwin A. Drain

Gershwin Allen Drain is a United States District Judge of the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Michigan. Drain received his Bachelor of Science in 1970 from Western Michigan University, where he played running back for the Western Michigan Broncos, he received his Juris Doctor in 1972 from the University of Michigan Law School, his Master of Judicial Studies degree from the University of Nevada-Reno. Drain served as a law clerk for the Third Circuit Court of Michigan, as counsel for the Detroit Department of Transportation from 1973 to 1974, he served as an attorney in the Federal Defender Office for the Eastern District of Michigan for the next 12 years, representing defendants charged with criminal felonies in federal court and trying 144 cases. He served as a state judge from 1986 to 2012. On August 2, 2012, after he was nominated by President Obama, the United States Senate voted to confirm Drain as a federal district court judge. Born in Detroit, Gershwin A. Drain attended Detroit St. Gregory High School, a Catholic high school, where he was president of his senior class.

He received his Bachelor of Science in 1970 from Western Michigan University, which he attended on a football scholarship and for which he played football as a running back for the Western Michigan Broncos from 1968–69. He received his Juris Doctor in 1972 from the University of Michigan Law School. In 1991, he received a Masters of Judicial Studies degree from the University of Nevada-Reno. Drain served as a law clerk for the Third Circuit Court of Michigan from 1972 to 1973, he worked as counsel for the Detroit Department of Transportation from 1973 to 1974. He worked as an attorney in the Federal Defender Office for the Eastern District of Michigan from 1974 to 1986, he represented defendants charged with criminal felonies in federal court, tried 144 cases. Drain served as a judge of the 36th District Court for Detroit from 1986 to 1987, he served as a judge on the Recorder's Court for Detroit, a state criminal court handling felony prosecution criminal cases from 1987 to 1997, at which time said court was merged with the Third Circuit Court.

He served as a judge on the Third Circuit Court of Michigan from 1997 to 2012, working in both the civil and criminal divisions of the court. By 2011, he had presided over 600 cases that had gone to verdict or judgment. Of those 55 per cent were jury trials, 70 per cent were criminal proceedings. On November 17, 2011, President Obama nominated Drain for District Judge for the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Michigan. Obama remarked: "Judge Gershwin A. Drain will bring an unwavering commitment to fairness and judicial integrity to the federal bench, his impressive legal career is a testament to the kind of thoughtful and diligent judge he will be on the U. S. District Court." He was rated Unanimously Qualified by the American Bar Association. Regarding his views on the death penalty and gun control, Drain said: The Republicans called me'controversial' because of an anti-death penalty article I had written. I told them that I have to apply it. I wrote an article called'I Have a Dream of Non-violence' in which I said critical things about the NRA.

That became an issue, too. Those who hadn't said or written anything tended to go through smoothly. On August 2, 2012, the U. S. Senate voted to confirm Drain in a 55–41 vote, he received his commission on August 8, 2012. He replaced Judge Bernard A. Friedman, who took senior status in 2009. In November 2014, he presided over the immigration fraud trial of Rasmea Odeh, told the jury that he thought its guilty verdict was "a fair and reasonable one based on the evidence that came in." On February 13, 2015, he denied Odeh's appeal. The judge held that evidence showed that Odeh illegally obtained U. S. citizenship by failing to disclose her conviction for fatal terrorist bombings, that the jurors "clearly did not believe explanation", that "the evidence was more than sufficient to support the jury's verdict." Judge Drain sentenced Odeh to 18 months in federal prison on March 12, 2015, stripping her of her citizenship of the United States, ordering her deportation at the end of her sentence. On February 25, 2016, Odeh won her appeal to the United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit.

Circuit Judge John M. Rogers, joined by Judge Karen Nelson Moore and remanded, while Judge Alice M. Batchelder dissented, wanting to vacate while ordering a new trial. On December 6, 2016, Judge Drain denied prosecutors' request to reinstate Odeh's conviction, instead granting Odeh a new trial, scheduled to begin January 10, 2017. Drain is a member of the Michigan Bar Association, the Association of Black Judges of Michigan, a Prison Ministry for the Mound Correctional Facility, is a lifetime member of the NAACP since 1989, he was named "Michiganian of the Year" by the Detroit News in 1997. Drain and his wife, have two daughters, both of whom are lawyers. Gershwin A. Drain at the Biographical Directory of Federal Judges, a public domain publication of the Federal Judicial Center. Gershwin Drain at Ballotpedia "United States Senate, Committee on the Judiciary, Questionnaire for Judicial Nominees.

Engin Altay

Engin Altay is a Turkish politician from the Republican People's Party who serves as a Member of Parliament for the electoral district of Sinop since the 2002. He was re-elected in 2007, 2011, June 2015 and November 2015. On 30 June 2011, Altay was elected as one of the three CHP parliamentary group leaders, serving alongside Muharrem İnce, Akif Hamzaçebi and Levent Gök. Born and raised in Sinop, Altay was educated at Dokuz Eylül University and became a teacher in various districts in the provinces of Sinop and Sivas, he served as deputy mayor for the town of Erfelek for a year before resigning in order to contest the 2002 general election. He won a seat in his hometown of Sinop. In parliament, he was a member of the Human Rights Commission as well as the Education, Youth and Sport committees, he led the Turkey-Mongolia partnership commission for four years. Having served as a member of the CHP party council and central executive committee, Altay was elected parliamentary group leader in 2013 after his predecessor Emine Ülker Tarhan stood down.

He has been at the forefront of efforts to bring AKP government ministers accused of corruption to court and received both praise and criticism for throwing a copy of the parliamentary by-laws at speaker Cemil Çiçek during the swearing in ceremony of Recep Tayyip Erdoğan. He can speak English at a semi-fluent level. Muharrem İnce Sinop MP profile at the Parliament website Collection of all relevant news items at

Jacques-Philippe Lantier

Jacques-Philippe Lantier was a Quebec businessman and political figure. He represented Soulanges in the House of Commons of Canada as a Conservative member from 1872 to 1882; some sources sometimes spell his surname Lanthier. He was born at Saint-Polycarpe, Lower Canada in 1814 and studied at the Séminaire de Nicolet and the Petit Séminaire de Montréal. Lantier owned a store at Saint-Polycarpe, he was elected to the Legislative Assembly of the Province of Canada for Vaudreuil in 1844. In 1865, Lantier married Julienne Bonneville, the widow of his brother Olivier, a merchant at Montreal, he was elected to the House of Commons in 1872 and represented Soulanges until his death at Saint-Polycarpe in 1882. Lantier published the pamphlets Canal des Cèdres, The harbours of Coteau Landing and Cascades Bay, The question of the Cascades and Coteau Landing canal. In 1873, Lantier introduced a motion in the House of Commons asking for a pardon for all crimes committed in Manitoba before its entry into the Canadian union.

Jacques-Philippe Lantier – Parliament of Canada biography "Biography". Dictionnaire des parlementaires du Québec de 1792 à nos jours. National Assembly of Quebec; the Canadian parliamentary companion and annual register, 1878, CH Mackintosh

Numerical aperture

In optics, the numerical aperture of an optical system is a dimensionless number that characterizes the range of angles over which the system can accept or emit light. By incorporating index of refraction in its definition, NA has the property that it is constant for a beam as it goes from one material to another, provided there is no refractive power at the interface; the exact definition of the term varies between different areas of optics. Numerical aperture is used in microscopy to describe the acceptance cone of an objective, in fiber optics, in which it describes the range of angles within which light, incident on the fiber will be transmitted along it. In most areas of optics, in microscopy, the numerical aperture of an optical system such as an objective lens is defined by N A = n sin ⁡ θ, where n is the index of refraction of the medium in which the lens is working, θ is the maximal half-angle of the cone of light that can enter or exit the lens. In general, this is the angle of the real marginal ray in the system.

Because the index of refraction is included, the NA of a pencil of rays is an invariant as a pencil of rays passes from one material to another through a flat surface. This is shown by rearranging Snell's law to find that n sin θ is constant across an interface. In air, the angular aperture of the lens is twice this value; the NA is measured with respect to a particular object or image point and will vary as that point is moved. In microscopy, NA refers to object-space NA unless otherwise noted. In microscopy, NA is important; the size of the finest detail that can be resolved is proportional to λ/2NA, where λ is the wavelength of the light. A lens with a larger numerical aperture will be able to visualize finer details than a lens with a smaller numerical aperture. Assuming quality optics, lenses with larger numerical apertures collect more light and will provide a brighter image, but will provide shallower depth of field. Numerical aperture is used to define the "pit size" in optical disc formats.

Increasing the magnification and the numerical aperture of the objective reduces the working distance, i.e. the distance between front lens and specimen. Numerical aperture is not used in photography. Instead, the angular aperture of a lens is expressed by the f-number, written f/ or N, defined as the ratio of the focal length f to the diameter of the entrance pupil D: N = f D; this ratio is related to the image-space numerical aperture. Based on the diagram at the right, the image-space numerical aperture of the lens is: NA i = n sin ⁡ θ = n sin ⁡ ≈ n D 2 f, thus N ≈ 1/2NAi, assuming normal use in air; the approximation holds when the numerical aperture is small, but it turns out that for well-corrected optical systems such as camera lenses, a more detailed analysis shows that N is exactly equal to 1/2NAi at large numerical apertures. As Rudolf Kingslake explains, "It is a common error to suppose that the ratio is equal to tan θ, not sin θ... The tangent would, of course, be correct if the principal planes were plane.

However, the complete theory of the Abbe sine condition shows that if a lens is corrected for coma and spherical aberration, as all good photographic objectives must be, the second principal plane becomes a portion of a sphere of radius f centered about the focal point". In this sense, the traditional thin-lens definition and illustration of f-number is misleading, defining it in terms of numerical aperture may be more meaningful; the f-number describes the light-gathering ability of the lens in the case where the marginal rays on the object side are parallel to the axis of the lens. This case is encountered in photography, where objects being photographed are far from the camera; when the object is not distant from the lens, the image is no longer formed in the lens's focal plane, the f-number no longer describes the light-gathering ability of the lens or the image-side numerical aperture. In this case, the numerical aperture is related to what is sometimes called the "working f-number" or "effective f-number".

The working f-number is defined by modifying the relation above, taking into account the magnification from object to image: 1 2 NA i = N w = N, where Nw is the working f-number, m is the lens's magnification for an object a particular distance away, P is the pupil magnification, the NA is defined in terms of the angle of the marginal ray as before