History of martial arts
Although the earliest evidence of martial arts goes back millennia, the true roots are difficult to reconstruct. Inherent patterns of human aggression which inspire practice of mock combat and optimization of serious close combat as cultural universals are doubtlessly inherited from the pre-human stage and were made into an "art" from the earliest emergence of that concept. Indeed, many universals of martial art are fixed by the specifics of human physiology and not dependent on a specific tradition or era. Specific martial traditions become identifiable in Classical Antiquity, with disciplines such as shuai jiao, Greek wrestling or those described in the Indian epics or the Spring and Autumn Annals of China; the earliest evidence for specifics of martial arts as practiced in the past comes from depictions of fights, both in figurative art and in early literature, besides analysis of archaeological evidence of weaponry. The oldest work of art depicting scenes of battle, dating back 3400 BC, was the Ancient Egyptian paintings showing some form of struggle.
Dating back to 3000 BC in Mesopotamia and the poems depicting struggle were found. In Vietnam and sketches from 2879 BCE describe certain ways of combat using sword, stick and spears; the spear has been in use since the Lower Paleolithic and retained its central importance well into the 2nd millennium AD. The bow appears in the Upper Paleolithic and is only replaced by the crossbow, firearms, in the Present Day. True bladed weapons appear in the Neolithic with the stone axe, diversify in shape in the course of the Bronze Age Some early examples are the depiction of wrestling techniques in a tomb of the Middle Kingdom of Egypt at Beni Hasan and pictorial representations of fist fighting in the Minoan civilization dating to the 2nd millennium BCE. In ancient China, Yellow Emperor is described as a famous general who, before becoming China’s leader, wrote lengthy treatises on medicine and the martial arts. Literary descriptions of combat began in the 2nd millennium BC, with mention of weaponry and combat in texts like the Gilgamesh epic or the Rig-Veda.
Detailed description of Late Bronze Age to Early Iron Age hand-to-hand combat with spear and shield are found in the Iliad and the Mahabharatha. An Egyptian fresco, dated to 3400 BC, depicting military training at Beni Hassan is the world's oldest known artistic representation of an organised fighting system. In gymnasiums similar to those of Greece, recruits would practice wrestling and duelling with single-stick; the attacking weapon had a basket-guard protecting the hand, while the left forearm had a splint strapped on to serve as a shield. Soldiers fought with spears, large shields with an eye-hole, axes, flails, bows and swords of various forms. Martial styles as varied as Gidigbo, Musangwe and Engolo, to name just a few, were developed by cultures all over Africa. A hand-to-hand combat theory, including the integration of notions of "hard" and "soft" techniques, is expounded in the story of the Maiden of Yue in the Spring and Autumn Annals of Wu and Yue; the Han History Bibliographies record that, by the Former Han, there was a distinction between no-holds-barred weaponless fighting, which it calls shǒubó, for which "how-to" manuals had been written, sportive wrestling known as juélì or jiǎolì.
Wrestling is documented in the Shǐ Jì, Records of the Grand Historian, written by Sima Qian. Jiǎolì is mentioned in the Classic of Rites. In the 1st century, "Six Chapters of Hand Fighting", were included in the Han Shu written by Ban Gu; the Five Animals concept in Chinese martial arts is attributed to a 3rd-century physician. In the Tang Dynasty, descriptions of sword dances were immortalized in poems by Du Fu. In the Song and Yuan dynasties, xiangpu contests were sponsored by the imperial courts. With regards to the Shaolin fighting system, the oldest evidence of Shaolin participation in combat is a stele from 728 CE that attests to two occasions: a defense of the Shaolin Monastery from bandits around 610 CE, their subsequent role in the defeat of Wang Shichong at the Battle of Hulao in 621 CE. From the 8th to the 15th centuries, there are no extant documents that provide evidence of Shaolin participation in combat; the modern concepts of wushu emerge by the late Ming to early Qing dynasties.
Between the 16th and 17th centuries there are at least forty extant sources which provided evidence that, not only did monks of Shaolin practice martial arts, but martial practice had become such an integral element of Shaolin monastic life that the monks felt the need to justify it by creating new Buddhist lore. References of martial practice in Shaolin appear in various literary genres of the late Ming: the epitaphs of Shaolin warrior monks, martial-arts manuals, military encyclopedias, historical writings, travelogues and poetry; however these sources do not point out to any specific style originated in Shaolin. These sources, in contrast to those from the Tang period, refer to Shaolin methods of armed combat; this include the for
Traffic congestion is a condition on transport networks that occurs as use increases, is characterised by slower speeds, longer trip times, increased vehicular queueing. When traffic demand is great enough that the interaction between vehicles slows the speed of the traffic stream, this results in some congestion. While congestion is a possibility for any mode of transportation, this article will focus on automobile congestion on public roads; as demand approaches the capacity of a road, extreme traffic congestion sets in. When vehicles are stopped for periods of time, this is colloquially known as a traffic jam or traffic snarl-up. Traffic congestion can lead to drivers becoming engaging in road rage. Mathematically, congestion is looked at as the number of vehicles that pass through a point in a window of time, or a flow. Congestion flow lends itself to principles of fluid dynamics. Traffic congestion occurs when a volume of traffic or modal split generates demand for space greater than the available street capacity.
There are a number of specific circumstances which aggravate congestion. About half of U. S. traffic congestion is recurring, is attributed to sheer weight of traffic. Traffic research still cannot predict under which conditions a "traffic jam" may occur, it has been found that individual incidents may cause ripple effects which spread out and create a sustained traffic jam when, normal flow might have continued for some time longer. People work and live in different parts of the city. Places of work are located away from housing areas, resulting in the need for people to commute to work. According to a 2011 report published by the United States Census Bureau, a total of 132.3 million people in the United States commute between their work and residential areas daily. People may need to move about within the city to obtain goods and services, for instance to purchase goods or attend classes in a different part of the city. Brussels, a city with a strong service economy, has one of the worst traffic congestion in the world, wasting 74 hours in traffic in 2014.
This means that the city’s transportation facilities are not capable of handling the amount of traffic it receives, such as the lack of alternative routes on roads, a lack of public transportation where buses and trains are overcrowded and infrequent. In Mumbai, trains are filled to many times their capacity. Buses caught in traffic congestion are filled with passengers. Therefore, many people turn to driving their own cars to have a more pleasant commute. Thus, many people turn to driving their own cars; some traffic engineers have attempted to apply the rules of fluid dynamics to traffic flow, likening it to the flow of a fluid in a pipe. Congestion simulations and real-time observations have shown that in heavy but free flowing traffic, jams can arise spontaneously, triggered by minor events, such as an abrupt steering maneuver by a single motorist. Traffic scientists liken such a situation to the sudden freezing of supercooled fluid. However, unlike a fluid, traffic flow is affected by signals or other events at junctions that periodically affect the smooth flow of traffic.
Alternative mathematical theories exist, such as Boris Kerner's three-phase traffic theory. Because of the poor correlation of theoretical models to actual observed traffic flows, transportation planners and highway engineers attempt to forecast traffic flow using empirical models, their working traffic models use a combination of macro-, micro- and mesoscopic features, may add matrix entropy effects, by "platooning" groups of vehicles and by randomising the flow patterns within individual segments of the network. These models are typically calibrated by measuring actual traffic flows on the links in the network, the baseline flows are adjusted accordingly. A team of MIT mathematicians has developed a model that describes the formation of "phantom jams," in which small disturbances in heavy traffic can become amplified into a full-blown, self-sustaining traffic jam. Key to the study is the realization that the mathematics of such jams, which the researchers call "jamitons," are strikingly similar to the equations that describe detonation waves produced by explosions, says Aslan Kasimov, lecturer in MIT's Department of Mathematics.
That discovery enabled the team to solve traffic-jam equations that were first theorized in the 1950s. Congested roads can be seen as an example of the tragedy of the commons; because roads in most places are free at the point of usage, there is little financial incentive for drivers not to over-use them, up to the point where traffic collapses into a jam, when demand becomes limited by opportunity cost. Privatization of highways and road pricing have both been proposed as measures that may reduce congestion through economic incentives and disincentives. Congestion can happen due to non-recurring highway incidents, such as a crash or roadworks, which may reduce the road's capacity below normal levels. Economist Anthony Downs argues that rush hour traffic congestion is inevitable because of
A trading card is a small card made out of paperboard or thick paper, which contains an image of a certain person, place or thing and a short description of the picture, along with other text. There is a wide variation of different types of cards. Modern cards go as far as to include swatches of game worn memorabilia, DNA hair samples of their subjects. Trading cards are traditionally associated with sports. Cards dealing with other subjects like Pokémon are considered a separate category from sports cards, known as non-sports trading cards; these feature cartoons, comic book characters, television series and film stills. In the 1990s, cards designed for playing games became popular enough to develop into a distinct category, collectible card games; these games are fantasy-based gameplay. Fantasy art cards are a subgenre of trading cards; the game with the highest number of cards and most popularity is Magic: the Gathering. Trade cards are the ancestors of trading cards; some of the earliest prizes found in retail products were cigarette cards — trade cards advertising the product that were inserted into paper packs of cigarettes as stiffeners to protect the contents.
Allen and Ginter in the U. S. in 1886, British company W. D. & H. O. Wills in 1888, were the first tobacco companies to print advertisements. A couple years lithograph pictures on the cards with an encyclopedic variety of topics from nature to war to sports — subjects that appealed to men who smoked - began to surface as well. By 1900, there were thousands of tobacco card sets manufactured by 300 different companies. Children would stand outside of stores to ask customers who bought cigarettes for the promotional cards. Following the success of cigarette cards, trade cards were produced by manufacturers of other products and included in the product or handed to the customer by the store clerk at the time of purchase. World War II put an end to cigarette card production due to limited paper resources, after the war cigarette cards never made a comeback. After that collectors of prizes from retail products took to collecting tea cards in the UK and bubble gum cards in the US; the first baseball cards were trade cards printed in the late 1860s by a sporting goods company, around the time baseball became a professional sport.
Most of the baseball cards around the beginning of the 20th century came in candy and tobacco products. It was during this era that the most valuable baseball card printed was produced - the infamous T206 tobacco card featuring Honus Wagner; the T206 Set, distributed by the American Tobacco Company in 1909, is considered by collectors to be the most popular set of all time. In 1933, Goudey Gum Company of Boston issued baseball cards with players biographies on the backs and was the first to put baseball cards in bubble gum; the 1933 Goudey set remains one of the most affordable vintage sets to this day. Bowman Gum of Philadelphia issued its first baseball cards in 1948. Topps Chewing Gum, Inc. now known as "The Topps Company, Inc.", started inserting trading cards into bubble gum packs in 1950 — with such topics as TV and film cowboy Hopalong Cassidy. Topps produced its first baseball trading card set in 1951, with the resulting design resembling that of playing cards. Topps owner and founder Sy Berger created the first true modern baseball card set, complete with playing record and statistics, the following year in the form of 1952 Topps Baseball.
This is one of the most popular sets of all time, due in large part to the fact that it contained Mickey Mantle's rookie card. Topps purchased their chief competitor, Bowman Gum, in 1956. Topps was the leader in the trading card industry from 1956 to 1980, not only in sports cards but in entertainment cards as well. Many of the top selling non-sports cards were produced by Topps, including Wacky Packages, Star Wars and Garbage Pail Kids. Topps inserted baseball cards as prizes into packs of gum until 1981, when cards were sold without the gum. Collectors were delighted, since the oil from the gum was ruining an otherwise pristine or valuable card. In an attempt to stay current with technology and digital trends and new trading card companies started to create digital trading cards that lives online or as a digital counterpart of a physical card. In 2000, Topps established themselves in the digital space by launching a new brand of sports cards, called etopps; these cards were sold online through individual IPO's in which the card is offered for a week at the IPO price.
The quantity sold depended on how many people was limited to a certain maximum. After a sale, the cards were held in a climate-controlled warehouse unless the buyer requests delivery, the cards could be traded online without changing hands except in the virtual sense. In January 2012, Topps announced. Digital collectable card games were estimated to be a $1.3B market in 2013. A number of tech start-ups have attempted to establish themselves in this space, notably Stampii, Deckdaq, 2Stic; these companies competed with the high cost of digital licensing of quality brand content, they had to struggle with the difficulty of monetizing Internet content in an 8- to 12-year-old demographic. The only successful
The National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing is an American auto racing sanctioning and operating company, best known for stock-car racing. Its three largest or National series are the Monster Energy NASCAR Cup Series, the Xfinity Series, the Gander Outdoors Truck Series. Regional series include the NASCAR K&N Pro Series East and West, the Whelen Modified Tour, NASCAR Pinty's Series, NASCAR Whelen Euro Series, NASCAR PEAK Mexico Series. NASCAR sanctions over 1,500 races at over 100 tracks in 48 US states as well as in Canada and Europe. NASCAR has presented races at the Suzuka and Motegi circuits in Japan, the Calder Park Thunderdome in Australia. NASCAR ventures into eSports via the PEAK Antifreeze NASCAR iRacing Series and a sanctioned ladder system on that title; the owned company was founded by Bill France Sr. in 1948, Jim France has been CEO since August 6, 2018. The company's headquarters is in Florida. Internationally, its races are broadcast on television in over 150 countries. In the 1920s and 30s, Daytona Beach became known as the place to set world land speed records, supplanting France and Belgium as the preferred location for land speed records, with 8 consecutive world records set between 1927 and 1935.
After a historic race between Ransom Olds and Alexander Winton in 1903, the beach became a mecca for racing enthusiasts and 15 records were set on what became the Daytona Beach Road Course between 1905 and 1935. By the time the Bonneville Salt Flats became the premier location for pursuit of land speed records, Daytona Beach had become synonymous with fast cars in 1936. Drivers raced on a 4.1-mile course, consisting of a 1.5–2.0-mile stretch of beach as one straightaway, a narrow blacktop beachfront highway, State Road A1A, as the other. The two straights were connected by two tight rutted and sand covered turns at each end. Stock car racing in the United States has its origins in bootlegging during Prohibition, when drivers ran bootleg whiskey made in the Appalachian region of the United States. Bootleggers needed to distribute their illicit products, they used small, fast vehicles to better evade the police. Many of the drivers would modify their cars for speed and handling, as well as increased cargo capacity, some of them came to love the fast-paced driving down twisty mountain roads.
The repeal of Prohibition in 1933 dried up some of their business, but by Southerners had developed a taste for moonshine, a number of the drivers continued "runnin' shine", this time evading the "revenuers" who were attempting to tax their operations. The cars continued to improve, by the late 1940s, races featuring these cars were being run for pride and profit; these races were popular entertainment in the rural Southern United States, they are most associated with the Wilkes County region of North Carolina. Most races in those days were of modified cars. Street vehicles were lightened and reinforced. Mechanic William France Sr. moved to Daytona Beach, from Washington, D. C. in 1935 to escape the Great Depression. He was familiar with the history of the area from the land speed record attempts. France entered the 1936 Daytona event, he took over running the course in 1938. He promoted a few races before World War II. France had the notion. Drivers were victimized by unscrupulous promoters who would leave events with all the money before drivers were paid.
In 1947, he decided this racing would not grow without a formal sanctioning organization, standardized rules, regular schedule, an organized championship. On December 14, 1947, France began talks with other influential racers and promoters at the Ebony Bar at the Streamline Hotel at Daytona Beach, that ended with the formation of NASCAR on February 21, 1948; the first Commissioner of NASCAR was Erwin "Cannonball" Baker. A former stock car and open-wheel racer who competed in the Indianapolis 500 and set over one hundred land speed records. Baker earned most of his fame for his transcontinental speed runs and would prove a car's worth by driving it from New York to Los Angeles. After his death, the famous transcontinental race the'Cannonball Run' and the film, inspired by it were both named in his honor. Baker is enshrined in the Automotive Hall of Fame, the Motorcycle Hall of Fame, the Indianapolis Motor Speedway Hall of Fame; this level of honor and success in each diverse racing association earned Baker the title of "King of the Road".
In the early 1950s, the United States Navy stationed Bill France Jr. at the Moffett Federal Airfield in northern California. His father asked him to look up Bob Barkhimer in California. Barkhimer was a star of midget car racing from the World War II era, ran about 22 different speedways as the head of the California Stock Car Racing Association. Young Bill developed a relationship with his partner, Margo Burke, he went to events with them, stayed weekends with them and became familiar with racing on the west coast. "Barky", as he was called by his friends, met with Bill France Sr.. In the spring of 1954, NASCAR became a stock car sanctioning body on the Pacific Coast under Barky. Wendell Scott was the first African-American to win a race in the Grand National Series, NASCAR's highest level, he was posthumously inducted into the NASCAR Hall of Fame in Charlotte, N. C. January 30, 2015. On March 8, 1936, a collection of drivers gathered at Florida; the drivers brought coupes, hardtops and sports cars to compete in an event to determine the fastest cars, best dr
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology is a private research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Founded in 1861 in response to the increasing industrialization of the United States, MIT adopted a European polytechnic university model and stressed laboratory instruction in applied science and engineering; the Institute is a land-grant, sea-grant, space-grant university, with a campus that extends more than a mile alongside the Charles River. Its influence in the physical sciences and architecture, more in biology, linguistics and social science and art, has made it one of the most prestigious universities in the world. MIT is ranked among the world's top universities; as of March 2019, 93 Nobel laureates, 26 Turing Award winners, 8 Fields Medalists have been affiliated with MIT as alumni, faculty members, or researchers. In addition, 58 National Medal of Science recipients, 29 National Medals of Technology and Innovation recipients, 50 MacArthur Fellows, 73 Marshall Scholars, 45 Rhodes Scholars, 41 astronauts, 16 Chief Scientists of the US Air Force have been affiliated with MIT.
The school has a strong entrepreneurial culture, the aggregated annual revenues of companies founded by MIT alumni would rank as the tenth-largest economy in the world. MIT is a member of the Association of American Universities. In 1859, a proposal was submitted to the Massachusetts General Court to use newly filled lands in Back Bay, Boston for a "Conservatory of Art and Science", but the proposal failed. A charter for the incorporation of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, proposed by William Barton Rogers, was signed by the governor of Massachusetts on April 10, 1861. Rogers, a professor from the University of Virginia, wanted to establish an institution to address rapid scientific and technological advances, he did not wish to found a professional school, but a combination with elements of both professional and liberal education, proposing that: The true and only practicable object of a polytechnic school is, as I conceive, the teaching, not of the minute details and manipulations of the arts, which can be done only in the workshop, but the inculcation of those scientific principles which form the basis and explanation of them, along with this, a full and methodical review of all their leading processes and operations in connection with physical laws.
The Rogers Plan reflected the German research university model, emphasizing an independent faculty engaged in research, as well as instruction oriented around seminars and laboratories. Two days after MIT was chartered, the first battle of the Civil War broke out. After a long delay through the war years, MIT's first classes were held in the Mercantile Building in Boston in 1865; the new institute was founded as part of the Morrill Land-Grant Colleges Act to fund institutions "to promote the liberal and practical education of the industrial classes" and was a land-grant school. In 1863 under the same act, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts founded the Massachusetts Agricultural College, which developed as the University of Massachusetts Amherst. In 1866, the proceeds from land sales went toward new buildings in the Back Bay. MIT was informally called "Boston Tech"; the institute adopted the European polytechnic university model and emphasized laboratory instruction from an early date. Despite chronic financial problems, the institute saw growth in the last two decades of the 19th century under President Francis Amasa Walker.
Programs in electrical, chemical and sanitary engineering were introduced, new buildings were built, the size of the student body increased to more than one thousand. The curriculum drifted with less focus on theoretical science; the fledgling school still suffered from chronic financial shortages which diverted the attention of the MIT leadership. During these "Boston Tech" years, MIT faculty and alumni rebuffed Harvard University president Charles W. Eliot's repeated attempts to merge MIT with Harvard College's Lawrence Scientific School. There would be at least six attempts to absorb MIT into Harvard. In its cramped Back Bay location, MIT could not afford to expand its overcrowded facilities, driving a desperate search for a new campus and funding; the MIT Corporation approved a formal agreement to merge with Harvard, over the vehement objections of MIT faculty and alumni. However, a 1917 decision by the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court put an end to the merger scheme. In 1916, the MIT administration and the MIT charter crossed the Charles River on the ceremonial barge Bucentaur built for the occasion, to signify MIT's move to a spacious new campus consisting of filled land on a mile-long tract along the Cambridge side of the Charles River.
The neoclassical "New Technology" campus was designed by William W. Bosworth and had been funded by anonymous donations from a mysterious "Mr. Smith", starting in 1912. In January 1920, the donor was revealed to be the industrialist George Eastman of Rochester, New York, who had invented methods of film production and processing, founded Eastman Kodak. Between 1912 and 1920, Eastman donated $20 million in cash and Kodak stock to MIT. In the 1930s, President Karl Taylor Compton and Vice-President Vannevar Bush emphasized the importance of pure sciences like physics and chemistry and reduced the vocational practice required in shops and drafting studios; the Compton reforms "renewed confidence in the ability of the Institute to develop leadership in science as well as in engineering". Unlike Ivy League schools, MIT catered more to middle-class families, depended more on tuition than on endow
Saturday Night's Main Event
Saturday Night's Main Event is a professional wrestling television program, produced by the World Wrestling Federation. Premiering in 1985, the program aired on NBC as an occasional replacement for Saturday Night Live on its weekend broadcast schedule; the program aired on an infrequent basis on NBC until 1991 aired twice on Fox in 1992 before coming to an end. At the time of the original airing, it was a rare example of professional wrestling being broadcast on an over-the-air commercial television network after the 1950s, it coincided with and contributed to the apogee of the "second golden age" of professional wrestling in the United States. In a time when weekly programming consisted of established stars dominating enhancement talent, Saturday Night's Main Event was made up entirely of star vs. star bouts, including title matches and specialty matches such as steel cage matches, handicap matches, etc. When WWE's flagship show, returned to the USA Network in 2005, Saturday Night's Main Event was revived in 2006 as a "special series" to air on occasion on NBC as part of a deal between WWE and NBC Universal.
The Raw, SmackDown, ECW brand rosters appeared on the show. All episodes of Saturday Night's Main Event are available for streaming on the WWE Network. However, the episodes on the WWE Network are not 100% original. May 1985–January 1988 episodes do not have the original opening and closing theme songs. Sponsored segments that aired as part of the original broadcasts such as the "Mountain Dew Slam of the Night" have been removed as well. Saturday Night's Main Event, debuted on May 11, 1985 in the late-night time slot assigned to reruns of the NBC sketch comedy Saturday Night Live. Then-SNL executive producer Dick Ebersol had made a deal with WWF owner Vince McMahon to produce the show, after Ebersol had seen the high ratings that two WWF specials drew on MTV in 1984–85. Although the show aired infrequently, it did, starting in 1986, settle into a predictable pattern of airdates: New Year's weekend, an episode in late February/early March, an episode in late April/early May, an episode in late September/early October, Thanksgiving weekend.
1989 and 1990 both offered episodes in July promoted as "Summertime Bonus Editions." Saturday Night's Main Event was a tremendous ratings success for NBC during its heyday, most notably on the March 14, 1987 show, which drew an 11.6 rating, which to this day remains the highest rating any show has done in that time slot. That show was headlined by a battle royal involving Hulk Hogan and André the Giant, who were slated to face each other at WrestleMania III; as Hogan wrestled on the WWF syndicated and cable television shows, Saturday Night's Main Event was the program on free television where most viewers were able to see him in action. The success of Saturday Night's Main Event led to several Friday night prime time specials, known as The Main Event; the first of these, on February 5, 1988 included a WrestleMania III rematch between Hogan and André and drew 33 million viewers and a 15.2 rating, still the highest-rated television show in American professional wrestling history. While ratings remained strong through 1990, they began to fall shortly thereafter.
NBC, who had just acquired the rights to broadcast NBA games nationwide, now started to lose interest in wrestling, Saturday Night's Main Event was dropped. Its final NBC airing occurred on April 27, 1991. Fox picked up the show in 1992. For much of its history, Saturday Night's Main Event was hosted by McMahon and Jesse "The Body" Ventura with the occasional use of Bobby Heenan in 1986 and 1987. In 1990, Roddy Piper replaced Ventura as McMahon's broadcast partner when Ventura left the WWF. On the two episodes that aired on Fox, Heenan served as McMahon's partner. From 1985–1988 the opening theme song for the NBC version was "Obsession" by Animotion with the closing theme being "Take Me Home" by Phil Collins, the beginning of "Take on Me" by a-ha was used for show bumpers. Steve Winwood's "Higher Love" was used as a closing theme. In February 1988, the songs were replaced with an original WWF-created instrumental theme; the new instrumental theme was used as the theme of the 1987 WWF Slammy Awards.
A different opening theme song was used for the February 1992 episode. Saturday Night's Main Event returned to NBC on March 2006, in a prime-time slot; the opening theme song for the revived run was "Boom" by P. O. D; the final edition took place on August 2, 2008. In 2009, WWE decided to air The 25th Anniversary of WrestleMania and Tribute to the Troops on NBC in lieu of producing more episodes of Saturday Night's Main Event. During the original run, Coliseum Video released two cassettes of Saturday Night's Main Event: Saturday Night's Main Event's Greatest Hits which contained six matches from 1985-1987 and More Saturday Night's Main Event containing nine matches from 1988-1989. In 1992, the WWF released through Columbia House, Best of Saturday Night's Main Event comprising five matches from 1988-1990. On February 10, 2009, the WWE released a three-disc DVD set on the history of Saturday Night's Main Event; the set includes several non-wrestling segments. Among these are highlights of Uncle Elmer's wedding, Hulk Hogan's "Real American" music video, Mr. Perfect smashing Hogan's WWF World Heavyweight Championship belt.
The first match in the program's history, a six-man tag team match pitting the U. S. Express teaming with Ricky Steamboat defeating the team of WWF Tag Team Champions Nikolai Volkoff and The Iron Sheik and t
Filipino martial arts
Filipino martial arts refer to ancient Indianized and newer fighting methods devised in the Philippines. It incorporates elements from both Western and Eastern Martial Arts, the most popular forms of which are known as Arnis and Kali; the intrinsic need for self-preservation was the genesis of these systems. Throughout the ages and evolving local conflict imposed new dynamics for combat in the islands now making up the Philippines; the Filipino people developed battle skills as a direct result of an appreciation of their ever-changing circumstances. They learned out of necessity how to prioritize and use common resources in combative situations. Filipinos have been influenced by a phenomenon of cultural and linguistic mixture; some of the specific mechanisms responsible for cultural and martial change extended from phenomena such as war and social systems, technology and practicality. Filipino martial arts have seen an increase in prominence due to several Hollywood movies and the teachings of modern masters such as Venancio "Anciong" Bacon, Dan Inosanto, Cacoy Canete, Danny Guba, Mike Inay, Remy Presas, Wilson Pangan Sr. Ernesto Presas, Doug Marcaida and Carlito A. Lanada, Sr.
There have been numerous scholarly calls on the inclusion of the many martial arts of the Philippines into the UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage Lists. As of 2019, a total of nine elements scattered in eight countries, such as Thailand and Korea, have inscribed their martial arts in the UNESCO list. Today there are said to be as many Filipino fighting styles as there are islands in the Philippines. In 1972, the Philippine government included Filipino martial arts into the national sports arena; the Ministry of Education and Sports incorporated them into the physical education curriculum for high school and college students. In recent history, Richardson C. Gialogo and Aniano Lota, Jr. helped the Department of Education, former Ministry of Education and Sports, in the promotion of Arnis in the public schools. The Task Force on School Sports headed by Mr. Feliciano Toledo asked Richard Gialogo and Jon Lota to conduct national and provincial seminar-workshops all over the Philippines under the auspices of the Philippine government.
This resulted to the inclusion of Arnis in the Palarong Pambansa in 2006. The efforts of the two and Senator Miguel Zubiri resulted in Arnis being declared as the National Martial Art and Sport of the Philippines by virtue of Republic Act 9850, signed into law in 2009. Knowledge of the Filipino fighting skills is mandatory in police. Filipino martial arts are considered the most advanced practical modern blade system in the world and are now a core component of the U. S. Army's Modern Army used by the Russian Spetsnaz; the Government of India used Filipino martial arts to train their Para of Indian Army, National Security Guard, MARCOS of Indian Navy and Commandos of Central Armed Police Forces. Filipino martial artists are noted for their ability to fight with weapons or empty hands interchangeably and their ability to turn ordinary household items into lethal weapons. Weapons-training takes precedence because they give an edge in real fights, gears students to psychologically face armed opponents, any object that can be picked up can be used as a weapon using FMA techniques.
Empty hand training techniques are translated from the use of the Baston. Another thing to note is; the Southern Philippines with the Moros were never conquered by the Spaniards or the Americans. For the more "Christianized" provinces and the towns where citizens had been "disarmed", bolos and other knife variants are still used for general work and the occasional bloody fight. Production of these weapons still survives and there are a few who still make some. In the province of Aklan, Talibongs are still being made in the remote areas; until the 80s, balisong knives were still used in the streets of Manila as general purpose pocket knives much like Swiss army knives or box cutters until new laws on allowable kinds of knives made it illegal to carry them in public without a permit or proof that it was a vital to one's livelihood. They're still sold in their birthplace of Batangas, in the streets of Quiapo, souvenir shops and martial arts stores, wielded by practitioners and street gangs, thus when fighting systems were outlawed by the Spaniards, Filipinos still maintained their centuries-old relationships with blades and blade fighting techniques that survive from ancient times and are still much alive as they have been adapted and evolved to stay relevant and practical in colonial and modern times.
What separates Filipino Martial Arts from other weapon-based martial arts like Japanese Kendo & Kenjutsu, European Fencing and traditional Chinese Martial arts that teach the usage of classical Chinese weapons is that FMA teaches weapon use, practical today: how to use and deal with weapons that one can encounter in the streets and how to turn ordinary items into improvised weapons. No one walks around with sabers, katanas or jians anymore, but knives, machetes and clothing, are still among encountered weapons on t