The cane toad known as the giant neotropical toad or marine toad, is a large, terrestrial true toad native to South and mainland Central America, but, introduced to various islands throughout Oceania and the Caribbean, as well as Northern Australia. It is the world's largest toad, it is a member of the genus Rhinella, but was in the genus Bufo, which includes many different true toad species found throughout Central and South America. The cane toad is a prolific breeder, its reproductive success is because of opportunistic feeding: it has a diet, unusual among anurans, of both dead and living matter. Adults average 10–15 cm in length; the cane toad is an old species. A fossil toad from the La Venta fauna of the late Miocene of Colombia is indistinguishable from modern cane toads from northern South America, it was discovered in a floodplain deposit, which suggests the R. marina habitat preferences have long been for open areas. The cane toad has poison glands, the tadpoles are toxic to most animals if ingested.
Because of its voracious appetite, the cane toad has been introduced to many regions of the Pacific and the Caribbean islands as a method of agricultural pest control. The species derives its common name from its use against the cane beetle; the cane toad is now considered an invasive species in many of its introduced regions. Cane toads are dangerous to dogs; the cane toads were used to eradicate pests from sugarcane, giving rise to their common name. The cane toad has many other common names, including "giant toad" and "marine toad", it was one of many species described by Linnaeus in his 18th-century work Systema Naturae. Linnaeus based the specific epithet marina on an illustration by Dutch zoologist Albertus Seba, who mistakenly believed the cane toad to inhabit both terrestrial and marine environments. Other common names include "giant neotropical toad", "Dominican toad", "giant marine toad", "South American cane toad". In Trinidadian English, they are called crapaud, the French word for toad.
The genus Rhinella is considered to constitute a distinct genus of its own, thus changing the scientific name of the cane toad. In this case, the specific name marinus changes to marina to conform with the rules of gender agreement as set out by the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, changing the binomial name from Bufo marinus to Rhinella marina. Though controversial the binomial Rhinella marina is gaining in acceptance with such bodies as the IUCN, Encyclopaedia of Life, Amphibian Species of the World and increasing numbers of scientific publications adopting its usage. In Australia, the adults may be confused with large native frogs from the genera Limnodynastes and Mixophyes; these species can be distinguished from the cane toad by the absence of large parotoid glands behind their eyes and the lack of a ridge between the nostril and the eye. Cane toads have been confused with the giant burrowing frog, because both are large and warty in appearance. Juvenile cane toads may be confused with species of the genus Uperoleia, but their adult colleagues can be distinguished by the lack of bright colouring on the groin and thighs.
In the United States, the cane toad resembles many bufonid species. In particular, it could be confused with the southern toad, which can be distinguished by the presence of two bulbs in front of the parotoid glands; the cane toad genome has been sequenced. The cane toad is large. Larger toads tend to be found in areas of lower population density, they have a life expectancy of 10 to 15 years in the wild, can live longer in captivity, with one specimen surviving for 35 years. The skin of the cane toad is warty, it has distinct ridges above the eyes. Individual cane toads can be grey, red-brown, or olive-brown, with varying patterns. A large parotoid gland lies behind each eye; the ventral surface may have blotches in shades of black or brown. The pupils are horizontal and the irises golden; the toes have a fleshy webbing at their base, the fingers are free of webbing. Juvenile cane toads have smooth, dark skin, although some specimens have a red wash. Juveniles lack the adults' large parotoid glands, so they are less poisonous.
The tadpoles are small and uniformly black, are bottom-dwellers, tending to form schools. Tadpoles range from 10 to 25 mm in length; the common name "marine toad" and the scientific name Rhinella marina suggest a link to marine life, but cane toads do not live in the sea. However, laboratory experiments suggest that tadpoles can tolerate salt concentrations equivalent to 15% of seawater, recent field observations found living tadpoles and toadlets at salinities of 27.5‰ on Coiba Island, Panama. The cane toad inhabits open grassland and woodland
Digitalis lanata is a species of foxglove. It gets its name due to the texture of the leaves. Digitalis lanata, like some other foxglove species, is toxic in all parts of the plant. Symptoms of digitalis poisoning include nausea, severe headache, dilated pupils, problems with eyesight, convulsions at the worst level of toxicity; the plant is harmful to other animals. In some cases it is considered a noxious weed. Minnesota is one of the few places, it is in leaf all year, in flower in June and July, the seeds ripen in early-mid September. The flowers are hermaphroditic. Bees pollinate the flowers; the plant grows from 0.3 to 0.6 meters in height, or about 13 to 26 inches. The plant humus rich soil; the plant prefers sandy and clay soils. It can grow under moist conditions. Seeds develop in pods that have small hooks, enabling the pods to be transported by animal fur or clothing; the elongated leaves are mid–green, woolly and covered with white hairs on the underside. They have a bitter taste. There is a tidy rosette before the spike goes up, it is neatly arranged around the purple-tinged stems.
The flowers are tubular and bell shaped with a creamy-white color and purplish-brown netting as well as a long broad lip. The flowers bloom in the second year. Both flowers and stems are woolly or hairy, it is found in Eastern Europe. One of the biggest populations can be found near Bácsalmás in Hungary. Though it is native to Europe, the plant can now be found throughout the world, growing in woodland areas, on roadsides, in mountainous regions. In North America, it can be found in the Northeast and Southwest regions, it is cultivated in New York, Washington and Colorado.. The Plantaginaceae family known as the plantain family, is a family of flowering plants included in the order Lamiales; the Plantaginaceae family was not placed in the order Lamiales, but in the order Plantaginales. However, in recent years phylogenetic studies conducted by the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group have indicated that it should be included in the order Lamiales; the original family name was Veronicaceae until 1789. This is the conserved name under the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature.
ICBN does not consider family names before 1789 for conservation, as a result Veronicaceae is not eligible for conservation. Digitalis lanata has several other common names such as "Grecian foxglove" and "woolly foxglove"; the name Digitalis comes from the Latin word digitus. Digitalis was first recorded in the English language in 1664 in a published work; this genus name was chosen because the German name for foxglove is Fingerhut, which means " finger hat". The glove portion of the name originates from the similarity of the foxglove blossoms to the fingers of a glove; the species is adapted to sunny and warm sites on dry on sandy and stony loamy soil. During the first vegetation period, only the leaf rosette is developed, flowering follows during the second vegetation period; therefore during the first year, there is a high resistance against water stress. Indeed, the leaves remain turgescent under low leaf water potential, due to osmotic adaptation by synthesis of non-ionic substances in the leaves.
The drought induced diminishing of photosynthesis is reversible after a few hours following watering of the plants. Drought stress reduces the quantum yield of photosystem 2. More than 70 bitter glycosides with cardiac activity, with five different aglyconees digitoxigenin, digoxigenin and gitaloxigenin in the leaves act as a protection against herbivores. Yield and concentration of these cardiac glycosides are enhanced by greenhouse cultivation through enhanced temperature and enhanced carbon dioxide concentration. Digitalis lanata contains a powerful cardiac glycoside that may be used by patients with heart conditions. Digoxin is a drug, extracted from Digitalis lanata, it is used to treat some heart conditions such as atrial fibrillation. It slows atrioventricular conduction so that the heartbeat slows down and increases contraction power; because of the improved circulation in congestive heart failure caused by fast atrial fibrillation, the kidneys can function better, which stimulates the flow of urine, which lowers the volume of the blood and lessens the load on the heart.
This is the effect, first described when the plant was discovered as a medicine. Digitalin was not discovered until the mid-19th century by two French scientists Homolle Ouevenne and Theodore Ouevenne, it was not until 1875. It was first isolated in the 1930s in Britain by Sydney Smith. At that time it was used to treat ulcers in the lower abdomen, headaches and paralysis, externally healing wounds. Today it is still extracted from the plant because synthetis is quite difficult. However, it is becoming less used due to the narrow therapeutic margin and high potential for severe side effects. Digoxin is being replaced by newer drugs including beta blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, the calcium channel blocking agents; as new pharmacotherapeutic agents arise, the use of digitalis preparations is expected to continue to decline. There are other commercial uses for Digitalis lanata other than heart conditions. For example, in South America the powdered leaves are used to
Lily of the valley
Lily of the valley, sometimes written lily-of-the-valley, is a sweetly scented poisonous woodland flowering plant, native throughout the cool temperate Northern Hemisphere in Asia and Europe. Other names include May bells, Our Lady's tears, Mary's tears, its French name, sometimes appears in the names of perfumes imitating the flower's scent. It is the only species in the genus Convallaria. In the APG III system, the genus is placed in subfamily Nolinoideae, it was placed in its own family Convallariaceae, like many lilioid monocots, before that in the lily family Liliaceae. Convallaria majalis is an herbaceous perennial plant that forms extensive colonies by spreading underground stems called rhizomes. New upright shoots are formed at the ends of stolons in summer, these upright dormant stems are called pips; these grow in the spring into new leafy shoots that still remain connected to the other shoots under ground forming extensive colonies. The stems grow to 15–30 cm tall, with one or two leaves 10–25 cm long.
The flowers have six white tepals, fused at the base to form a bell-shape, 5–10 mm diameter, sweetly scented. The fruit is a small orange-red berry 5–7 mm diameter that contains a few large whitish to brownish colored seeds that dry to a clear translucent round bead 1–3 mm wide. Plants are self-sterile, colonies consisting of a single clone do not set seed. Convallaria majalis is a native of Europe, where it avoids the Mediterranean and Atlantic margins. An eastern variety, C. majalis var. keiskei occurs in Japan and parts of eastern Asia. A limited native population of C. majalis var. montana occurs in the Eastern United States. There is, some debate as to the native status of the American variety. Like many perennial flowering plants, C. majalis exhibits dual reproductive modes by producing offspring asexually by vegetative means and by seed, produced via the fusion of gametes. Convallaria majalis is a plant of partial shade, mesophile type that prefers warm summers, it likes soils that are silty or sandy and acid to moderately alkaline, with preferably a plentiful amount of humus.
The Royal Horticultural Society states that alkaline soils are the most favored. It is a suboceanic species that lives in mountains up to 1,500 m elevation. Convallaria majalis is used as a food plant by the larvae of some moth and butterfly species including the grey chi. Adults and larvae of the leaf beetle Lilioceris merdigera are able to tolerate the cardenolides and thus feed on the leaves. There are three varieties that have sometimes been separated out as distinct species or subspecies by some botanists. Convallaria majalis var. keiskei – from China and Japan, with red fruit and bowl-shaped flowers C. majalis var. majalis – from Eurasia, with white midribs on the flowers C. majalis var. montana – from the United States, with green-tinted midribs on the flowersConvallaria transcaucasica is recognised as a distinct species by some authorities, while the species called Convallaria japonica is now classified as Ophiopogon japonicus. Convallaria majalis is grown in gardens for its scented flowers and ground-covering abilities in shady locations.
It has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.. In favorable conditions it can form large colonies. Various kinds and cultivars are grown, including those with double flowers, rose-colored flowers, variegated foliage and ones that grow larger than the typical species. C. majalis'Albostriata' has white-striped leaves C. majalis'Green Tapestry','Haldon Grange','Hardwick Hall','Hofheim','Marcel','Variegata' and'Vic Pawlowski's Gold' are other variegated cultivars C. majalis'Berlin Giant' and C. majalis'Géant de Fortin' are larger-growing cultivars C. majalis'Flore Pleno' has double flowers. C. majalis'Rosea' sometimes found under the name C. majalis var. rosea, has pink flowers. Traditionally Convallaria majalis has been grown in pots and winter forced to provide flowers during the winter months, both for as potted plants and as cut flowers. All parts of the plant are poisonous, including the red berries which may be attractive to children. If ingested—even in small amounts—the plant can cause abdominal pain, reduced heart rate, blurred vision and red skin rashes.
38 different cardiac glycosides have been found in the plant, including among others: The plant contains saponins. Although deadly, the plant has been used as a folk remedy in moderate amounts, is used by herbalists as a restricted herbal remedy, it contains the unusual, poisonous amino acid azetidine-2-carboxylic acid. The odor of lily of the valley the ligand bourgeonal, was thought to attract mammalian sperm; the 2003 discovery of this phenomenon prompted research into odor reception, but a 2012 study demonstrated instead that at high concentrations, bourgeonal imitated the role of progesterone in stimulating sperm to swim, a process unrelated to odor reception. In 1956, the French firm Dior produced a fragrance simulating lily of the valley, Christian Dior's favorite flower. Diorissimo was designed by Edmond Roudnitska. Although it has since been reformulated, it
A methyl group is an alkyl derived from methane, containing one carbon atom bonded to three hydrogen atoms — CH3. In formulas, the group is abbreviated Me; such hydrocarbon groups occur in many organic compounds. It is a stable group in most molecules. While the methyl group is part of a larger molecule, it can be found on its own in any of three forms: anion, cation or radical; the anion has the radical seven and the cation six. All three forms are reactive and observed; the methylium cation is otherwise not encountered. Some compounds are considered to be sources of the CH3+ cation, this simplification is used pervasively in organic chemistry. For example, protonation of methanol gives a electrophilic methylating reagent: CH3OH + H+ → CH3+ + H2OSimilarly, methyl iodide and methyl triflate are viewed as the equivalent of the methyl cation because they undergo SN2 reactions by weak nucleophiles; the methanide anion exists only under exotic conditions. It can be produced by electrical discharge in ketene at low pressure and its enthalpy of reaction is determined to be about 252.2±3.3 kJ/mol.
In discussions mechanisms of organic reactions, methyl lithium and related Grignard reagents are considered to be salts of "CH3−". Such reagents are prepared from the methyl halides: 2 M + CH3X → MCH3 + MXwhere M is an alkali metal; the methyl radical has the formula CH3. It exists in dilute gases, but in more concentrated form it dimerizes to ethane, it can be produced by thermal decomposition of only certain compounds those with an -N=N- linkage. The reactivity of a methyl group depends on the adjacent substituents. Methyl groups can be quite unreactive. For example, in organic compounds, the methyl group resists attack by the strongest acids; the oxidation of a methyl group occurs in nature and industry. The oxidation products derived from methyl are CH2OH, CHO, CO2H. For example, permanganate converts a methyl group to a carboxyl group, e.g. the conversion of toluene to benzoic acid. Oxidation of methyl groups gives protons and carbon dioxide, as seen in combustion. Demethylation is a common process, reagents that undergo this reaction are called methylating agents.
Common methylating agents are dimethyl sulfate, methyl iodide, methyl triflate. Methanogenesis, the source of natural gas, arises via a demethylation reaction. Certain methyl groups can be deprotonated. For example, the acidity of the methyl groups in acetone is about 1020 more acidic than methane; the resulting carbanions are key intermediates in many reactions in organic synthesis and biosynthesis. Fatty acids are produced in this way; when placed in benzylic or allylic positions, the strength of the C-H bond is decreased, the reactivity of the methyl group increases. One manifestation of this enhanced reactivity is the photochemical chlorination of the methyl group in toluene to give benzyl chloride. In the special case where one hydrogen is replaced by deuterium and another hydrogen by tritium, the methyl substituent becomes chiral. Methods exist to produce optically pure methyl compounds, e.g. chiral acetic acid. Through the use of chiral methyl groups, the stereochemical course of several biochemical transformations have been analyzed.
A methyl group may rotate around the R—C-axis. This is a free rotation only in the simplest cases like gaseous CClH3. In most molecules, the remainder R breaks the C ∞ symmetry of the R—C-axis and creates a potential V that restricts the free motion of the three protons. For the model case of C2H6 this is discussed under the name ethane barrier. In condensed phases, neighbour molecules contribute to the potential. Methyl group rotation can be experimentally studied using quasielastic neutron scattering. French chemists Jean-Baptiste Dumas and Eugene Peligot, after determining methanol's chemical structure, introduced "methylene" from the Greek methy "wine" and hȳlē "wood, patch of trees" with the intention of highlighting its origins, "alcohol made from wood"; the term "methyl" was derived in about 1840 by back-formation from "methylene", was applied to describe "methyl alcohol". Methyl is the IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry term for an alkane molecule, using the prefix "meth-" to indicate the presence of a single carbon
Strophanthus kombe, the kombe arrow poison, is a vine that grows in the tropical regions of Eastern Africa, is part of the genus Strophanthus, which contains 38 species. S. kombe contains a cardiac glycoside. Both the seeds and roots of the plant were used in the preparation of poison arrowheads used for hunting. Today, the seeds are used pharmaceutically for patients with certain heart conditions that affect blood circulation; the seeds are traded with Europe, but have been exported to the United States and Japan. Strophanthus kombe is found growing in the tropical regions of southeast Africa; as it is not a commercially cultivated species, it principally occurs as wild plant. It is not seen growing outside of its native region, although specimens are sometimes collected from the wild to be grown in foreign botanical gardens. Strophanthus kombe is found on an isolated hill known as a monadnock near water sources such as coastal forests, gallery forests, riparian thickets and woodlands, it is found at altitudes ranging from sea level to 1100m.
It is found growing as vines in the forests between the coast and center of Africa. Strophanthus kombe is a deciduous vine. Most it occurs as a climbing vine that grows to the highest points on tall trees, it is seen draping from tree to tree. It can grow up with a stem that grows up to 10 cm in diameter; the bark is a reddish brown, with dark grey or black lenticels. The roots are fleshy; the papery leaves are simple, found in opposite arrangement. The young leaves are exceptionally hairy on both sides, but as they age, the top of the leaves become smooth. One to twelve cream colored flowers can be found on the peduncle, they are narrowly ovate or linear and unequal. The dichasial cyme inflorescence is on the terminal end of the plant; the flower of Strophanthus kombe is an inflorescent, fragrant flower. It is cream colored, yellow at the base with red streaks inside. There is a thick layer of hair on the outside towards the top, while the inside of the flower has few hairs; the stamen of the flower is found near the base of the corolla tube.
The pistil contains a style a few millimeters in length, with a ring-like head surrounding a minuscule stigma. The fruit of the flower contains two follicles that narrow towards the apex and end in a knob of various sizes, it has two hard-walled compartments containing many spindle shaped seeds. Strophanthus kombe is known for its historical use as a source of arrow poison. Today it is used medicinally to treat heart failure; the plant has been used for two extremes, ending a life and saving a life, so proper dosage is crucial when using this plant medicinally. Cardiac glycosides extracted from the seeds reduce the heart rate but increase the force and efficiency of the contractions; some glycosides can be found in the roots and flowers. A mixture of glycosides known as strophanthin-k is found in the seeds; the purified compound is a white crystalline powder, water-soluble and liable to hydrolysis under warm acidic conditions. Precursors for a semi-synthetic compound known as acetylstrophanthidin are found within the seeds of Strophanthus kombe.
When used clinically, this compound provides a rapid onset of vascular stimulant action. This plant was inadvertently used as a medical experiment by Sir John Kirk, a nineteenth-century plant explorer who brought back specimens of Strophanthus kombe for the Royal Botanic Garden at Kew, United Kingdom; some of the plant’s juice accidentally found its way onto his toothbrush. After brushing his teeth, he reported a quick drop in heart rate. Van Wyk, Ben-Erik. Mind-Altering and Poisonous Plants of the World. Schmelzer, G. H.. Medicinal Plants. Pp. 525–554. Stewart, A.. Wicked Plants. P. 4
Kalanchoe, or kal-un-KOH-ee, or kal-un-kee written Kalanchöe or Kalanchoë, is a genus of about 125 species of tropical, succulent flowering plants in the family Crassulaceae native to Madagascar and tropical Africa. Kalanchoe was one of the first plants to be sent into space, sent on a resupply to the Soviet Salyut 1 space station in 1971. Most are shrubs or perennial herbaceous plants; the largest, Kalanchoe beharensis from Madagascar, can reach 6 m tall, but most species are less than 1 m tall. Kalanchoes are characterized by opening their flowers by growing new cells on the inner surface of the petals to force them outwards, on the outside of the petals to close them. Kalanchoe flowers are divided into 4 sections with 8 stamens; the petals are fused in a similar way to some related genera such as Cotyledon. The genus was first described by the botanist Michel Adanson in 1763. Adanson cited Camellus as his source for the name; the name came from the Chinese name "Kalanchauhuy". Kamel's species was most Kalanchoe ceratophylla as he describes the plant as having divided leaves.
Kalanchoe ceratophylla is called 伽蓝菜 in China, not close in pronunciation: qiélán cài or jia lan cai depending on the romanisation. The genus Bryophyllum was described by Salisbury in 1806 and the genus Kitchingia was created by Baker in 1881. Kitchingia is now regarded as a synonym for Kalanchoe, whereas some botanists treat Bryophyllum as a separate genus; the genus is predominantly native to the Old World. Only one species of this genus originates from the Americas, 56 from southern and eastern Africa and 60 species in Madagascar, it is found in south-eastern Asia and China. These plants are the food plant of the caterpillars of Red Pierrot butterfly; the butterfly lays its eggs on phylloclades, after hatching, caterpillars burrow into phylloclades and eat their inside cells. These plants are cultivated as ornamental houseplants and succulent garden plants; this plant is known to the Chinese as "10,000 purple 1,000 red", is purchased during the Lunar Calendar New Year for decorative purposes.
They are popular because of their ease of propagation, low water requirements, wide variety of flower colors borne in clusters well above the phylloclades. The section Bryophyllum—formerly an independent genus—contains species such as the "air-plant" Kalanchoe pinnata. In these plants, new individuals develop vegetatively as plantlets known as bulbils or gemmae, at indentations in phylloclade margins; these young plants drop off and take root. No males have been found of one species of this genus which does flower and produce seeds, it is called the mother of thousands: Kalanchoe daigremontiana is thus an example of asexual reproduction; the cultivars ‘Tessa’ and ‘Wendy’ have gained the Royal Horticultural Society’s Award of Garden Merit. In common with other Crassulaceae, some Kalanchoe species contain bufadienolide cardiac glycosides which can cause cardiac poisoning in grazing animals; this is a particular problem in the native range of many Kalanchoe species in the Karoo region of South Africa, where the resulting animal disease is known as krimpsiekte or as cotyledonosis.
Similar poisonings have occurred in Australia. In traditional medicine, Kalanchoe species have been used to treat ailments such as infections and inflammation. Kalanchoe extracts have immunosuppressive effects. Kalanchoe pinnata has been recorded in Trinidad and Tobago as being used as a traditional treatment for hypertension. A variety of bufadienolide compounds have been isolated from various Kalanchoe species. Five different bufadienolides have been isolated from Kalanchoe daigremontiana. Two of these and bersaldegenin 1,3,5-orthoacetate, have been shown to have a pronounced sedative effect, they have the strong positive inotropic effect associated with cardiac glycosides, with greater doses an increasing effect on the central nervous system. Bufadienolide compounds isolated from Kalanchoe pinnata include bryophillin A which showed strong anti-tumor promoting activity, bersaldegenin-3-acetate and bryophillin C which were less active. Bryophillin C showed insecticidal properties. Media related to Kalanchoe at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Kalanchoe at Wikispecies
Bryophyllum daigremontianum called devil’s backbone, mother of thousands, alligator plant, or Mexican hat plant is a succulent plant native to Madagascar. Like other members of its genus Bryophyllum, it is able to propagate vegetatively from plantlets that develop on its phylloclade margins. All parts of the plant contain a toxic steroid known as daigremontianin. Plants of the genus Bryophyllum have sometimes been included in the genus Kalanchoe, where this species is known as Kalanchoe daigremontiana Hamet & Perrier. Plants grow up to 1.85 m tall and have opposite and whorled, fleshy oblong-lanceolate phylloclades which grow up to 28 cm long and 14 cm wide. They are green above and blotched with purple underneath. Phylloclade margins have spoon-shaped bulbiliferous spurs which bear plantlets which may form roots while still attached to phylloclades. A plant may develop lateral roots on its main stalk, as high up as 10–15 cm above the ground. A plant's upper phylloclades may grow large; the lateral roots may enter soil and new vertical shoots may grow from the original shoot.
Bryophyllum daigremontianum has an umbrella-like terminal inflorescence of small bell-shaped, grayish pink flowers. Flowering is, not an annual event and occurs sporadically if at all on some shoots. In climates with distinct seasonal temperature differences, flowering is most observed at the beginning of a warm season. Indoor plants, as well as balcony plants which have been moved inside to survive the cold season, begin flowering in early winter; as a succulent plant, B. daigremontianum can survive prolonged periods of drought with little or no water. During growth periods with higher temperatures and increased water supply, proper nutrition is needed, without which leaves will show deficiency symptoms like crippled growth and pustule-like lesions; the plant is not frost-hardy and dies if subjected to temperatures below freezing. Plants of the genus Bryophyllum as well as many other plants growing in arid regions photosynthesize via Crassulacean acid metabolism. B. daigremontianum is native to the Fiherenana River valley and Androhibolava mountains in southwest Madagascar.
It has been introduced to numerous tropical and subtropical regions, such as Florida, Puerto Rico, Venezuela and Brazil, parts of the Canary Islands and Uruguay. It can become an invasive plant and threaten natural ecosystems in arid and semi-arid environments, where it can inhibit native-plant recruitment; the plant is used for a lot of medicinal applications. It can be used against premature contractions. There are commercial drugs produced from the compounds of the plant. Everitt, J. H.. L.. R.. Weeds in South Texas and Northern Mexico. Lubbock: Texas Tech University Press. ISBN 0-89672-614-2photos of inflorescences United States Department of Agriculture plantoftheweek.com Poisonous houseplants